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Aliases for GCDH Gene

Aliases for GCDH Gene

  • Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase 2 3 5
  • Glutaryl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase 2 3
  • GCD 3 4
  • Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Truncated Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase 3
  • Truncated GCDH 3
  • EC 58
  • EC 4
  • EC 1.3.99 58
  • ACAD5 3

External Ids for GCDH Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GCDH Gene

  • GC19P013133
  • GC19P013224
  • GC19P012847
  • GC19P012862
  • GC19P012863
  • GC19P013001
  • GC19P012573

Summaries for GCDH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GCDH Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family. It catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA and CO(2) in the degradative pathway of L-lysine, L-hydroxylysine, and L-tryptophan metabolism. It uses electron transfer flavoprotein as its electron acceptor. The enzyme exists in the mitochondrial matrix as a homotetramer of 45-kD subunits. Mutations in this gene result in the metabolic disorder glutaric aciduria type 1, which is also known as glutaric acidemia type I. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

GeneCards Summary for GCDH Gene

GCDH (Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GCDH include Glutaricaciduria, Type I and Athetosis. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Fatty acid metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include flavin adenine dinucleotide binding and fatty-acyl-CoA binding. An important paralog of this gene is ACADS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCDH Gene

  • Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA and CO(2) in the degradative pathway of L-lysine, L-hydroxylysine, and L-tryptophan metabolism. It uses electron transfer flavoprotein as its electron acceptor. Isoform Short is inactive.

Additional gene information for GCDH Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GCDH Gene

Genomics for GCDH Gene

Regulatory Elements for GCDH Gene

Enhancers for GCDH Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH19H012911 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 18 +22.5 22538 3.3 PKNOX1 MLX ZNF133 FEZF1 ZNF2 GLIS2 RUNX3 YY2 MXD4 NFYC GCDH CCDC130 ZNF44 ZNF700 WDR83OS ZNF878 ZNF844 ZNF136 ZNF442 ZNF564
GH19H012936 1.7 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 16.6 +48.1 48106 5.8 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF766 ZNF207 ZNF136 TRMT1 CCDC130 ZNF625 RPS6P25 ZNF791 ZNF442 ZNF844 ZNF44 ZNF788
GH19H012932 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 16.7 +42.5 42463 2.3 PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF766 CBX5 ZNF143 ZNF207 MTCO1P27 GCDH MIR181C ENSG00000267735 SYCE2 DNASE2 FARSA FARSA-AS1
GH19H012943 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 16.5 +55.9 55894 6.8 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF136 CCDC130 ZNF442 MRI1 ZNF844 ZNF564 GCDH TRMT1 WDR83OS ZNF788
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GCDH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GCDH Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GCDH gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GCDH Gene

Genomic Locations for GCDH Gene
23,605 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GCDH Gene

Genes around GCDH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GCDH Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GCDH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GCDH Gene

Proteins for GCDH Gene

  • Protein details for GCDH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K2Z2
    • O14719

    Protein attributes for GCDH Gene

    438 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    48127 Da
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GCDH Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GCDH Gene


neXtProt entry for GCDH Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GCDH Gene


Post-translational modifications for GCDH Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for GCDH Gene

Gene Families for GCDH Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family.
  • Belongs to the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GCDH: view

Function for GCDH Gene

Molecular function for GCDH Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase,flavoprotein dependent,mitochondrial matrix,lysine oxidation
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=4.7 uM for glutaryl-CoA (at pH 6.5) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17176108, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6423663}; KM=5.5 uM for glutaryl-CoA (at pH 7.5) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17176108, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6423663}; KM=8.1 uM for glutaryl-CoA (at pH 7.6) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17176108, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6423663}; KM=34.0 uM for glutaryl-CoA (at pH 8.5) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17176108, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6423663}; Note=Release of crotonyl-CoA product from the enzyme is the rate-determining step in its steady-state turnover.;
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Glutaryl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = crotonyl-CoA + CO(2) + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Strongly inhibited by MCPA-CoA, a metabolite of hypoglycin which is present in unripened fruit of the ackee tree.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA and CO(2) in the degradative pathway of L-lysine, L-hydroxylysine, and L-tryptophan metabolism. It uses electron transfer flavoprotein as its electron acceptor. Isoform Short is inactive.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GCDH Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GCDH Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GCDH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000062 fatty-acyl-CoA binding IEA --
GO:0003995 acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity IEA --
GO:0004361 glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity EXP,TAS 18775954
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016627 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCDH: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GCDH: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GCDH Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for GCDH Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GCDH:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GCDH Gene

Localization for GCDH Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCDH Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GCDH gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GCDH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCDH: view

Pathways & Interactions for GCDH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GCDH: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q92947-GCDH_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amino-acid metabolism; lysine degradation.
  • Pathway: Amino-acid metabolism; tryptophan metabolism.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GCDH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006554 lysine catabolic process TAS --
GO:0006568 tryptophan metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006637 acyl-CoA metabolic process IEA --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0019395 fatty acid oxidation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCDH: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GCDH Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GCDH Gene

(10) Drugs for GCDH Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
FAD Approved Pharma Target 0
Carbon dioxide Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
S-4-Nitrobutyryl-Coa Experimental Pharma Target 0
Hexanoyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0
Propanoyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0

(37) Additional Compounds for GCDH Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Glutaryl-CoA
  • Glutaryl-coenzyme A
  • (E)-S-2-decenoate
  • (E)-S-2-decenoate CoA
  • (E)-S-2-decenoate Coenzyme A
  • (E)-S-2-decenoic acid
  • 2-trans-Decenoyl-CoA
  • (2E)-Dodec-2-enoyl-CoA
  • (2E)-Dodec-2-enoyl-Coenzyme A
  • 2-trans-Dodecenoyl-CoA
  • 2-trans-Dodecenoyl-Coenzyme A
  • (2E)-Hexadecenoyl-CoA
  • (2E)-Hexadecenoyl-Coenzyme A
  • trans-2-Hexadecenoyl-CoA
  • trans-2-Hexadecenoyl-Coenzyme A
  • (E)-S-2-octenoate
  • (E)-S-2-octenoate CoA
  • (E)-S-2-octenoate Coenzyme A
  • (E)-S-2-octenoic acid
  • 2,3-trans-Octenoyl coenzyme A
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GCDH: view

Transcripts for GCDH Gene

Unigene Clusters for GCDH Gene

Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GCDH Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GCDH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GCDH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GCDH Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GCDH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x4.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GCDH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (10.0), Salivary gland (7.3), and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for GCDH Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GCDH Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GCDH Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GCDH Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GCDH Gene:

Tissue specificity: Isoform Long and isoform Short are expressed in fibroblasts and liver.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GCDH Gene

  • Blood(4.5)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Nervous system(4.3)
  • Kidney(2.8)
  • Eye(2.6)
  • Intestine(2.5)
  • Adrenal gland(2.1)
  • Gall bladder(2.1)
  • Heart(2.1)
  • Lung(2.1)
  • Lymph node(2.1)
  • Muscle(2.1)
  • Pancreas(2.1)
  • Spleen(2.1)
  • Stomach(2.1)
  • Thyroid gland(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GCDH Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • ear
  • face
  • forehead
  • head
  • skull
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • adrenal gland
  • liver
  • stomach
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal cord
  • sweat gland
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GCDH: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for GCDH Gene

Orthologs for GCDH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GCDH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GCDH 33 34
  • 98.63 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GCDH 33 34
  • 87.98 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GCDH 33 34
  • 86.91 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gcdh 16 34 33
  • 83.52 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gcdh 33
  • 83.07 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GCDH 34
  • 82 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GCDH 34
  • 79 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GCDH 33
  • 79.06 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GCDH 34
  • 73 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gcdh 33
  • 72.08 (n)
Str.16156 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.6713 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gcdh 34
  • 72 (a)
gcdhl 34 33
  • 70.65 (n)
zgc77704 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.5525 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP008501 33
  • 66.58 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG9547 35 33 34
  • 65.33 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F54D5.7 35 34
  • 64 (a)
CELE_F54D5.7 33
  • 61.39 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ACX4 33
  • 46.51 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0159400 33
  • 46.33 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU02291 33
  • 62.1 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.4265 33
Species where no ortholog for GCDH was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GCDH Gene

Gene Tree for GCDH (if available)
Gene Tree for GCDH (if available)

Paralogs for GCDH Gene

Paralogs for GCDH Gene Pseudogenes for GCDH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GCDH: view

Variants for GCDH Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GCDH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs121434366 Pathogenic, Glutaric aciduria 1 (GA1) [MIM:231670] 12,896,940(+) CCCGG(C/T)ACGGC nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs121434367 Pathogenic, Glutaric aciduria 1 (GA1) [MIM:231670] 12,899,486(+) TCACG(C/T)CCTGA intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs121434368 Pathogenic, Glutaric aciduria 1 (GA1) [MIM:231670] 12,899,471(+) AGGTA(C/T)ACATG intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs121434369 Pathogenic, Glutaric aciduria 1 (GA1) [MIM:231670] 12,897,824(+) TGATC(C/T)GGCAC nc-transcript-variant, downstream-variant-500B, reference, missense
rs121434370 Pathogenic, Glutaric aciduria 1 (GA1) [MIM:231670] 12,897,713(+) CCCCC(A/G)AGATG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GCDH Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv961183 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv953977 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv833754 CNV loss 17160897
nsv1160589 CNV duplication 26073780

Variation tolerance for GCDH Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.75; 33.15% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GCDH Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCDH Gene

Disorders for GCDH Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(11) MalaCards diseases for GCDH Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
glutaricaciduria, type i
  • glutaric acidemia type i
epithelial-stromal tgfbi dystrophy
d-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
  • d-2-hga
early-onset generalized dystonia
  • dystonia musculorum deformans
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GCDH in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Glutaric aciduria 1 (GA1) [MIM:231670]: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by progressive dystonia and athetosis due to gliosis and neuronal loss in the basal ganglia. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14707522, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18775954, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24973495, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8541831, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8900227, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8900228, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9600243}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for GCDH

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GCDH: view

No data available for Genatlas for GCDH Gene

Publications for GCDH Gene

  1. Disease-causing missense mutations affect enzymatic activity, stability and oligomerization of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH). (PMID: 18775954) Keyser B … Braulke T (Human molecular genetics 2008) 3 4 22 60
  2. Kinetic mechanism of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. (PMID: 17176108) Rao KS … Frerman FE (Biochemistry 2006) 3 4 22 60
  3. Crystal structures of human glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase with and without an alternate substrate: structural bases of dehydrogenation and decarboxylation reactions. (PMID: 15274622) Fu Z … Kim JJ (Biochemistry 2004) 3 4 22 60
  4. The human glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene: report of intronic sequences and of 13 novel mutations causing glutaric aciduria type I. (PMID: 9600243) Schwartz M … Brandt NJ (Human genetics 1998) 3 4 22 60
  5. Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase mutations in glutaric acidemia (type I): review and report of thirty novel mutations. (PMID: 9711871) Goodman SI … Elpeleg ON (Human mutation 1998) 3 4 22 60

Products for GCDH Gene

Sources for GCDH Gene

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