Aliases for PRKD2 Gene
External Ids for PRKD2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRKD2 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein kinase D (PKD) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This kinase can be activated by phorbol esters as well as by gastrin via the cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR) in gastric cancer cells. It can bind to diacylglycerol (DAG) in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and may regulate basolateral membrane protein exit from TGN. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for PRKD2 Gene
PRKD2 (Protein Kinase D2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Ras signaling pathway and G Protein Signaling Pathways. GO annotations related to this gene include protein serine/threonine kinase activity and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PRKD1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKD2 Gene
Serine/threonine-protein kinase that converts transient diacylglycerol (DAG) signals into prolonged physiological effects downstream of PKC, and is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation via MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) signaling, oxidative stress-induced NF-kappa-B activation, inhibition of HDAC7 transcriptional repression, signaling downstream of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and cytokine production, and plays a role in Golgi membrane trafficking, angiogenesis, secretory granule release and cell adhesion. May potentiate mitogenesis induced by the neuropeptide bombesin by mediating an increase in the duration of MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) signaling, which leads to accumulation of immediate-early gene products including FOS that stimulate cell cycle progression. In response to oxidative stress, is phosphorylated at Tyr-438 by ABL1, which leads to the activation of PRKD2 without increasing its catalytic activity, and mediates activation of NF-kappa-B. In response to the activation of the gastrin receptor CCKBR, is phosphorylated at Ser-244 by CSNK1D and CSNK1E, translocates to the nucleus, phosphorylates HDAC7, leading to nuclear export of HDAC7 and inhibition of HDAC7 transcriptional repression of NR4A1/NUR77. Upon TCR stimulation, is activated independently of ZAP70, translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and is required for interleukin-2 (IL2) promoter up-regulation. During adaptive immune responses, is required in peripheral T-lymphocytes for the production of the effector cytokines IL2 and IFNG after TCR engagement and for optimal induction of antibody responses to antigens. In epithelial cells stimulated with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), is activated through a PKC-dependent pathway and mediates LPA-stimulated interleukin-8 (IL8) secretion via a NF-kappa-B-dependent pathway. During TCR-induced T-cell activation, interacts with and is activated by the tyrosine kinase LCK, which results in the activation of the NFAT transcription factors. In the trans-Golgi network (TGN), regulates the fission of transport vesicles that are on their way to the plasma membrane and in polarized cells is involved in the transport of proteins from the TGN to the basolateral membrane. Plays an important role in endothelial cell proliferation and migration prior to angiogenesis, partly through modulation of the expression of KDR/VEGFR2 and FGFR1, two key growth factor receptors involved in angiogenesis. In secretory pathway, is required for the release of chromogranin-A (CHGA)-containing secretory granules from the TGN. Downstream of PRKCA, plays important roles in angiotensin-2-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Plays a regulatory role in angiogenesis and tumor growth by phosphorylating a downstream mediator CIB1 isoform 2, resulting in vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) secretion.
The protein kinase D (PKD) family of serine/threonine protein kinases contains three members; PKD1, PKD2 and PKD2. These enzymes occupy a unique position in the signal transduction pathway initiated by diacylglycerol (DAG) and protein kinase C (PKC). PKDs are direct targets of DAG, and also lie downstream of PKC in a novel signal transduction pathway that is implicated in a variety of biological processes. Structurally, PKDs contain an N' terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD), which binds phorbol esters with high affinity and has a role in mediating PKD translocation to the plasma membrane upon activation. The PH domains have an autoregulatory phosphorylation site (PKD1 and PKD2 only) and the catalytic domains have a high degree of homology to myosin light chain and calmodulin-dependent kinases. In the inactivated state, PKD1 and PKD2 are localized mainly to the cytoplasm, whilst PKD3 is found both in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Kinase activity of these enzymes is repressed by their CRD and PH domains. PKDs are activated by a variety of stimuli including regulatory peptides, lysophosphatidic acid, thrombin, PDGF, IGF-1, oxidative stress, cholecystokinin, Gbetagamma, ATP and more. These stimuli produce a rapid generation of DAG, which induces CRD-mediated PKD translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Novel PKCs are also recruited to the plasma membrane in response to DAG generation. Novel PKCs are allosterically activated by DAG, and transphosphorylate PKDs. This stabilizes PKD in its active conformation. Activated PKD dissociates from the plasma membrane, translocates to the cytosol and subsequently to the nucleus. PKDs have been implicated in fundamental physiological processes including signal transduction, membrane trafficking, and cell survival, migration, differentiation and proliferation. PKD upregulates the ERK and Ras signaling pathways, and suppresses the JNK signaling pathway. These enzymes regulate the budding of secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network and promote integrin recruitment to focal adhesions. In addition, PKDs have a role in regulating apoptosis and have functions in cell survival pathways induced by oxidative stress. They also have a role in immune regulation. Despite the plethora of physiological processes PKDs are involved in, only a few direct targets are known. These include kidins220, an integral membrane protein of neuroendocrine cells, c-Jun and RIN1, a protein that associates with Ras and 14.3.3 and activates the Ras-MEK-ERK pathway.