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Aliases for ENO2 Gene

Aliases for ENO2 Gene

  • Enolase 2 (Gamma, Neuronal) 2 3
  • 2-Phospho-D-Glycerate Hydro-Lyase 3 4
  • Neuron-Specific Enolase 3 4
  • Neural Enolase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • NSE 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 279 3
  • 2-Phospho-D-Glycerate Hydrolyase 3
  • Neuron Specific Gamma Enolase 3
  • Neurone-Specific Enolase 3
  • Gamma-Enolase 3
  • HEL-S-279 3
  • Enolase 2 4

External Ids for ENO2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ENO2 Gene

  • GC12M006942
  • GC12M007028
  • GC12P006902
  • GC12P006894
  • GC12P006897
  • GC12P006898
  • GC12P007023
  • GC12P007037
  • GC12P007067
  • GC12P007116
  • GC12P007149

Summaries for ENO2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ENO2 Gene

  • This gene encodes one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme, a homodimer, is found in mature neurons and cells of neuronal origin. A switch from alpha enolase to gamma enolase occurs in neural tissue during development in rats and primates. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ENO2 Gene

ENO2 (Enolase 2 (Gamma, Neuronal)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ENO2 include retroperitoneal neuroblastoma and malignant granular cell myoblastoma. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Carbon metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include magnesium ion binding and phosphopyruvate hydratase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENO4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

  • Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for ENO2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ENO2 Gene

Genomics for ENO2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ENO2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for ENO2 Gene

6,913,745 bp from pter
6,923,698 bp from pter
9,954 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ENO2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for ENO2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ENO2 Gene

Proteins for ENO2 Gene

  • Protein details for ENO2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z2X9
    • Q96J33

    Protein attributes for ENO2 Gene

    434 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    47269 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420; Note=Mg(2+) is required for catalysis and for stabilizing the dimer.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Mammalian enolase is composed of 3 isozyme subunits, alpha, beta and gamma, which can form homodimers or heterodimers which are cell-type and development-specific.
    • Sequence=AAA52388.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ENO2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ENO2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ENO2 Gene

Proteomics data for ENO2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ENO2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys5, Lys120, Lys343, and Lys394
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for ENO2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for ENO2 (Enolase 2/Neuron-specific Enolase)
  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for ENO2 (ENO2)

Domains for ENO2 Gene

Protein Domains for ENO2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ENO2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the enolase family.
  • Belongs to the enolase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ENO2: view

No data available for Gene Families for ENO2 Gene

Function for ENO2 Gene

Molecular function for ENO2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
enolase 2,gamma subunit,neuronal (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolase),glycolysis,energy pathway
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2-phospho-D-glycerate = phosphoenolpyruvate + H(2)O
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Levels of ENO2 increase dramatically in cardiovascular accidents, cerebral trauma, brain tumors and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ENO2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IEA --
GO:0004634 phosphopyruvate hydratase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ENO2: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for ENO2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ENO2

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for ENO2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for ENO2 Gene

Localization for ENO2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Note=Can translocate to the plasma membrane in either the homodimeric (alpha/alpha) or heterodimeric (alpha/gamma) form. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for ENO2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ENO2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 4
cytosol 4
extracellular 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
mitochondrion 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000015 phosphopyruvate hydratase complex IEA --
GO:0001917 photoreceptor inner segment IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 22664934
GO:0005622 intracellular --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view

Pathways for ENO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ENO2: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P09104-ENOG_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: step 4/5

Interacting Proteins for ENO2 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)
Selected Interacting proteins: P09104-ENOG_HUMAN ENSP00000229277 for ENO2 Gene via MINT STRING I2D

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006094 gluconeogenesis TAS --
GO:0006096 glycolytic process --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view

Compounds for ENO2 Gene

(1) Drugbank Compounds for ENO2 Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
2-Phosphoglycolic Acid
13147-57-4 529 Target experimental

(6) HMDB Compounds for ENO2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
2-Phospho-D-glyceric acid
  • 2-Phospho-D-glycerate
Not Available
  • 3-Dehydroquinic acid
Not Available
  • Ca
  • Magnesium
Phosphoenolpyruvic acid
  • 2-hydroxy-Acrylic acid dihydrogen phosphate

(99) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ENO2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
s 100 54.6 10
askin 54.6 2
smcc 53.7 1
paraffin 49 16
vanillylmandelic acid 48.4 9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ENO2: view

Transcripts for ENO2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ENO2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(12) Additional mRNA sequences :
(11) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(14) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ENO2 Gene

Enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal):
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for ENO2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ENO2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a ·
SP1: - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: - - -
SP13: - -

ExUns: 12b

Relevant External Links for ENO2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ENO2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ENO2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ENO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (6.0), Brain - Cerebellum (5.5), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (4.6), and Brain - Cortex (4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for ENO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (17.2), Brain (13.9), and Saliva (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for ENO2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ENO2 Gene Hs.511915

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ENO2 Gene

Tissue specificity: The alpha/alpha homodimer is expressed in embryo and in most adult tissues. The alpha/beta heterodimer and the beta/beta homodimer are found in striated muscle, and the alpha/gamma heterodimer and the gamma/gamma homodimer in neurons
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with ENO2: view

Expression partners for ENO2 Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for ENO2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ENO2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ENO2 35
  • 92.78 (n)
  • 98.62 (a)
ENO2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ENO2 35
  • 93.78 (n)
  • 98.85 (a)
ENO2 36
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Eno2 35
  • 91.71 (n)
  • 98.62 (a)
Eno2 16
Eno2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100911625 35
  • 91.4 (n)
  • 97.93 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ENO2 36
  • 73 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ENO2 36
  • 91 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ENO2 35
  • 80.11 (n)
  • 91.47 (a)
ENO2 36
  • 92 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ENO2 36
  • 93 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii eno2 35
  • 74.73 (n)
  • 83.64 (a)
eno2 36
  • 84 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Eno 37
  • 72 (a)
Eno 36
  • 63 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea enol-1 36
  • 69 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER294C 35
  • 62.6 (n)
  • 64.75 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A09185g 35
  • 60.7 (n)
  • 65.12 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ENO1 35
  • 60.31 (n)
  • 63.02 (a)
ENO1 36
  • 62 (a)
ENO2 36
  • 60 (a)
ERR1 36
  • 59 (a)
ERR2 36
  • 59 (a)
ERR3 36
  • 59 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU10042 35
  • 63.17 (n)
  • 63.87 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes eno101 35
  • 61.33 (n)
  • 63.53 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10219 36
  • 71 (a)
Species with no ortholog for ENO2:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ENO2 Gene

Gene Tree for ENO2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ENO2 (if available)

Paralogs for ENO2 Gene

Paralogs for ENO2 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for ENO2 Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ENO2: view

Variants for ENO2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ENO2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs218738 -- 6,918,475(+) cctcc(C/T)gagta intron-variant
rs218739 -- 6,918,574(+) gacct(C/T)gtgat intron-variant
rs2071074 -- 6,916,599(+) GCATG(C/G)CTTCC intron-variant
rs2071417 -- 6,917,143(+) CGTCA(C/G)GGTGG intron-variant
rs2071418 -- 6,917,755(+) CGGGT(A/G)GGGGA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ENO2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832324 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv898641 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv898642 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv509453 CNV Insertion 20534489

Relevant External Links for ENO2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

Disorders for ENO2 Gene

(96) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ENO2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
small cell lung cancer 87.1 120
carcinoma neuroendocrine 80.8 3
tumors 74.9 181
granular cell tumor 73.9 4
carcinoid 73.2 21

Relevant External Links for ENO2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ENO2: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ENO2 Gene

Publications for ENO2 Gene

  1. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism: association study in three independent samples. (PMID: 18460190) Olsen L. … Werge T. (BMC Med. Genet. 2008) 3 23 48
  2. [Relation between the level of TPS, NSE, CEA and beta2-mG in the serum and the biological behavior of small cell lung cancer]. (PMID: 17618570) Chen M.S. … Liu T. (Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007) 3 23
  3. [Changes in plasma S-100 beta and neuron-specific enolase in peri-operative period of orthotopic liver transplantation and its relationship with encephalopathy after operation]. (PMID: 19220958) Sun H.Y. … Li S.R. (Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2009) 3 23
  4. Explorative investigation of biomarkers of brain damage and coagulation system activation in clinical stroke differentiation. (PMID: 19221847) UndAcn J. … Andsberg G. (J. Neurol. 2009) 3 23
  5. Serum concentrations of s100b and NSE in migraine. (PMID: 18783450) Teepker M. … Schepelmann K. (Headache 2009) 3 23

Products for ENO2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for ENO2

Sources for ENO2 Gene

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