Aliases for GALE Gene
External Ids for GALE Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALE Gene
This gene encodes UDP-galactose-4-epimerase which catalyzes two distinct but analogous reactions: the epimerization of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose, and the epimerization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine. The bifunctional nature of the enzyme has the important metabolic consequence that mutant cells (or individuals) are dependent not only on exogenous galactose, but also on exogenous N-acetylgalactosamine as a necessary precursor for the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids. Mutations in this gene result in epimerase-deficiency galactosemia, also referred to as galactosemia type 3, a disease characterized by liver damage, early-onset cataracts, deafness and mental retardation, with symptoms ranging from mild ('peripheral' form) to severe ('generalized' form). Multiple alternatively spliced transcripts encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for GALE Gene
GALE (UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GALE include epimerase deficiency galactosemia and galactose epimerase deficiency. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Glycosaminoglycan metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor. An important paralog of this gene is TGDS.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALE Gene
Catalyzes two distinct but analogous reactions: the reversible epimerization of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose and the reversible epimerization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine. The reaction with UDP-Gal plays a critical role in the Leloir pathway of galactose catabolism in which galactose is converted to the glycolytic intermediate glucose 6-phosphate. It contributes to the catabolism of dietary galactose and enables the endogenous biosynthesis of both UDP-Gal and UDP-GalNAc when exogenous sources are limited. Both UDP-sugar interconversions are important in the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids.