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Aliases for GLUD2 Gene

Aliases for GLUD2 Gene

  • Glutamate Dehydrogenase 2 2 3
  • Glutamate Dehydrogenase Pseudogene 1 2 3
  • EC 1.4.1.3 4 63
  • GLUDP1 3 4
  • GDH 2 3 4
  • Glutamate Dehydrogenase 2, Mitochondrial 3
  • EC 1.4.1 63
  • GDH2 3

External Ids for GLUD2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GLUD2 Gene

  • GLUDP1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GLUD2 Gene

  • GC0XP114899
  • GC0XU900011
  • GC0XP9V0098
  • GC0XP119906
  • GC0XP120009
  • GC0XP120181
  • GC0XP109559

Summaries for GLUD2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLUD2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the mitochondrion and acts as a homohexamer to recycle glutamate during neurotransmission. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate. This gene is intronless.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

GeneCards Summary for GLUD2 Gene

GLUD2 (Glutamate Dehydrogenase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GLUD2 include parkinson disease, late-onset. Among its related pathways are Arginine and proline metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and leucine binding. An important paralog of this gene is GLUD1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLUD2 Gene

  • Important for recycling the chief excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, during neurotransmission

Gene Wiki entry for GLUD2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLUD2 Gene

Genomics for GLUD2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GLUD2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GLUD2 Gene

Start:
121,047,588 bp from pter
End:
121,050,080 bp from pter
Size:
2,493 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GLUD2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GLUD2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLUD2 Gene

Proteins for GLUD2 Gene

  • Protein details for GLUD2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P49448-DHE4_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    P49448
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R8G0
    • Q9UDQ4

    Protein attributes for GLUD2 Gene

    Size:
    558 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    61434 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homohexamer.

neXtProt entry for GLUD2 Gene

Proteomics data for GLUD2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GLUD2 Gene

  • Stoichiometry shows that ADP-ribosylation occurs in one subunit per catalytically active homohexamer
  • Ubiquitination at Lys162, Lys415, Lys527, and Lys545
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GLUD2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for GLUD2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GLUD2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P49448

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

DHE4_HUMAN :
  • P49448
Family:
  • Belongs to the Glu/Leu/Phe/Val dehydrogenases family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLUD2: view

No data available for Gene Families for GLUD2 Gene

Function for GLUD2 Gene

Molecular function for GLUD2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: glutamate dehydrogenase 2,expressed in retina,testis,brain
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: L-glutamate + H(2)O + NAD(P)(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NAD(P)H.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Important for recycling the chief excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, during neurotransmission

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GLUD2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GLUD2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004352 glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity IDA 15578726
GO:0004353 glutamate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity IDA 11032875
GO:0005525 GTP binding IDA 11032875
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity --
GO:0043531 ADP binding IDA 12742085
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLUD2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GLUD2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLUD2

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GLUD2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Phenotypes , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GLUD2 Gene

Localization for GLUD2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLUD2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GLUD2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLUD2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLUD2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 NOT cytoplasm IDA 18688271
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 18688271
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLUD2: view

Pathways for GLUD2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GLUD2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLUD2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006520 cellular amino acid metabolic process --
GO:0006536 glutamate metabolic process IDA 8207021
GO:0006537 glutamate biosynthetic process IDA 11032875
GO:0006538 glutamate catabolic process IDA 11032875
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IDA 8207021
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLUD2: view

Compounds for GLUD2 Gene

(9) HMDB Compounds for GLUD2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Ammonia
  • NH3
7664-41-7
Famotidine
  • Amfamox
76824-35-6
L-Glutamic acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
56-86-0
NAD
  • 3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
53-84-9
NADH
  • 1,4-Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
58-68-4

(3) Drugbank Compounds for GLUD2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
L-Glutamic Acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
56-86-0 target
NADH
  • beta-DPNH
606-68-8 target
Nicotinamide-Adenine-Dinucleotide
53-84-9 target

(8) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GLUD2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
glutamate 78.6 42
gtp 53.3 2
adp 51.6 1
leucine 49.8 1
alpha-ketoglutarate 46.2 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLUD2: view

Transcripts for GLUD2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GLUD2 Gene

(23) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GLUD2 Gene

Glutamate dehydrogenase 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GLUD2

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLUD2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GLUD2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GLUD2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GLUD2

Expression for GLUD2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GLUD2 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GLUD2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLUD2 Gene Hs.368538

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GLUD2 Gene

P49448-DHE4_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in retina, testis and, at a lower level, brain
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GLUD2: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for GLUD2 Gene

Orthologs for GLUD2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for GLUD2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLUD2 35
  • 99.34 (n)
  • 98.92 (a)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GLUD1 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 96 (a)
ManyToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Glud1 36
  • 94 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 62 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 81 (a)
ManyToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 87 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 93 (a)
ManyToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii glud1a 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Gdh 36
  • 65 (a)
OneToMany
Gdh 37
  • 66 (a)
CG4434 37
  • 46 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gdh-1 36
  • 60 (a)
OneToMany
ZK829.4 37
  • 62 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GDH1 36
  • 25 (a)
ManyToMany
GDH1 38
GDH3 36
  • 25 (a)
ManyToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.11667 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10003 36
  • 66 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for GLUD2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GLUD2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GLUD2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GLUD2 (if available)

Paralogs for GLUD2 Gene

Paralogs for GLUD2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GLUD2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GLUD2: view

Variants for GLUD2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLUD2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 0X pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs3861 -- 121,049,901(-) ACNTT(A/T)TTCTA utr-variant-3-prime
rs10657 -- 121,049,098(+) TTCAA(G/T)AGAGT reference, stop-gained
rs1131120 -- 121,049,199(+) GACAT(C/T)GTGCA synonymous-codon, reference
rs1131121 -- 121,049,210(+) CTCTG(C/G)CTTGG reference, missense
rs5909779 -- 121,046,470(+) TTTGG(A/C)GTTTG upstream-variant-2KB

Relevant External Links for GLUD2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GLUD2
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GLUD2
Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB)
GLUD2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLUD2 Gene

Disorders for GLUD2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (1) Diseases for GLUD2 Gene including...

Search for GLUD2 Gene in MalaCards »

Relevant External Links for GLUD2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GLUD2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GLUD2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLUD2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLUD2 Gene

Publications for GLUD2 Gene

  1. Novel human glutamate dehydrogenase expressed in neural and testicular tissues and encoded by an X-linked intronless gene. (PMID: 8207021) Shashidharan P. … Plaitakis A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1994) 2 3 4 23
  2. Nerve tissue-specific human glutamate dehydrogenase that is thermolabile and highly regulated by ADP. (PMID: 9109504) Shashidharan P. … Plaitakis A. (J. Neurochem. 1997) 2 3 23
  3. Nerve tissue-specific (GLUD2) and housekeeping (GLUD1) human glutamate dehydrogenases are regulated by distinct allosteric mechanisms: implications for biologic function. (PMID: 11032875) Plaitakis A. … Shashidharan P. (J. Neurochem. 2000) 3 23
  4. Evaluation of two X chromosomal candidate genes for Rett syndrome: glutamate dehydrogenase-2 (GLUD2) and rab GDP-dissociation inhibitor (GDI1). (PMID: 9674910) Wan M. … Francke U. (Am. J. Med. Genet. 1998) 3 23
  5. Birth and adaptive evolution of a hominoid gene that supports high neurotransmitter flux. (PMID: 15378063) Burki F. … Kaessmann H. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 23

Products for GLUD2 Gene

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GLUD2
  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GLUD2
  • Block miRNA regulation of GLUD2 using miScript Target Protectors

Sources for GLUD2 Gene

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