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Aliases for MLYCD Gene

Aliases for MLYCD Gene

  • Malonyl-CoA Decarboxylase 2 3
  • MCD 3 4 6
  • EC 4.1.1.9 4 63
  • Malonyl-CoA Decarboxylase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Malonyl Coenzyme A Decarboxylase 3

External Ids for MLYCD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MLYCD Gene

  • GC16P074843
  • GC16P084897
  • GC16P083671
  • GC16P083712
  • GC16P082490
  • GC16P069684

Summaries for MLYCD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MLYCD Gene

  • The product of this gene catalyzes the breakdown of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide. Malonyl-CoA is an intermediate in fatty acid biosynthesis, and also inhibits the transport of fatty acyl CoAs into mitochondria. Consequently, the encoded protein acts to increase the rate of fatty acid oxidation. It is found in mitochondria, peroxisomes, and the cytoplasm. Mutations in this gene result in malonyl-CoA decarboyxlase deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MLYCD Gene

MLYCD (Malonyl-CoA Decarboxylase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MLYCD include malonyl-coa decarboxylase deficiency and combined malonic and methylmalonic aciduria. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include receptor binding and malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000260300.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLYCD Gene

  • Catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. In the fatty acid biosynthesis MCD selectively removes malonyl-CoA and thus assures that methyl-malonyl-CoA is the only chain elongating substrate for fatty acid synthase and that fatty acids with multiple methyl side chains are produced. In peroxisomes it may be involved in degrading intraperoxisomal malonyl-CoA, which is generated by the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of odd chain-length dicarboxylic fatty acids. Plays a role in the metabolic balance between glucose and lipid oxidation in muscle independent of alterations in insulin signaling. May play a role in controlling the extent of ischemic injury by promoting glucose oxidation.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MLYCD Gene

Genomics for MLYCD Gene

Regulatory Elements for MLYCD Gene

Genomic Location for MLYCD Gene

Start:
83,899,125 bp from pter
End:
83,927,026 bp from pter
Size:
27,902 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for MLYCD Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for MLYCD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MLYCD Gene

Proteins for MLYCD Gene

  • Protein details for MLYCD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O95822-DCMC_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    O95822
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9UNU5
    • Q9Y3F2

    Protein attributes for MLYCD Gene

    Size:
    493 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    55003 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer. Dimer of dimers. The two subunits within a dimer display conformational differences suggesting that at any given moment, only one of the two subunits is competent for malonyl-CoA binding and catalytic activity. Under oxidizing conditions, can form disulfide-linked homotetramers (in vitro). Associates with the peroxisomal targeting signal receptor PEX5.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAD16177.2; Type=Frameshift; Positions=23, 28, 297, 308; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MLYCD Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MLYCD Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for MLYCD Gene

Proteomics data for MLYCD Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for MLYCD Gene

  • Acetylation at Lys-472 activates malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity. Deacetylation at Lys-472 by SIRT4 represses activity, leading to promote lipogenesis (By similarity).
  • Interchain disulfide bonds may form in peroxisomes (Potential). Interchain disulfide bonds are not expected to form in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm and mitochondria.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for MLYCD Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for MLYCD Gene

Gene Families for MLYCD Gene

Protein Domains for MLYCD Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MLYCD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MLYCD: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLYCD Gene

Function for MLYCD Gene

Molecular function for MLYCD Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: malonyl-CoA decarboxylase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties: Kinetic parameters: KM=0.36 mM for malonyl-CoA (Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase mitochondrial form), PubMed:15003260 {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10455107, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15003260, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23482565}; KM=0.83 mM for malonyl-CoA (Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase mitochondrial form), PubMed:23482565 {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10455107, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15003260, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23482565}; KM=0.22 mM for malonyl-CoA (Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase cytoplasmic+peroxisomal form), PubMed:10455107 {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10455107, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15003260, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23482565}; KM=0.33 mM for malonyl-CoA (Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase cytoplasmic+peroxisomal form), PubMed:15003260 {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10455107, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15003260, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23482565}; Note=kcat is 19 sec(-1) with malonyl-CoA for malonyl-CoA decarboxylase mitochondrial form, PubMed:15003260. kcat is 28 sec(-1) with malonyl-CoA for Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase cytoplasmic+peroxisomal form, PubMed:15003260. The catalytic efficiency for malonyl-CoA is at least 1.09-fold higher with the malonyl-CoA decarboxylase cytoplasmic+peroxisomal form, PubMed:15003260.;
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Malonyl-CoA = acetyl-CoA + CO(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity does not require any cofactors or divalent metal ions. Formation of interchain disulfide bonds leads to positive cooperativity between active sites and increases the affinity for malonyl-CoA and the catalytic efficiency (in vitro).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. In the fatty acid biosynthesis MCD selectively removes malonyl-CoA and thus assures that methyl-malonyl-CoA is the only chain elongating substrate for fatty acid synthase and that fatty acids with multiple methyl side chains are produced. In peroxisomes it may be involved in degrading intraperoxisomal malonyl-CoA, which is generated by the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of odd chain-length dicarboxylic fatty acids. Plays a role in the metabolic balance between glucose and lipid oxidation in muscle independent of alterations in insulin signaling. May play a role in controlling the extent of ischemic injury by promoting glucose oxidation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MLYCD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MLYCD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 receptor binding IPI 20178365
GO:0050080 malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity IDA 10417274
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MLYCD: view

Phenotypes for MLYCD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MLYCD: view

Animal Models for MLYCD Gene

MGI Knock Outs for MLYCD:

miRNA for MLYCD Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MLYCD

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for MLYCD Gene

Localization for MLYCD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLYCD Gene

Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion matrix. Peroxisome. Peroxisome matrix. Note=Enzymatically active in all three subcellular compartments. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for MLYCD Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MLYCD gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
peroxisome 5
cytosol 2
golgi apparatus 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MLYCD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 10455107
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 10417274
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix ISS --
GO:0005777 peroxisome IDA 10417274
GO:0005782 peroxisomal matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MLYCD: view

Pathways for MLYCD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MLYCD: view

Pathways by source for MLYCD Gene

1 Qiagen pathway for MLYCD Gene
1 PharmGKB pathway for MLYCD Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot O95822-DCMC_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Metabolic intermediate biosynthesis; acetyl-CoA biosynthesis; acetyl-CoA from malonyl-CoA: step 1/1

Interacting Proteins for MLYCD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MLYCD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002931 response to ischemia ISS --
GO:0006085 acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006633 fatty acid biosynthetic process IDA 15003260
GO:0010906 regulation of glucose metabolic process IMP 18314420
GO:0044255 cellular lipid metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MLYCD: view

Compounds for MLYCD Gene

(4) HMDB Compounds for MLYCD Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Acetyl-CoA
  • S-Acetyl coenzyme A
72-89-9
Carbon dioxide
  • Carbon oxide
124-38-9
Malonyl-CoA
  • Malonyl Coenzyme A
524-14-1
Propionyl-CoA
  • Propionyl-CoA
317-66-8

(12) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for MLYCD Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
malonyl-coa 95.3 17
acetyl-coa 80.1 11
dicarboxylate 72.3 1
fatty acid 69.8 16
carnitine 59.8 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MLYCD: view

Transcripts for MLYCD Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MLYCD Gene

Unigene Clusters for MLYCD Gene

Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MLYCD Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MLYCD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
MLYCD
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
MLYCD

Expression for MLYCD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MLYCD Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MLYCD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Left Ventricle (8.5), Muscle - Skeletal (4.6), and Heart - Atrial Appendage (4.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for MLYCD Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MLYCD Gene Hs.644610

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MLYCD Gene

O95822-DCMC_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in fibroblasts and hepatoblastoma cells (at protein level). Expressed strongly in heart, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas. Expressed in myotubes. Expressed weakly in brain, placenta, spleen, thymus, testis, ovary and small intestine.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with MLYCD: view

Orthologs for MLYCD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for MLYCD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToMany
MLYCD 35
  • 99.32 (n)
  • 98.99 (a)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MLYCD 35
  • 83.91 (n)
  • 85.8 (a)
MLYCD 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 87 (a)
OneToMany
MLYCD 35
  • 86.29 (n)
  • 89.04 (a)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mlycd 35
  • 84.28 (n)
  • 88.21 (a)
Mlycd 16
Mlycd 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mlycd 35
  • 83.44 (n)
  • 88.72 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 36
  • 69 (a)
OneToMany
MLYCD 35
  • 72.03 (n)
  • 73.26 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mlycd 35
  • 63.62 (n)
  • 68.91 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.13403 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mlycd 35
  • 63.78 (n)
  • 61.86 (a)
mlycd 36
  • 57 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mlcd-1 35
  • 49.28 (n)
  • 42.36 (a)
mlcd-1 36
  • 36 (a)
OneToMany
F35G12.1 37
  • 40 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT4G04320 35
  • 47.76 (n)
  • 45.02 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os09g0394100 35
  • 50.65 (n)
  • 46.39 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for MLYCD:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MLYCD Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for MLYCD (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for MLYCD (if available)

Paralogs for MLYCD Gene

Paralogs for MLYCD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MLYCD: view

Variants for MLYCD Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MLYCD Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs446036 Benign 83,899,691(+) GTCGA(C/T)CCCCC intron-variant
rs880087 -- 83,898,913(-) CTGCT(C/T)CCGCG upstream-variant-2KB
rs880088 -- 83,898,746(-) TGCAC(C/G)GGAGG upstream-variant-2KB
rs1127368 -- 83,915,471(+) TTTCA(A/G)AAGAA reference, synonymous-codon
rs1127382 -- 83,915,901(+) CTTTG(C/T)GCTCA utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MLYCD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv457587 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv1908 CNV Insertion 18451855
esv26248 CNV Loss 19812545

Relevant External Links for MLYCD Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
MLYCD
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
MLYCD
Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB)
MLYCD

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLYCD Gene

Disorders for MLYCD Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for MLYCD Gene (606761)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

DCMC_HUMAN
  • Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency (MLYCD deficiency) [MIM:248360]: Autosomal recessive disease characterized by abdominal pain, chronic constipation, episodic vomiting, metabolic acidosis and malonic aciduria. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for MLYCD Gene

(5) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for MLYCD Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
malonyl-coa decarboxylase deficiency 98.8 16
cardiomyopathy 56.6 10
developmental delay 55.6 2
metabolic acidosis 42.3 2
hypoglycemia 42.2 3

Relevant External Links for MLYCD

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
MLYCD
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
MLYCD
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MLYCD: view

Publications for MLYCD Gene

  1. MCD encodes peroxisomal and cytoplasmic forms of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase and is mutated in malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency. (PMID: 10455107) Sacksteder K.A. … Gould S.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999) 2 3 4 23
  2. Cloning and mutational analysis of human malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase. (PMID: 9869665) Gao J. … Cohen J.C. (J. Lipid Res. 1999) 2 3 4 23
  3. The molecular basis of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency. (PMID: 10417274) FitzPatrick D.R. … Christodoulou J. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1999) 3 4 23
  4. Expression, purification, and characterization of human malonyl-CoA decarboxylase. (PMID: 15003260) Zhou D. … Yang G. (Protein Expr. Purif. 2004) 3 4 23
  5. Malonyl CoenzymeA decarboxylase regulates lipid and glucose metabolism in human skeletal muscle. (PMID: 18314420) Bouzakri K. … Zierath J.R. (Diabetes 2008) 3 4 23

Products for MLYCD Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for MLYCD

Sources for MLYCD Gene

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