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Aliases for DPYS Gene

Aliases for DPYS Gene

  • Dihydropyrimidinase 2 3 3 5
  • Dihydropyrimidine Amidohydrolase 3 4
  • Hydantoinase 3 4
  • EC 4 58
  • DHPase 3 4
  • DHP 3 4

External Ids for DPYS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DPYS Gene

  • GC08M105459
  • GC08M105060
  • GC08M105348
  • GC08M105460
  • GC08M105391
  • GC08M100592

Summaries for DPYS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DPYS Gene

  • Dihydropyrimidinase catalyzes the conversion of 5,6-dihydrouracil to 3-ureidopropionate in pyrimidine metabolism. Dihydropyrimidinase is expressed at a high level in liver and kidney as a major 2.5-kb transcript and a minor 3.8-kb transcript. Defects in the DPYS gene are linked to dihydropyrimidinuria. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for DPYS Gene

DPYS (Dihydropyrimidinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DPYS include Dihydropyrimidinuria and Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Beta-alanine metabolism (TR) and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include hydrolase activity and amino acid binding. An important paralog of this gene is DPYSL2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DPYS Gene

  • Catalyzes the second step of the reductive pyrimidine degradation, the reversible hydrolytic ring opening of dihydropyrimidines. Can catalyze the ring opening of 5,6-dihydrouracil to N-carbamyl-alanine and of 5,6-dihydrothymine to N-carbamyl-amino isobutyrate.

Gene Wiki entry for DPYS Gene

Additional gene information for DPYS Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DPYS Gene

Genomics for DPYS Gene

Regulatory Elements for DPYS Gene

Enhancers for DPYS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH08H104437 0.6 FANTOM5 10.3 +29.5 29455 0.3 CEBPB CEBPG ZBTB40 SPI1 DCSTAMP DPYS LOC105375692 LOC105375691
GH08H104352 0.4 ENCODE 9.4 +114.4 114441 0 EZH2 DPYS DCSTAMP GC08M104420
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around DPYS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for DPYS Gene

Genomic Locations for DPYS Gene
136,730 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for DPYS Gene

Genes around DPYS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DPYS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DPYS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DPYS Gene

Proteins for DPYS Gene

  • Protein details for DPYS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for DPYS Gene

    519 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    56630 Da
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for DPYS Gene

neXtProt entry for DPYS Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for DPYS Gene


Post-translational modifications for DPYS Gene

  • Carbamylation allows a single lysine to coordinate two zinc ions.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for DPYS Gene

Domains & Families for DPYS Gene

Gene Families for DPYS Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DPYS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the metallo-dependent hydrolases superfamily. Hydantoinase/dihydropyrimidinase family.
  • Belongs to the metallo-dependent hydrolases superfamily. Hydantoinase/dihydropyrimidinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DPYS: view

Function for DPYS Gene

Molecular function for DPYS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
5,6-dihydrouracil + H(2)O = 3-ureidopropanoate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the second step of the reductive pyrimidine degradation, the reversible hydrolytic ring opening of dihydropyrimidines. Can catalyze the ring opening of 5,6-dihydrouracil to N-carbamyl-alanine and of 5,6-dihydrothymine to N-carbamyl-amino isobutyrate.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DPYS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DPYS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002058 uracil binding IEA --
GO:0002059 thymine binding IEA --
GO:0004157 dihydropyrimidinase activity TAS --
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding IEA,NAS 9718352
GO:0016597 amino acid binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DPYS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DPYS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for DPYS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for DPYS

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DPYS Gene

Localization for DPYS Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DPYS gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DPYS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS,IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DPYS: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for DPYS Gene

Pathways & Interactions for DPYS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DPYS: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DPYS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006208 pyrimidine nucleobase catabolic process IDA 9718352
GO:0006210 thymine catabolic process IEA,ISS --
GO:0006212 uracil catabolic process IMP,IEA 18075467
GO:0019482 beta-alanine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0019860 uracil metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DPYS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for DPYS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DPYS Gene

(8) Drugs for DPYS Gene - From: PharmGKB, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Atenolol Approved Pharma Antagonist 107
Water Approved Pharma 0

(15) Additional Compounds for DPYS Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 5,6-Dihydro-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione
  • 5,6-Dihydro-2,4-dihydroxypyrimidine
  • 5,6-Dihydrouracil
  • Dihydro-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione
  • Dihydro-pyrimidine-2,4-dione
alpha-Fluoro-beta-ureidopropionic acid
  • 5,6-Dihydro-5-methyluracil
  • 5,6-Dihydrothymine
  • 5-Methyl-5,6-dihydrouracil
  • 5-Methyl-Hydrouracil
  • 5-Methyldihydropyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione
Ureidoisobutyric acid
  • 3-Carbamoylamino-2-methylpropanoate
  • 3-Carbamoylamino-2-methylpropanoic acid
  • 3-Ureidoisobutyrate
  • 3-Ureidoisobutyric acid
  • beta-Uba
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DPYS: view

Transcripts for DPYS Gene

Unigene Clusters for DPYS Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for DPYS

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DPYS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b · 12c ^ 13
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: -
SP5: -
SP6: - -

Relevant External Links for DPYS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DPYS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for DPYS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DPYS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x36.6) and Kidney - Cortex (x11.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for DPYS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (42.6) and Liver (12.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for DPYS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for DPYS Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of DPYS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DPYS Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DPYS Gene:

Tissue specificity: Liver and kidney.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for DPYS Gene

  • Liver(4.7)
  • Kidney(4.5)
  • Intestine(4.2)
  • Stomach(4)
  • Nervous system(2.3)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for DPYS Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • digestive
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • face
  • head
  • skull
  • intestine
  • large intestine
  • anus
  • rectum
  • digit
  • finger
  • foot
  • hand
  • lower limb
  • upper limb
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DPYS: view

Orthologs for DPYS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for DPYS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DPYS 33 34
  • 99.49 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DPYS 33 34
  • 89.45 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DPYS 33 34
  • 88.37 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DPYS 34
  • 88 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dpys 33
  • 86.49 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dpys 33 16 34
  • 86.04 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DPYS 34
  • 86 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DPYS 33 34
  • 72.18 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DPYS 34
  • 82 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dpys 33
  • 73.12 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dpys 33 34
  • 69.69 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CRMP 35 33
  • 59.42 (n)
CG6106 34
  • 22 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003124 33
  • 59.01 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea dhp-2 35 33
  • 57.78 (n)
dhp-1 35 34
  • 54 (a)
unc-33 35
  • 35 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes DAL1 34
  • 22 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons PYD2 33
  • 53.53 (n)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.3611 33
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.718 33
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0807900 33
  • 55.18 (n)
Os.33610 33
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.18843 33
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.2131 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 63 (a)
Species where no ortholog for DPYS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for DPYS Gene

Gene Tree for DPYS (if available)
Gene Tree for DPYS (if available)

Paralogs for DPYS Gene

Paralogs for DPYS Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for DPYS Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DPYS: view

Variants for DPYS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DPYS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs121964923 Pathogenic, Dihydropyrimidinase deficiency (DPYSD) [MIM:222748] 104,428,071(-) CTGCC(A/G)GAAAG nc-transcript-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs121964924 Pathogenic, Dihydropyrimidinase deficiency (DPYSD) [MIM:222748] 104,427,994(-) TAATA(C/T)GGGAA nc-transcript-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs267606773 Pathogenic, Dihydropyrimidinase deficiency (DPYSD) [MIM:222748] 104,392,924(-) GCCAC(A/G)GGGTG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
VAR_002267 Dihydropyrimidinase deficiency (DPYSD) [MIM:222748]
VAR_002271 Dihydropyrimidinase deficiency (DPYSD) [MIM:222748]

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DPYS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831417 CNV loss 17160897
nsv6337 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv1075159 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1032775 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for DPYS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 24.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.87; 59.02% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for DPYS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DPYS Gene

Disorders for DPYS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for DPYS Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • dihydropyrimidinase deficiency
dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency
  • 5-fluorouracil toxicity
beta-ureidopropionase deficiency
  • beta-alanine synthase deficiency
pyrimidine metabolic disorder
  • pyrimidine metabolism disorder
adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
  • 2,8-dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search DPYS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Dihydropyrimidinase deficiency (DPYSD) [MIM:222748]: An autosomal recessive disorder of pyrimidine metabolism characterized by dihydropyrimidinuria. It is associated with a variable clinical phenotype characterized by epileptic or convulsive attacks, dysmorphic features and severe developmental delay, and congenital microvillous atrophy. Most patients are, however, asymptomatic. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:9718352}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for DPYS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DPYS: view

No data available for Genatlas for DPYS Gene

Publications for DPYS Gene

  1. A novel gene family defined by human dihydropyrimidinase and three related proteins with differential tissue distribution. (PMID: 8973361) Hamajima N … Nonaka M (Gene 1996) 2 3 4 22 60
  2. Contribution of dihydropyrimidinase gene alterations to the development of serious toxicity in fluoropyrimidine-treated cancer patients. (PMID: 19649633) Fidlerova J … Kleibl Z (Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology 2010) 3 22 45 60
  3. Genetic regulation of dihydropyrimidinase and its possible implication in altered uracil catabolism. (PMID: 18075467) Thomas HR … Diasio RB (Pharmacogenetics and genomics 2007) 3 22 45 60
  4. Dihydropyrimidinase deficiency: structural organization, chromosomal localization, and mutation analysis of the human dihydropyrimidinase gene. (PMID: 9718352) Hamajima N … Wada Y (American journal of human genetics 1998) 3 4 22 60
  5. Analysis of copy number variation in 8,842 Korean individuals reveals 39 genes associated with hepatic biomarkers AST and ALT. (PMID: 20797317) Kim HY … Kim H (BMB reports 2010) 3 45 60

Products for DPYS Gene

Sources for DPYS Gene

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