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Aliases for VMA21 Gene

Aliases for VMA21 Gene

  • VMA21 Vacuolar H+-ATPase Homolog (S. Cerevisiae) 2 3
  • Myopathy With Excessive Autophagy Protein 3 4
  • MEAX 3 4
  • XMEA 3 4
  • Vacuolar ATPase Assembly Integral Membrane Protein VMA21 3
  • Myopathy With Excessive Autophagy 2

External Ids for VMA21 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for VMA21 Gene

  • MEAX

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for VMA21 Gene

  • GC0XP150315
  • GC0XP150564
  • GC0XP139424

Summaries for VMA21 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for VMA21 Gene

  • This gene encodes a chaperone for assembly of lysosomal vacuolar ATPase.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

GeneCards Summary for VMA21 Gene

VMA21 (VMA21 Vacuolar H+-ATPase Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with VMA21 include myopathy, x-linked, with excessive autophagy and vacuolar myopathy.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VMA21 Gene

  • Required for the assembly of the V0 complex of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) in the endoplasmic reticulum.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for VMA21 Gene

Genomics for VMA21 Gene

Regulatory Elements for VMA21 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for VMA21 Gene

151,396,515 bp from pter
151,409,364 bp from pter
12,850 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for VMA21 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for VMA21 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for VMA21 Gene

Proteins for VMA21 Gene

  • Protein details for VMA21 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Vacuolar ATPase assembly integral membrane protein VMA21
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NKV7
    • B3KUA9

    Protein attributes for VMA21 Gene

    101 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11354 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Associates with the V0 complex of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase)

    Alternative splice isoforms for VMA21 Gene


neXtProt entry for VMA21 Gene

Proteomics data for VMA21 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for VMA21 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for VMA21 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for VMA21 Gene

Domains for VMA21 Gene

Protein Domains for VMA21 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for VMA21 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q3ZAQ7
  • Belongs to the VMA21 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with VMA21: view

No data available for Gene Families for VMA21 Gene

Function for VMA21 Gene

Molecular function for VMA21 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Required for the assembly of the V0 complex of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for VMA21

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Phenotypes , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for VMA21 Gene

Localization for VMA21 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VMA21 Gene

Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cytoplasmic vesicle, COPII-coated vesicle membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for VMA21 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for VMA21 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
lysosome 4
vacuole 4
plasma membrane 3
cytosol 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for VMA21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005764 NOT lysosome IDA --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane IDA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0030127 COPII vesicle coat IDA --
GO:0033116 endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VMA21: view

Pathways for VMA21 Gene

SuperPathways for VMA21 Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for VMA21 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for VMA21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0070072 vacuolar proton-transporting V-type ATPase complex assembly IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VMA21: view

No data available for Pathways by source for VMA21 Gene

Transcripts for VMA21 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for VMA21 Gene

Unigene Clusters for VMA21 Gene

VMA21 vacuolar H+-ATPase homolog (S. cerevisiae):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for VMA21

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for VMA21 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for VMA21 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for VMA21 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for VMA21 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for VMA21 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (31.6), Breast (7.5), and Bone (7.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for VMA21 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for VMA21 Gene Hs.58633

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with VMA21: view

Expression partners for VMA21 Gene

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for VMA21 Gene

Orthologs for VMA21 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for VMA21 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia VMA21 35
  • 93.73 (n)
  • 95.05 (a)
VMA21 36
  • 95 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia VMA21 35
  • 92.41 (n)
  • 96.04 (a)
VMA21 36
  • 96 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia VMA21 35
  • 99.67 (n)
  • 100 (a)
VMA21 36
  • 77 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Vma21 16
Vma21 36
  • 96 (a)
Vma21-ps 36
  • 93 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia VMA21 36
  • 83 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia VMA21 36
  • 90 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves VMA21 36
  • 81 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia VMA21 36
  • 82 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii VMA21 36
  • 67 (a)
Species with no ortholog for VMA21:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for VMA21 Gene

Gene Tree for VMA21 (if available)
Gene Tree for VMA21 (if available)

Paralogs for VMA21 Gene Pseudogenes for VMA21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with VMA21: view

No data available for Paralogs for VMA21 Gene

Variants for VMA21 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for VMA21 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 0X pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs176450 -- 151,395,949(+) CAGAG(C/G)TAGAT upstream-variant-2KB
rs176451 -- 151,396,858(+) CTTGC(C/G)GCCCC upstream-variant-2KB
rs176452 -- 151,397,088(+) GCGCC(G/T)GCAAC upstream-variant-2KB
rs176453 -- 151,400,456(+) ctgtc(A/T)acata intron-variant
rs176454 -- 151,407,677(+) TGTAG(A/T)CCTTT utr-variant-3-prime

Relevant External Links for VMA21 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for VMA21 Gene

Disorders for VMA21 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database.

Search for VMA21 Gene in MalaCards »

(4) Diseases for VMA21 Gene including...


  • Myopathy, X-linked, with excessive autophagy (MEAX) [MIM:310440]: A muscle disorder characterized by childhood early onset of a slowly progressive proximal limb muscle weakness (especially in legs) and elevation of serum creatine kinase, without evidence of cardiac, respiratory or central nervous system involvement. Histopathological analysis reveals diseased muscle fibers that are not necrotic, but show abnormal autophagic vacuolation as a manifestation of excessive autophagic activity in skeletal muscle cells. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19379691}. Note=The gene represented in this entry may be involved in disease pathogenesis. VMA21 deficiency results in an increase of lysosomal pH from 4.7 to 5.2, which reduces lysosomal degradative ability and blocks autophagy. This reduces cellular free amino acids, which upregulates the mTOR pathway and mTOR-dependent macroautophagy, resulting in proliferation of large and ineffective autolysosomes that engulf sections of cytoplasm, merge together, and vacuolate the cell (PubMed:19379691). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19379691}.
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with VMA21: view

No data available for OMIM , University of Copenhagen DISEASES , Novoseek inferred disease relationships , Genatlas and External Links for VMA21 Gene

Publications for VMA21 Gene

  1. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4
  2. Linkage studies in a new X-linked myopathy, suggesting exclusion of DMD locus and tentative assignment to distal Xq. (PMID: 2892402) Saviranta P. … de la Chapelle A. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1988) 2 3
  3. Linkage of X-linked myopathy with excessive autophagy (XMEA) to Xq28. (PMID: 10757644) Villard L. … Fontes M. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2000) 2 3
  4. VMA21 deficiency causes an autophagic myopathy by compromising V- ATPase activity and lysosomal acidification. (PMID: 19379691) Ramachandran N. … Minassian B.A. (Cell 2009) 2 4
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 4

Products for VMA21 Gene

Sources for VMA21 Gene

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