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Aliases for GCA Gene

Aliases for GCA Gene

  • Grancalcin 2 3 3 5
  • Grancalcin, EF-Hand Calcium-Binding Protein 2 3
  • GCL 3 4
  • Grancalcin, EF-Hand Calcium Binding Protein 2
  • Grancalcin, Penta-EF-Hand Protein 3

External Ids for GCA Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GCA Gene

  • GC02P161254
  • GC02P161728
  • GC02P163164
  • GC02P163403
  • GC02P163026
  • GC02P162908
  • GC02P155082

Summaries for GCA Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GCA Gene

  • This gene encodes a calcium-binding protein that is abundant in neutrophils and macrophages. In the absence of divalent cation, this protein localizes to the cytosolic fraction; with magnesium alone, it partitions with the granule fraction; and in the presence of magnesium and calcium, it associates with both the granule and membrane fractions. Alternative splicing and use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]

GeneCards Summary for GCA Gene

GCA (Grancalcin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GCA include Acromesomelic Dysplasia. Among its related pathways are Innate Immune System. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and protein heterodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is SRI.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCA Gene

  • Calcium-binding protein that may play a role in the adhesion of neutrophils to fibronectin. May play a role in the formation of focal adhesions.

Gene Wiki entry for GCA Gene

Additional gene information for GCA Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GCA Gene

Genomics for GCA Gene

Regulatory Elements for GCA Gene

Enhancers for GCA Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH02H162343 1 ENCODE 12.6 +25.4 25390 1.7 HDGF PKNOX1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 BRCA1 YY1 ETS1 GCA IFIH1 FAP GC02P162329 RNA5SP109
GH02H162478 0.4 FANTOM5 5.8 +160.3 160257 0.2 STAT1 GCA RNA5SP109 GC02P162329
GH02H162367 0.3 FANTOM5 5.1 +47.4 47368 0 GCA GC02P162329 RNA5SP109
GH02H162366 0.3 FANTOM5 4.6 +47.7 47717 0.1 GCA KCNH7 GC02P162329 RNA5SP109
GH02H162316 1.3 ENCODE dbSUPER 0.7 +0.0 17 4.1 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 ARID4B SIN3A YY1 ZNF766 ZNF143 ZNF207 ATF7 FAP GCA PIR31305
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GCA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GCA Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000125501 -793 2801 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B SIN3A YY1 ZNF143 ATF7

Genomic Locations for GCA Gene

Genomic Locations for GCA Gene
61,197 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GCA Gene

Genes around GCA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GCA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GCA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GCA Gene

Proteins for GCA Gene

  • Protein details for GCA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R5X3
    • Q53TB5
    • Q59EP3

    Protein attributes for GCA Gene

    217 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    24010 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Interacts with SRI and LCP1.
    • This protein has been shown to bind calcium with high affinity.
    • Sequence=BAD93005.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GCA Gene

neXtProt entry for GCA Gene

Post-translational modifications for GCA Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GCA Gene

Domains & Families for GCA Gene

Gene Families for GCA Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for GCA Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GCA Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GCA: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCA Gene

Function for GCA Gene

Molecular function for GCA Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Calcium-binding protein that may play a role in the adhesion of neutrophils to fibronectin. May play a role in the formation of focal adhesions.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GCA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004198 calcium-dependent cysteine-type endopeptidase activity IBA --
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IDA,IEA 11717497
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IPI 11717497
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCA: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GCA: view

Animal Models for GCA Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GCA:

miRNA for GCA Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GCA

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GCA Gene

Localization for GCA Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCA Gene

Cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic granule membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Note=Primarily cytosolic in the absence of calcium or magnesium ions. Relocates to granules and other membranes in response to elevated calcium and magnesium levels. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1737748}.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GCA gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
lysosome 4
nucleus 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Plasma membrane (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GCA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA,TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS,IDA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCA: view

Pathways & Interactions for GCA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GCA: view

Pathways by source for GCA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GCA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006508 proteolysis IBA --
GO:0043312 neutrophil degranulation TAS --
GO:0061025 membrane fusion TAS 1530588
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCA: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GCA Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GCA Gene

(7) Drugs for GCA Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Calcium Citrate Approved Pharma Target, ligand 0
Calcium Phosphate Approved Pharma Target, ligand 0
calcium Nutra 0

(3) Additional Compounds for GCA Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GCA: view

Transcripts for GCA Gene

Unigene Clusters for GCA Gene

Grancalcin, EF-hand calcium binding protein:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GCA Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: -
SP6: - - - - - - - - - -

Relevant External Links for GCA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GCA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GCA Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GCA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x30.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GCA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Neutrophil (14.3) and Saliva (6.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for GCA Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GCA Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GCA Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GCA Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GCA Gene:

Tissue specificity: Detected in neutrophils and macrophages (at protein level). Highly expressed in bone marrow.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GCA Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Blood(4.6)
  • Bone marrow(2.2)
  • Intestine(2.1)
  • Spleen(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GCA: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GCA Gene

Orthologs for GCA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for GCA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GCA 34 33
  • 99.08 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GCA 34 33
  • 88.84 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GCA 34 33
  • 88.7 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gca 16 34 33
  • 83.72 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gca 33
  • 82.49 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GCA 34
  • 77 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GCA 34
  • 70 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GCA 34
  • 71 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gca 33
  • 72.61 (n)
Str.15515 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.16710 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:92027 33
  • 66.5 (n)
GCA 34
  • 63 (a)
Dr.5366 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2717 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG17765 34
  • 31 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PEF1 34
  • 15 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 34 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GCA was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GCA Gene

Gene Tree for GCA (if available)
Gene Tree for GCA (if available)

Paralogs for GCA Gene

Paralogs for GCA Gene

(10) SIMAP similar genes for GCA Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GCA: view

Variants for GCA Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GCA Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000022905 -- 162,361,477(+) TGCTG(A/G)CCAAA intron-variant, downstream-variant-500B, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1000032022 -- 162,317,015(+) AAAAA(C/G)GGTGT intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000160870 -- 162,341,787(+) ACCAC(A/T)TTCTG intron-variant
rs1000287098 -- 162,333,785(+) ATTCA(C/T)CTCAG intron-variant
rs1000302152 -- 162,333,684(+) TACTT(C/T)AAGAT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GCA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv955278 CNV duplication 24416366
nsv583520 CNV loss 21841781
nsv1160878 CNV deletion 26073780

Variation tolerance for GCA Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 69.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.54; 64.81% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GCA Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCA Gene

Disorders for GCA Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for GCA Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
acromesomelic dysplasia
  • acromesomelic dwarfism
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GCA in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GCA

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GCA: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GCA Gene

Publications for GCA Gene

  1. The PEF family proteins sorcin and grancalcin interact in vivo and in vitro. (PMID: 12804766) Hansen C … Berchtold MW (FEBS letters 2003) 2 3 4 22 60
  2. Isolation and characterization of grancalcin, a novel 28 kDa EF-hand calcium-binding protein from human neutrophils. (PMID: 1530588) Teahan CG … Segal AW (The Biochemical journal 1992) 2 3 4 22 60
  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of grancalcin, a novel EF-hand calcium-binding protein abundant in neutrophils and monocytes. (PMID: 1737748) Boyhan A … Segal AW (The Journal of biological chemistry 1992) 2 3 4 22 60
  4. Biochemical characterization of the penta-EF-hand protein grancalcin and identification of L-plastin as a binding partner. (PMID: 11279160) Lollike K … Cox JA (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 3 4 22 60
  5. Structure of Ca(2+)-loaded human grancalcin. (PMID: 11717497) Jia J … Cygler M (Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography 2001) 3 4 22 60

Products for GCA Gene

Sources for GCA Gene

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