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Aliases for GHSR Gene

Aliases for GHSR Gene

  • Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor 2 3
  • GH-Releasing Peptide Receptor 3 4
  • Ghrelin Receptor 3 4
  • GHS-R 3 4
  • GHRP 3 4
  • Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor Type 1 3
  • GHDP 3

External Ids for GHSR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GHSR Gene

  • GC03M169213
  • GC03M173120
  • GC03M173564
  • GC03M173483
  • GC03M173645
  • GC03M172162
  • GC03M169531

Summaries for GHSR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GHSR Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the G-protein coupled receptor family. The encoded protein may play a role in energy homeostasis and regulation of body weight. Two identified transcript variants are expressed in several tissues and are evolutionary conserved in fish and swine. One transcript, 1a, excises an intron and encodes the functional protein; this protein is the receptor for the Ghrelin ligand and defines a neuroendocrine pathway for growth hormone release. The second transcript (1b) retains the intron and does not function as a receptor for Ghrelin; however, it may function to attenuate activity of isoform 1a. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal idiopathic short stature.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

GeneCards Summary for GHSR Gene

GHSR (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GHSR include growth hormone deficiency, isolated partial and short stature due to ghsr deficiency. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPR39.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GHSR Gene

  • Receptor for ghrelin, coupled to G-alpha-11 proteins. Stimulates growth hormone secretion. Binds also other growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) (e.g. Met-enkephalin and GHRP-6) as well as non-peptide, low molecular weight secretagogues (e.g. L-692,429, MK-0677, adenosine).

Tocris Summary for GHSR Gene

  • Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the ghrelin receptor, also known as the growth hormone secretagog receptor (GHS-R1a). Alternative splicing of the prepro-ghrelin yields two active peptides: ghrelin and des-Gln14-ghrelin, which differ by the deletion of one amino acid residue. The predominant form, ghrelin, is highly expressed in endocrine cells of the stomach, with low levels also found in the hypothalamus. The G-protein-coupled ghrelin receptor is expressed in the pituitary, hypothalamus, hippocampus, gastrointestinal tract and the vasculature including the aorta, coronary arteries, pulmonary arteries, arcuate arteries, and saphenous veins. Ghrelin potently stimulates the release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary. Ghrelin is thought to act on ghrelin receptors present on pituitary somatotrophs and on growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) positive cells in the hypothalamus triggering GHRH release. The peptide also acts as a potent vasodilator in vivo and in vitro. Ghrelin peptide was the first circulating hormone shown to stimulate eating and weight gain. In humans circulating ghrelin levels are decreased in acute states of positive energy balance and obesity, and are elevated during weight loss induced by sustained fasting and anorexia nervosa. The development of ghrelin antagonists, or a means to inhibit ghrelin release may be an important pharmaceutical goal for the management of obesity.

Gene Wiki entry for GHSR Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GHSR Gene

Genomics for GHSR Gene

Regulatory Elements for GHSR Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GHSR Gene

172,443,291 bp from pter
172,448,456 bp from pter
5,166 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GHSR Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GHSR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GHSR Gene

Proteins for GHSR Gene

  • Protein details for GHSR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14D12
    • Q6ISR8
    • Q92848
    • Q96RJ7

    Protein attributes for GHSR Gene

    366 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    41329 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for GHSR Gene


neXtProt entry for GHSR Gene

Proteomics data for GHSR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GHSR Gene

Other Protein References for GHSR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GHSR Gene

Domains for GHSR Gene

Gene Families for GHSR Gene

Protein Domains for GHSR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GHSR Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GHSR: view

Function for GHSR Gene

Molecular function for GHSR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for ghrelin, coupled to G-alpha-11 proteins. Stimulates growth hormone secretion. Binds also other growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) (e.g. Met-enkephalin and GHRP-6) as well as non-peptide, low molecular weight secretagogues (e.g. L-692,429, MK-0677, adenosine).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GHSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001616 growth hormone secretagogue receptor activity IDA 8688086
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IDA 8688086
GO:0005515 protein binding --
GO:0016520 growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor activity IDA 8688086
GO:0017046 peptide hormone binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GHSR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GHSR: view

Animal Models for GHSR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GHSR:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GHSR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GHSR

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GHSR

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GHSR Gene

Localization for GHSR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GHSR Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GHSR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GHSR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 2
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GHSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 8688086
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0043005 neuron projection IDA 12890514
GO:0045121 membrane raft IDA 15232612
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GHSR: view

Pathways for GHSR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GHSR: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GHSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IDA 8688086
GO:0008154 actin polymerization or depolymerization IDA 15232612
GO:0008343 adult feeding behavior ISS --
GO:0009725 response to hormone IDA 15232612
GO:0009755 hormone-mediated signaling pathway IDA 8688086
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GHSR: view

Drugs for GHSR Gene

(1) Drugbank Compounds for GHSR Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
Target investigational

(5) Tocris Compounds for GHSR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
[D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 Ghrelin receptor antagonist [136054-22-3]
Ghrelin (human) Endogenous ghrelin receptor agonist [258279-04-8]
Ghrelin (rat) Endogenous ghrelin receptor agonist [258338-12-4]
L-692,585 Potent, non-peptide ghrelin receptor agonist [145455-35-2]
YIL 781 Ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) antagonist [875258-85-8]

(17) IUPHAR Ligand for GHSR Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
MK-0677 Agonist Full agonist 9.72
SM-130,686 Agonist Partial agonist 9.51
[125I][His9]ghrelin (human) Agonist Full agonist 9.4
[125I][Tyr4]ghrelin (human) Agonist Full agonist 9.4
[35S]MK-0677 Agonist Full agonist 9.2
GHRP-6 Agonist Full agonist 9.08
wFw-Isn-NH2 Agonist Partial agonist 8.41
GSK161443 Antagonist Antagonist 8.4
JMV3008 Antagonist Antagonist 8.25
[125I]Tyr-Ala-hexarelin Agonist Full agonist 8.2
Abbott 14c Antagonist Antagonist 8.15
ghrelin Agonist Full agonist 8.1
BIM 28163 Antagonist Antagonist 8.09
hexarelin Agonist Full agonist 7.89
YIL781 Antagonist Antagonist 7.77
[D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]substance P Antagonist None 7.35
L-692,429 Allosteric regulator Positive 7

(28) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GHSR Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
ghrp 97 212
hexarelin 90.1 21
mk-0677 76.8 2
ipamorelin 76.5 1
vapreotide 71.6 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GHSR: view

Transcripts for GHSR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GHSR Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(14) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GHSR Gene

Growth hormone secretagogue receptor:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GHSR

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GHSR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GHSR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GHSR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GHSR Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GHSR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (38.9) and Brain - Hypothalamus (6.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for GHSR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Frontal cortex (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GHSR Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GHSR Gene Hs.130212

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GHSR Gene

Tissue specificity: Pituitary and hypothalamus
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GHSR: view

Expression partners for GHSR Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for GHSR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GHSR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GHSR 35
  • 90.8 (n)
  • 94.54 (a)
  • 95 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GHSR 35
  • 89.11 (n)
  • 89.97 (a)
  • 90 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ghsr 35
  • 90.02 (n)
  • 95.88 (a)
Ghsr 16
Ghsr 36
  • 96 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GHSR 35
  • 99.64 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ghsr 35
  • 89.84 (n)
  • 96.15 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GHSR 36
  • 85 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 25 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GHSR 35
  • 77.68 (n)
  • 76.52 (a)
  • 76 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GHSR 36
  • 73 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ghsr 35
  • 68.68 (n)
  • 74.71 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ghsra 35
  • 70.28 (n)
  • 72.89 (a)
ghsra 36
  • 69 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta ETHR 35
  • 50.63 (n)
  • 38.49 (a)
capaR 36
  • 23 (a)
CG8784 36
  • 18 (a)
CG8795 36
  • 19 (a)
Pk1r 36
  • 23 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea nmur-1 36
  • 23 (a)
nmur-2 36
  • 23 (a)
nmur-3 36
  • 20 (a)
nmur-4 36
  • 24 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GHSR:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GHSR Gene

Gene Tree for GHSR (if available)
Gene Tree for GHSR (if available)

Paralogs for GHSR Gene

Paralogs for GHSR Gene

(18) SIMAP similar genes for GHSR Gene using alignment to 2 proteins: Pseudogenes for GHSR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GHSR: view

Variants for GHSR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GHSR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs477251 -- 172,445,047(+) GTTTC(C/T)GGATC utr-variant-3-prime
rs482204 -- 172,445,039(-) AACAT(C/T)TGGGA utr-variant-3-prime
rs495225 -- 172,448,243(-) GTGGG(A/C/G/T)ATCGC synonymous-codon, reference
rs509035 -- 172,445,659(+) TTACT(A/G)AGCTC intron-variant
rs562416 -- 172,444,052(+) GACTT(A/C)AAAAT utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GHSR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7356 OTHER Inversion 18451855
nsv877987 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv829794 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv877988 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for GHSR Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GHSR Gene

Disorders for GHSR Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for GHSR Gene (601898)


  • Growth hormone deficiency, isolated partial (GHDP) [MIM:615925]: A disorder characterized by partial growth hormone deficiency resulting in growth delay and short stature, sometimes associated with recurrent episodes of abdominal pain, vomiting, ketosis and hypoglycemia. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16511605, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19789204}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GHSR Gene

(27) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GHSR Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
obesity 54.7 22
acromegaly 50.3 6
gastroparesis 48.7 3
short stature 48.6 9
prolactinoma 48 3

Relevant External Links for GHSR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GHSR: view

No data available for Genatlas for GHSR Gene

Publications for GHSR Gene

  1. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor family members and ligands. (PMID: 11322507) Smith R.G. … Howard A.D. (Endocrine 2001) 3 4 23
  2. Association of ghrelin receptor gene polymorphism with bulimia nervosa in a Japanese population. (PMID: 16362631) Miyasaka K. … Funakoshi A. (J Neural Transm 2006) 3 23 48
  3. Loss of constitutive activity of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in familial short stature. (PMID: 16511605) Pantel J. … Amselem S. (J. Clin. Invest. 2006) 3 4 23
  4. Polymorphisms in genes involved in GH1 release and their association with breast cancer risk. (PMID: 16606630) Wagner K. … FAPrsti A. (Carcinogenesis 2006) 3 23 48
  5. Genomic structure and transcriptional regulation of the human growth hormone secretagogue receptor. (PMID: 11356716) Petersenn S. … Schulte H.M. (Endocrinology 2001) 3 4 23

Products for GHSR Gene

Sources for GHSR Gene

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