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Aliases for GNRH1 Gene

Aliases for GNRH1 Gene

  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 1 (Luteinizing-Releasing Hormone) 2 3
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 1 (Leutinizing-Releasing Hormone) 2 3
  • Progonadoliberin I 3 4
  • GNRH 3 4
  • LHRH 3 4
  • HH12 3 6
  • LNRH 3 6
  • GRH 3 4
  • Prolactin Release-Inhibiting Factor 3
  • GnRH-Associated Peptide 1 3
  • Progonadoliberin-1 3
  • Luliberin I 3

External Ids for GNRH1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GNRH1 Gene

  • GRH
  • GNRH
  • LHRH

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNRH1 Gene

  • GC08M025048
  • GC08M025630
  • GC08M025298
  • GC08M025332
  • GC08M023821
  • GC08M025276

Summaries for GNRH1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNRH1 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and then cleaved to form the 10 aa luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH, also known as gonadoliberin-1), and prolactin release-inhibiting factor (also known as GnRH-associated peptide 1). LHRH stimulates the release of luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, which are important for reproduction. Mutation in this gene are associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

GeneCards Summary for GNRH1 Gene

GNRH1 (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 1 (Luteinizing-Releasing Hormone)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GNRH1 include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 12 with or without anosmia and gnrh1-related isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and NF-KappaB Family Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH1 Gene

  • Stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins; it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones

Gene Wiki entry for GNRH1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GNRH1 Gene

Genomics for GNRH1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GNRH1 Gene

Genomic Location for GNRH1 Gene

25,419,258 bp from pter
25,425,040 bp from pter
5,783 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GNRH1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GNRH1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNRH1 Gene

Proteins for GNRH1 Gene

  • Protein details for GNRH1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0AVP0

    Protein attributes for GNRH1 Gene

    92 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    10380 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GNRH1 Gene

Proteomics data for GNRH1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GNRH1 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for GNRH1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNRH1 Gene

Domains for GNRH1 Gene

Gene Families for GNRH1 Gene

Protein Domains for GNRH1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNRH1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GnRH family.
  • Belongs to the GnRH family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNRH1: view

Function for GNRH1 Gene

Molecular function for GNRH1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
gonadotropin releasing hormone 1,decapeptide expressed in hypothalamus,releasing form,involved in the regulation of reproduction,including a GNRH-associated peptide
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins; it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones

LifeMap Function Summary for GNRH1 Gene

During embryonic development, GNRH1 as signaling molecule is secreted from the following cells
It affects the following cells:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNRH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity TAS 2863757
GO:0005183 gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNRH1: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GNRH1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GNRH1

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GNRH1

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNRH1 Gene

Localization for GNRH1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GNRH1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNRH1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 3
cytosol 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
mitochondrion 2
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNRH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH1: view

Pathways for GNRH1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNRH1: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNRH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 8692981
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 1310542
GO:0007275 multicellular organismal development TAS 2867548
GO:0007565 female pregnancy IEA --
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation TAS 10832105
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH1: view

Drugs for GNRH1 Gene


Pharmaceutical: Available under the names Factrel (Ayerst Labs), Lutrepulse or Lutrelef (Ferring Pharmaceuticals) and Relisorm (Serono). Used in evaluating hypothalamic-pituitary gonadotropic function

(123) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GNRH1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
gnrh 98.9 1024
cetrorelix 91.6 99
buserelin 89.5 84
ganirelix 83.3 26
goserelin 82.5 54
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNRH1: view

Transcripts for GNRH1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GNRH1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GNRH1 Gene

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (luteinizing-releasing hormone):
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GNRH1

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNRH1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GNRH1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GNRH1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GNRH1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNRH1 Gene Hs.82963

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GNRH1: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Expression partners for GNRH1 Gene

Orthologs for GNRH1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GNRH1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNRH1 35
  • 78.26 (n)
  • 75 (a)
GNRH1 36
  • 75 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GNRH1 35
  • 82.25 (n)
  • 75 (a)
GNRH1 36
  • 75 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gnrh1 35
  • 80.15 (n)
  • 74.16 (a)
Gnrh1 16
Gnrh1 36
  • 73 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNRH1 35
  • 99.28 (n)
  • 97.83 (a)
GNRH1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gnrh1 35
  • 78.26 (n)
  • 71.74 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GNRH1 36
  • 70 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GNRH1 36
  • 50 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GNRH1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GNRH1 Gene

Gene Tree for GNRH1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GNRH1 (if available)

Paralogs for GNRH1 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GNRH1 Gene

Variants for GNRH1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GNRH1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs6185 - 25,423,284(-) GACTT(C/G)GTGCG missense, reference
rs6186 -- 25,421,627(-) CGCTT(C/T)GAATG reference, synonymous-codon
rs734087 -- 25,426,373(-) actca(A/C)agttc upstream-variant-2KB
rs1006949 -- 25,422,592(-) ACCAA(A/C)CCTAA intron-variant
rs1110444 -- 25,420,664(-) gatcc(A/T)cccaa intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNRH1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv890689 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv6125 CNV Insertion 18451855
essv1351 CNV CNV 17122850

Relevant External Links for GNRH1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH1 Gene

Disorders for GNRH1 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for GNRH1 Gene (152760)


  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 12 with or without anosmia (HH12) [MIM:614841]: A disorder characterized by absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18 years, in conjunction with low levels of circulating gonadotropins and testosterone and no other abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In some cases, it is associated with non-reproductive phenotypes, such as anosmia, cleft palate, and sensorineural hearing loss. Anosmia or hyposmia is related to the absence or hypoplasia of the olfactory bulbs and tracts. Hypogonadism is due to deficiency in gonadotropin-releasing hormone and probably results from a failure of embryonic migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons. In the presence of anosmia, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is referred to as Kallmann syndrome, whereas in the presence of a normal sense of smell, it has been termed normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19535795, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23643382}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting distinct genetic loci, including the gene represented in this entry. The genetics of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism involves various modes of transmission. Oligogenic inheritance has been reported in some patients carrying mutations in GNRH1 as well as in other HH-associated genes including PROKR2 and FGFR1 (PubMed:23643382). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:23643382}.

(92) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GNRH1 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
puberty precocious 86.7 95
kallmann syndrome 82.5 30
ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome 82.2 36
hypogonadism 78.6 50
polycystic ovary syndrome 76.3 59

Relevant External Links for GNRH1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GNRH1: view

No data available for Genatlas for GNRH1 Gene

Publications for GNRH1 Gene

  1. GnRH and LHR gene variants predict adverse outcome in premenopausal breast cancer patients. (PMID: 17692113) Piersma D. … Berns E.M. (Breast Cancer Res. 2007) 3 23 48
  2. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). (PMID: 19640273) Canzian F. … Ziegler R.G. (BMC Cancer 2009) 3 23 48
  3. Genetic polymorphisms of GnRH and gonadotrophic hormone receptors affect the phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome. (PMID: 19403562) Valkenburg O. … Laven J.S. (Hum. Reprod. 2009) 3 23 48
  4. Screening of autosomal gene deletions in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification: detection of a hemizygosis for the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. (PMID: 19489874) Trarbach E.B. … Latronico A.C. (Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 2010) 3 23 48
  5. GNRH1 mutations in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (PMID: 19567835) Chan Y.M. … Seminara S.B. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009) 3 23 48

Products for GNRH1 Gene

Sources for GNRH1 Gene

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