Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for AMBP Gene

Aliases for AMBP Gene

  • Alpha-1-Microglobulin/Bikunin Precursor 2 3
  • Complex-Forming Glycoprotein Heterogeneous In Charge 2 3
  • Inter-Alpha-Trypsin Inhibitor Light Chain 2 3
  • Growth-Inhibiting Protein 19 2 3
  • Uronic-Acid-Rich Protein 2 3
  • Protein HC 2 3
  • Trypstatin 2 3
  • Uristatin 2 3
  • Bikunin 2 3
  • ITIL 3 4
  • HCP 3 4
  • Protein AMBP 3
  • Protein HC) 6
  • IATIL 3
  • ITILC 3
  • EDC1 3
  • HI30 3
  • A1M 3
  • UTI 3
  • ITI 3

External Ids for AMBP Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for AMBP Gene

  • ITI
  • ITIL

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AMBP Gene

  • GC09M107620
  • GC09M108554
  • GC09M110276
  • GC09M112198
  • GC09M113901
  • GC09M115862
  • GC09M116823
  • GC09M086428

Summaries for AMBP Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AMBP Gene

  • This gene encodes a complex glycoprotein secreted in plasma. The precursor is proteolytically processed into distinct functioning proteins: alpha-1-microglobulin, which belongs to the superfamily of lipocalin transport proteins and may play a role in the regulation of inflammatory processes, and bikunin, which is a urinary trypsin inhibitor belonging to the superfamily of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors and plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. This gene is located on chromosome 9 in a cluster of lipocalin genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for AMBP Gene

AMBP (Alpha-1-Microglobulin/Bikunin Precursor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AMBP include acute kidney failure and hepatitis e. Among its related pathways are Cell adhesion_Cell-matrix glycoconjugates and Binding and Uptake of Ligands by Scavenger Receptors. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TFPI.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AMBP Gene

  • Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor inhibits trypsin, plasmin, and lysosomal granulocytic elastase. Inhibits calcium oxalate crystallization.

  • Trypstatin is a trypsin inhibitor.

Gene Wiki entry for AMBP Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AMBP Gene

Genomics for AMBP Gene

Regulatory Elements for AMBP Gene

Genomic Location for AMBP Gene

114,060,127 bp from pter
114,078,472 bp from pter
18,346 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for AMBP Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for AMBP Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AMBP Gene

Proteins for AMBP Gene

  • Protein details for AMBP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein AMBP
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P00977
    • P02759
    • P78491
    • Q2TU33
    • Q5TBD7
    • Q9UC58
    • Q9UDI8

    Protein attributes for AMBP Gene

    352 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38999 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • I-alpha-I plasma protease inhibitors are assembled from one or two heavy chains (H1, H2 or H3) and one light chain, bikunin. Inter-alpha-inhibitor (I-alpha-I) is composed of H1, H2 and bikunin, inter-alpha-like inhibitor (I-alpha-LI) of H2 and bikunin, and pre-alpha-inhibitor (P-alpha-I) of H3 and bikunin. Alpha-1-microglobulin occurs as a monomer and also in complexes with IgA and albumin. Alpha-1-microglobulin interacts with FN1. Trypstatin is a monomer and also occurs as a complex with tryptase in mast cells (By similarity). Alpha-1-microglobulin and bikunin interact (via SH3 domain) with HEV ORF3 protein.
    • In vitro, the first twelve residues of the amino end of the inhibitor appear to have a reactive site capable of inhibiting the activity of a number of enzymes. Its in vivo function is not known

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for AMBP Gene

neXtProt entry for AMBP Gene

Proteomics data for AMBP Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for AMBP Gene

  • 3-hydroxykynurenine, an oxidized tryptophan metabolite that is common in biological fluids, reacts with Cys-53, Lys-111, Lys-137, and Lys-149 to form heterogeneous polycyclic chromophores including hydroxanthommatin. The reaction by alpha-1-microglobulin is autocatalytic; the human protein forms chromophore even when expressed in insect and bacterial cells. The chromophore can react with accessible cysteines forming non-reducible thioether cross-links with other molecules of alpha-1-microglobulin or with other proteins such as Ig alpha-1 chain C region Cys-352
  • Heavy chains are interlinked with bikunin via a chondroitin 4-sulfate bridge to the their C-terminal aspartate.
  • N- and O-glycosylated. N-glycan heterogeneity at Asn-115: Hex5HexNAc4 (major), Hex6HexNAc5 (minor) and dHex1Hex6HexNAc5 (minor). N-glycan at Asn-250: Hex5HexNAc4. O-linkage of the glycosaminoglycan, chondroitin sulfate, at Ser-215 allows cross-linking between the three polypeptide chains.
  • The precursor is proteolytically processed into separately functioning proteins
  • Glycosylation at Thr24, Asn36, Asn115, Ser215, and Asn250
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for AMBP Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for AMBP Gene

Domains for AMBP Gene

Gene Families for AMBP Gene

  • LCN :Lipocalins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for AMBP Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P02760
  • Contains 2 BPTI/Kunitz inhibitor domains.
  • In the N-terminal section; belongs to the calycin superfamily. Lipocalin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AMBP: view

Function for AMBP Gene

Molecular function for AMBP Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
alpha-1-microglobulin (HC,lipocalin family Kernel group),expressed in plasma either as a free form or in covalent complexes with albumine IgA and bikunin precursor (ITIL),complexing with ITIH1,ITIH2, ITIH3 or ITIH4,to form alpha type inhibitor (respectively inter- and pre-)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor inhibits trypsin, plasmin, and lysosomal granulocytic elastase. Inhibits calcium oxalate crystallization.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Trypstatin is a trypsin inhibitor.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AMBP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004867 serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity TAS 12817471
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16364318
GO:0019855 calcium channel inhibitor activity NAS 12817471
GO:0019862 IgA binding IDA 11877257
GO:0020037 heme binding IDA 11877257
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AMBP: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AMBP: view

Animal Models for AMBP Gene

MGI Knock Outs for AMBP:

Animal Model Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for AMBP

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for AMBP Gene

Localization for AMBP Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AMBP Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for AMBP Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AMBP gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
golgi apparatus 1
lysosome 1
nucleus 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AMBP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 16502470
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA 12817471
GO:0009986 cell surface IEA --
GO:0043231 intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AMBP: view

Pathways for AMBP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AMBP: view

Pathways by source for AMBP Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for AMBP Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AMBP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006898 receptor-mediated endocytosis TAS --
GO:0007155 cell adhesion NAS 9570066
GO:0007565 female pregnancy NAS 10097787
GO:0010951 negative regulation of endopeptidase activity TAS 12817471
GO:0016032 viral process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AMBP: view

Compounds for AMBP Gene

(2) HMDB Compounds for AMBP Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Ca
  • (protoporphyrinato)iron

(2) Drugbank Compounds for AMBP Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
Human Serum Albumin
9048-49-1 target
Serum albumin iodonated
9048-49-1 target

(61) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for AMBP Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
calcium oxalate 75.8 24
alpha 2 macroglobulin 75.1 1
chondroitin sulfate 68.4 23
ulinastatin 66.9 10
creatinine 65.6 54
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AMBP: view

Transcripts for AMBP Gene

mRNA/cDNA for AMBP Gene

Unigene Clusters for AMBP Gene

Alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for AMBP

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AMBP Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for AMBP Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for AMBP Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for AMBP Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for AMBP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (51.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for AMBP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (37.9), Serum (8.9), and Synovial fluid (8.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for AMBP Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AMBP Gene Hs.436911

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AMBP Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed by the liver and secreted in plasma. Alpha-1-microglobulin occurs in many physiological fluids including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor is present in plasma and urine
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with AMBP: view

Expression partners for AMBP Gene

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for AMBP Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for AMBP Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AMBP 35
  • 81.16 (n)
  • 77.27 (a)
  • 77 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AMBP 35
  • 81.09 (n)
  • 78.51 (a)
  • 76 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ambp 35
  • 79.19 (n)
  • 77.58 (a)
Ambp 16
Ambp 36
  • 76 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AMBP 35
  • 99.34 (n)
  • 99.13 (a)
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ambp 35
  • 79.32 (n)
  • 76.81 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AMBP 36
  • 62 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia AMBP 36
  • 68 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AMBP 35
  • 64.85 (n)
  • 57.7 (a)
  • 57 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 24 (a)
-- 36
  • 24 (a)
-- 36
  • 34 (a)
-- 36
  • 24 (a)
-- 36
  • 25 (a)
-- 36
  • 22 (a)
-- 36
  • 26 (a)
-- 36
  • 18 (a)
-- 36
  • 23 (a)
-- 36
  • 24 (a)
-- 36
  • 26 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ambp 35
  • 62.96 (n)
  • 57.41 (a)
MGC76314 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia ambp-prov 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ambp 35
  • 56 (n)
  • 48.17 (a)
zgc66321 35
ambp 36
  • 47 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F22E12.1 36
  • 6 (a)
mec-1 36
  • 4 (a)
mec-9 36
  • 7 (a)
ZK287.4 36
  • 5 (a)
Species with no ortholog for AMBP:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for AMBP Gene

Gene Tree for AMBP (if available)
Gene Tree for AMBP (if available)

Paralogs for AMBP Gene

Paralogs for AMBP Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for AMBP Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with AMBP: view

Variants for AMBP Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AMBP Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1864721 -- 114,072,671(-) GAATC(C/T)ACAGA intron-variant
rs1982048 -- 114,080,216(+) CCCCA(C/T)GTAGT upstream-variant-2KB
rs1982049 -- 114,080,365(+) GATTA(G/T)ATTCC upstream-variant-2KB
rs2251680 -- 114,077,924(-) GTGGG(C/T)CTCTT intron-variant
rs2251700 -- 114,078,492(-) CCCAA(C/T)CCTGG upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AMBP Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv893750 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv33e196 CNV Duplication 17116639
dgv945n27 CNV Gain 19166990
nsv471319 CNV Gain 18288195
nsv528822 CNV Gain 19592680
esv989178 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv996359 CNV Deletion 20482838

Relevant External Links for AMBP Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AMBP Gene

Disorders for AMBP Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database.

Search for AMBP Gene in MalaCards »

(4) Diseases for AMBP Gene including...

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for AMBP Gene

(69) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for AMBP Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
proteinuria 72 23
microalbuminuria 61.8 3
albuminuria 59.2 4
renal disease 57.5 15
renal stone 55.3 5

Relevant External Links for AMBP

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AMBP: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for AMBP Gene

Publications for AMBP Gene

  1. Structure of the human alpha 1-microglobulin-bikunin gene. (PMID: 1708673) Vetr H. … Gebhard W. (Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 1990) 2 3 4 23
  2. The ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus interacts with liver-specific alpha1-microglobulin and its precursor alpha1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP) and expedites their export from the hepatocyte. (PMID: 15037615) Tyagi S. … Lal S.K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 4 23
  3. The 41-amino-acid C-terminal region of the hepatitis E virus ORF3 protein interacts with bikunin, a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor. (PMID: 16140784) Tyagi S. … Lal S.K. (J. Virol. 2005) 3 4 23
  4. Homologous chromosomal locations of the four genes for inter-alpha-inhibitor and pre-alpha-inhibitor family in human and mouse: assignment of the ancestral gene for the lipocalin superfamily. (PMID: 1385302) Salier J.P. … Mattei M.G. (Genomics 1992) 2 3 23
  5. The protein HC chromophore is linked to the cysteine residue at position 34 of the polypeptide chain by a reduction-resistant bond and causes the charge heterogeneity of protein HC. (PMID: 1714898) Escribano J. … Mendez E. (J. Biol. Chem. 1991) 3 4 23

Products for AMBP Gene

Sources for AMBP Gene

Back to Top