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Aliases for RRAS2 Gene

Aliases for RRAS2 Gene

  • Related RAS Viral (R-Ras) Oncogene Homolog 2 2 3 5
  • Teratocarcinoma Oncogene 3 4
  • Ras-Like Protein TC21 3 4
  • TC21 3 4

External Ids for RRAS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RRAS2 Gene

  • GC11M015479
  • GC11M015047
  • GC11M014339
  • GC11M014264
  • GC11M014256
  • GC11M013981

Summaries for RRAS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RRAS2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the R-Ras subfamily of Ras-like small GTPases. The encoded protein associates with the plasma membrane and may function as a signal transducer. This protein may play an important role in activating signal transduction pathways that control cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with the growth of certain tumors. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1 and 2. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

GeneCards Summary for RRAS2 Gene

RRAS2 (Related RAS Viral (R-Ras) Oncogene Homolog 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RRAS2 include Ovarian Cancer, Somatic and Breast Cancer. Among its related pathways are IL-2 Pathway and HTLV-I infection. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and GTPase activity. An important paralog of this gene is HRAS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRAS2 Gene

  • It is a plasma membrane-associated GTP-binding protein with GTPase activity. Might transduce growth inhibitory signals across the cell membrane, exerting its effect through an effector shared with the Ras proteins but in an antagonistic fashion.

Gene Wiki entry for RRAS2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RRAS2 Gene

Genomics for RRAS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for RRAS2 Gene

Enhancers for RRAS2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around RRAS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for RRAS2 Gene

14,277,920 bp from pter
14,364,506 bp from pter
86,587 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for RRAS2 Gene

Genes around RRAS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
RRAS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for RRAS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RRAS2 Gene

Proteins for RRAS2 Gene

  • Protein details for RRAS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Ras-related protein R-Ras2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R9Z3
    • B7Z5Z2
    • B7Z6C4
    • B7Z7H6
    • P17082

    Protein attributes for RRAS2 Gene

    204 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    23400 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAA36545.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=4, 8, 12; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAM12638.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=4, 8, 12; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RRAS2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for RRAS2 Gene


neXtProt entry for RRAS2 Gene

Proteomics data for RRAS2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for RRAS2 Gene

  • May be post-translationally modified by both palmitoylation and polyisoprenylation.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RRAS2 Gene

Domains & Families for RRAS2 Gene

Gene Families for RRAS2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RRAS2: view

Function for RRAS2 Gene

Molecular function for RRAS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
It is a plasma membrane-associated GTP-binding protein with GTPase activity. Might transduce growth inhibitory signals across the cell membrane, exerting its effect through an effector shared with the Ras proteins but in an antagonistic fashion.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RRAS2: view

Animal Models for RRAS2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for RRAS2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for RRAS2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RRAS2 Gene

Localization for RRAS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRAS2 Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side. Note=Inner surface of plasma membrane possibly with attachment requiring acylation of the C-terminal cysteine (By similarity with RAS).

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for RRAS2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RRAS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 4
endoplasmic reticulum 4
nucleus 3
mitochondrion 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RRAS2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for RRAS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RRAS2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RRAS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001649 osteoblast differentiation IDA 16210410
GO:0006886 intracellular protein transport IEA --
GO:0030335 positive regulation of cell migration IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRAS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for RRAS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for RRAS2 Gene

(5) Drugs for RRAS2 Gene - From: PharmGKB, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Tamoxifen Approved Pharma Antagonist ER antagonist, Anti-Estrogens 364
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(4) Additional Compounds for RRAS2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RRAS2: view

Transcripts for RRAS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for RRAS2 Gene

Related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RRAS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for RRAS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for RRAS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for RRAS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for RRAS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (14.0) and Adipocyte (9.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for RRAS2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RRAS2 Gene Hs.502004

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RRAS2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously present in all tissues examined, with the highest levels in heart, placenta, and skeletal muscle. Moderate levels in lung and liver; low levels in brain, kidney, and pancreas.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with RRAS2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for RRAS2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for RRAS2 Gene

Orthologs for RRAS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for RRAS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RRAS2 35
  • 95.42 (n)
  • 100 (a)
RRAS2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RRAS2 35
  • 95.66 (n)
  • 99.41 (a)
RRAS2 36
  • 97 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rras2 35
  • 92.97 (n)
  • 100 (a)
Rras2 16
Rras2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RRAS2 35
  • 98.86 (n)
  • 99.51 (a)
RRAS2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rras2 35
  • 92.48 (n)
  • 100 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RRAS2 36
  • 92 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RRAS2 36
  • 98 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RRAS2 35
  • 86.14 (n)
  • 97.52 (a)
RRAS2 36
  • 97 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RRAS2 36
  • 96 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.9521 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.11640 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii rras2 35
  • 79.77 (n)
  • 96.02 (a)
rras2 36
  • 96 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ras64B 37
  • 71 (a)
Ras64B 35
  • 62.92 (n)
  • 71.12 (a)
Ras64B 36
  • 69 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002812 35
  • 63.58 (n)
  • 75.72 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C08F8.7 37
  • 45 (a)
ras-1 37
  • 62 (a)
ras-2 37
  • 57 (a)
ras-1 35
  • 61.08 (n)
  • 63.01 (a)
ras-1 36
  • 56 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADL262W 35
  • 58.69 (n)
  • 63.8 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C13387g 35
  • 63.6 (n)
  • 66.87 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RAS1 35
  • 63.56 (n)
  • 64.67 (a)
RAS1 36
  • 37 (a)
RAS2 36
  • 32 (a)
RAS1 38
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.2254 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU08823 35
  • 61.59 (n)
  • 67.07 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes ras1 35
  • 59.17 (n)
  • 63.31 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 67 (a)
Species with no ortholog for RRAS2:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for RRAS2 Gene

Gene Tree for RRAS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for RRAS2 (if available)

Paralogs for RRAS2 Gene

Paralogs for RRAS2 Gene Pseudogenes for RRAS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RRAS2: view

Variants for RRAS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RRAS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_006848 An ovarian cancer sample
rs930160 -- 14,364,576(+) CACGC(C/T)CAAGC upstream-variant-2KB
rs963212 -- 14,303,186(-) ACTTA(C/T)TACTA intron-variant
rs1431374 -- 14,282,429(-) CATCA(A/G)TCAGC intron-variant
rs1431375 -- 14,329,900(+) CTTCA(C/T)CTCTA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RRAS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv990130 CNV Insertion 20482838
esv4848 CNV Deletion 18987735
esv2744128 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv38548 CNV Loss 16902084
esv990812 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv1753534 CNV Deletion 17803354
esv6194 CNV Loss 19470904
esv25684 CNV Loss 19812545

Variation tolerance for RRAS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 39.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.36; 7.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for RRAS2 Gene

Disorders for RRAS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for RRAS2 Gene - From: ClinVar, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
ovarian cancer, somatic
  • adenocarcinoma, ovarian, somatic
breast cancer
  • breast cancer, invasive ductal
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search RRAS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Ovarian cancer (OC) [MIM:167000]: The term ovarian cancer defines malignancies originating from ovarian tissue. Although many histologic types of ovarian tumors have been described, epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most common form. Ovarian cancers are often asymptomatic and the recognized signs and symptoms, even of late-stage disease, are vague. Consequently, most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:8052619}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for RRAS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RRAS2: view

No data available for Genatlas for RRAS2 Gene

Publications for RRAS2 Gene

  1. A human oncogene of the RAS superfamily unmasked by expression cDNA cloning. (PMID: 8052619) Chan A.M.-L. … Aaronson S.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1994) 2 3 4 67
  2. Essential function for the GTPase TC21 in homeostatic antigen receptor signaling. (PMID: 19561613) Delgado P. … AlarcA^n B. (Nat. Immunol. 2009) 3 23
  3. Structural and spatial determinants regulating TC21 activation by RasGRF family nucleotide exchange factors. (PMID: 19692568) Calvo F. … Crespo P. (Mol. Biol. Cell 2009) 3 23
  4. A polymorphism in the TC21 promoter associates with an unfavorable tamoxifen treatment outcome in breast cancer. (PMID: 19047159) Rokavec M. … Brauch H. (Cancer Res. 2008) 3 23
  5. Signaling pathways regulating TC21-induced tumorigenesis. (PMID: 17656362) Erdogan M. … Zent R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007) 3 23

Products for RRAS2 Gene

Sources for RRAS2 Gene