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Aliases for GNA11 Gene

Aliases for GNA11 Gene

  • G Protein Subunit Alpha 11 2 3 5
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), Alpha 11 (Gq Class) 2 3
  • Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein G(Y) Subunit Alpha 3 4
  • G Alpha-11 3 4
  • Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein Subunit Alpha-11 3
  • Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia 2 2
  • G-Protein Subunit Alpha-11 4
  • GNA-11 3
  • HYPOC2 3
  • FBH2 3
  • FHH2 3
  • HHC2 3
  • GA11 4
  • FBH 3

External Ids for GNA11 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GNA11 Gene

  • HHC2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNA11 Gene

  • GC19P003213
  • GC19P003163
  • GC19P003034
  • GC19P003045
  • GC19P002861

Summaries for GNA11 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNA11 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which function as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. G proteins are composed of 3 units: alpha, beta and gamma. This gene encodes one of the alpha subunits (subunit alpha-11). Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type II (HHC2) and hypocalcemia dominant 2 (HYPOC2). Patients with HHC2 and HYPOC2 exhibit decreased or increased sensitivity, respectively, to changes in extracellular calcium concentrations. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

CIViC summary for GNA11 Gene

GeneCards Summary for GNA11 Gene

GNA11 (G Protein Subunit Alpha 11) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GNA11 include Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia, Type Ii and Hypocalcemia, Autosomal Dominant 2. Among its related pathways are Calcium signaling pathway and ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and signal transducer activity. An important paralog of this gene is GNAQ.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNA11 Gene

  • Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. Acts as an activator of phospholipase C.

Tocris Summary for GNA11 Gene

  • Heterotrimeric G proteins are membrane bound GTPases that are linked to 7-TM receptors. Each G protein contains an alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunit and is bound to GDP in the 'off' state. Ligand binding causes a receptor conformational change, detaching the G protein and switching it 'on'.

Gene Wiki entry for GNA11 Gene

Additional gene information for GNA11 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GNA11 Gene

Genomics for GNA11 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GNA11 Gene

Enhancers for GNA11 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH19H003605 1.3 ENCODE dbSUPER 27.2 +513.2 513194 4.6 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT SIN3A YBX1 ZNF2 ZNF766 SP3 MCM5 ZNF662 CACTIN ZNF77 CACTIN-AS1 CCDC94 ENSG00000267030 ZNF555 ENSG00000267769 APBA3 GNA11 ZNF554
GH19H003103 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 18.7 +9.8 9813 1.3 TBP INSM2 ARID4B KLF17 ZNF2 THRB RAD21 SLC30A9 ZNF143 KLF7 ZNF77 GNA11 CACTIN TLE2 GC19M003098 ENSG00000267139
GH19H002976 1.1 ENCODE 23 -116.7 -116743 2.1 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ZFP64 SIN3A ARID4B FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF143 GNA11 TLE6 ZNF77 S1PR4 NCLN LOC101928631 ZNF57 SLC39A3 GC19P003016
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GNA11 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GNA11 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000105989 491 2600 PKNOX1 ARID4B ZNF2 ZNF416 ZNF143 FOS RUNX3 SP3 SP5 YY2

Genomic Locations for GNA11 Gene

Genomic Locations for GNA11 Gene
29,595 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GNA11 Gene

Genes around GNA11 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNA11 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNA11 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNA11 Gene

Proteins for GNA11 Gene

  • Protein details for GNA11 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-11
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O15109
    • Q14350
    • Q6IB00

    Protein attributes for GNA11 Gene

    359 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    42123 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • G proteins are composed of 3 units; alpha, beta and gamma. The alpha chain contains the guanine nucleotide binding site. Interacts with RGS22. Interacts with NTSR1.

neXtProt entry for GNA11 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GNA11 Gene

  • (Microbial infection) Deamidated at Gln-209 by Photorhabdus asymbiotica toxin PAU_02230, blocking GTP hydrolysis of heterotrimeric GNAQ or GNA11 and G-alphai (GNAI1, GNAI2 or GNAI3) proteins, thereby activating RhoA.
  • Ubiquitination at posLast=2727, posLast=102102, and isoforms=107
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GNA11 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GNA11 (G-alpha 11)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNA11 Gene

Domains & Families for GNA11 Gene

Gene Families for GNA11 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNA11 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-alpha family. G(q) subfamily.
  • Belongs to the G-alpha family. G(q) subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNA11: view

Function for GNA11 Gene

Molecular function for GNA11 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein),alpha 11 (Gq class),mediating pertussis toxin-resistant stimulation of phospholipase C beta
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. Acts as an activator of phospholipase C.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GNA11 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNA11 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001664 G-protein coupled receptor binding IEA --
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IBA,IEA --
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA --
GO:0019001 guanyl nucleotide binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNA11: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNA11: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GNA11 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for GNA11 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GNA11:

miRNA for GNA11 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GNA11

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNA11 Gene

Localization for GNA11 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNA11 Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor. Cytoplasm. Note=In testicular cells, expressed exclusively in the cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNA11 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
lysosome 5
cytosol 4
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNA11 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001750 photoreceptor outer segment ISS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm TAS 9175863
GO:0005765 lysosomal membrane IDA 17897319
GO:0005834 heterotrimeric G-protein complex IBA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNA11: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GNA11 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GNA11 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNA11: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GNA11 Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNA11 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001501 skeletal system development IEA --
GO:0001508 action potential IEA,IBA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA,TAS 8530500
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007188 adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNA11: view

Drugs & Compounds for GNA11 Gene

(3) Drugs for GNA11 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine monophosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(5) Additional Compounds for GNA11 Gene - From:

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(5) Tocris Compounds for GNA11 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
[D-Trp7,9,10]-Substance P Inhibits M1 ACh receptor activation of Gq/11 89430-38-6
G-Protein antagonist peptide Inhibits G protein activation by GPCRs 143675-79-0
Gue 1654 Selective inhibitor of OXE-R Gbetagamma signaling 397290-30-1
Mastoparan Activates Gi and Go 72093-21-1
SCH 202676 hydrobromide Inhibitor of ligand binding to G-protein-coupled receptors 265980-25-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNA11: view

Transcripts for GNA11 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GNA11 Gene

Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNA11 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b
SP1: - -

Relevant External Links for GNA11 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GNA11 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GNA11 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for GNA11 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GNA11 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GNA11 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNA11 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GNA11 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in testis.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GNA11 Gene

  • Eye(4.6)
  • Blood(4.5)
  • Pancreas(4.4)
  • Nervous system(4.1)
  • Lung(3)
  • Muscle(3)
  • Heart(2.7)
  • Intestine(2.4)
  • Skin(2.4)
  • Kidney(2.3)
  • Liver(2.2)
  • Thyroid gland(2.2)
  • Adrenal gland(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GNA11 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • ear
  • eye
  • head
  • jaw
  • larynx
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • parathyroid
  • skull
  • thyroid
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • diaphragm
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • heart valve
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • duodenum
  • intestine
  • kidney
  • large intestine
  • pancreas
  • small intestine
  • stomach
  • pelvis
  • rectum
  • ureter
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • nail
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • hair
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • vertebrae
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNA11: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Protein differential expression in normal tissues for GNA11 Gene

Orthologs for GNA11 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for GNA11 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GNA11 34
  • 99 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GNA11 34
  • 95 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNA11 33 34
  • 94.61 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNA11 33 34
  • 92.92 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gna11 33 16 34
  • 89.6 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gna11 33
  • 89.23 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GNA11 33 34
  • 82.64 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GNA11 34
  • 99 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gna11 33
  • 78.46 (n)
MGC76069 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia gna11-prov 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gna11b 33 34
  • 82.08 (n)
gna14a 34
  • 70 (a)
gna14 34
  • 66 (a)
gnav1 34
  • 43 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Galpha49B 35 34
  • 76 (a)
CG30054 34
  • 67 (a)
CG17760 35 34
  • 51 (a)
Galpha73B 35
  • 35 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea egl-30 33 34
  • 70.82 (n)
odr-3 35
  • 45 (a)
gpa-1 35
  • 43 (a)
gpa-8 35
  • 38 (a)
gpa-10 35
  • 35 (a)
gpa-9 35
  • 33 (a)
gpa-5 35
  • 32 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GPA2 34
  • 32 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11283 34
  • 73 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GNA11 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GNA11 Gene

Gene Tree for GNA11 (if available)
Gene Tree for GNA11 (if available)

Paralogs for GNA11 Gene

Paralogs for GNA11 Gene

(19) SIMAP similar genes for GNA11 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins: Pseudogenes for GNA11 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GNA11: view

Variants for GNA11 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GNA11 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs140749796 Pathogenic, Hypocalcemia, autosomal dominant 2 (HYPOC2) [MIM:615361] 3,121,122(+) GTGTT(C/G/T)GCGGC reference, synonymous-codon, missense
rs587777019 Pathogenic, Hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, familial 2 (HHC2) [MIM:145981] 3,113,412(+) GACCC(A/T)GTGGG reference, missense
rs587777020 Pathogenic, Hypocalcemia, autosomal dominant 2 (HYPOC2) [MIM:615361] 3,115,009(+) GCTGC(A/G)GGTCC reference, missense
rs587777021 Pathogenic, Hypocalcemia, autosomal dominant 2 (HYPOC2) [MIM:615361] 3,110,190(+) AGATG(C/T)GCATC reference, missense
rs587777022 Pathogenic, Hypocalcemia, autosomal dominant 2 (HYPOC2) [MIM:615361] 3,118,950(+) GCGGT(C/G/T)GGAGC reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNA11 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv578420 CNV loss 21841781
nsv509716 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv470113 CNV loss 18288195
nsv470112 CNV gain 18288195
nsv1148747 CNV insertion 26484159
nsv1061420 CNV gain 25217958
esv3643456 CNV loss 21293372
esv2717922 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2669769 CNV deletion 23128226
dgv47n68 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for GNA11 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 18.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.97; 20.00% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GNA11 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNA11 Gene

Disorders for GNA11 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(28) MalaCards diseases for GNA11 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, type ii
  • familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 2
hypocalcemia, autosomal dominant 2
  • autosomal dominant hypocalcemia 2
phakomatosis cesiomarmorata
  • phakomatosis pigmentovascularis type 5
uveal melanoma
  • melanoma of uvea
phakomatosis cesioflammea
  • phakomatosis pigmentovascularis type 2
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GNA11 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Hypocalcemia, autosomal dominant 2 (HYPOC2) [MIM:615361]: A form of hypocalcemia, a disorder of mineral homeostasis characterized by blood calcium levels below normal, and low or normal serum parathyroid hormone concentrations. Disease manifestations include hypocalcemia, paresthesias, carpopedal spasm, seizures, hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis or kidney stones, and ectopic and basal ganglia calcifications. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:23782177, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23802516}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, familial 2 (HHC2) [MIM:145981]: A form of hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, a disorder of mineral homeostasis that is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with a high degree of penetrance. It is characterized biochemically by lifelong elevation of serum calcium concentrations and is associated with inappropriately low urinary calcium excretion and a normal or mildly elevated circulating parathyroid hormone level. Hypermagnesemia is typically present. Affected individuals are usually asymptomatic and the disorder is considered benign. However, chondrocalcinosis and pancreatitis occur in some adults. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:23802516}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for GNA11

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GNA11: view

No data available for Genatlas for GNA11 Gene

Publications for GNA11 Gene

  1. Mutations affecting G-protein subunit α11 in hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia. (PMID: 23802516) Nesbit MA … Thakker RV (The New England journal of medicine 2013) 2 3 4 60
  2. Mutations in GNA11 in uveal melanoma. (PMID: 21083380) Van Raamsdonk CD … Bastian BC (The New England journal of medicine 2010) 3 45 60
  3. The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19. (PMID: 15057824) Grimwood J … Lucas SM (Nature 2004) 3 4 60
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 60
  5. Reduced expression of GNA11 and silencing of MCT1 in human breast cancers. (PMID: 12759536) Asada K … Ushijima T (Oncology 2003) 3 22 60

Products for GNA11 Gene

Sources for GNA11 Gene

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