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Aliases for DCT Gene

Aliases for DCT Gene

  • Dopachrome Tautomerase 2 3
  • Tyrosinase-Related Protein 2 3 4
  • L-Dopachrome Delta-Isomerase 3 4
  • Dopachrome Delta-Isomerase 2 3
  • Tyrosine-Related Protein 2 2 3
  • EC 4 63
  • TYRP2 3 4
  • TRP-2 3 4
  • TRP2 3 4
  • DT 3 4
  • Dopachrome Tautomerase (Dopachrome Delta-Isomerase, Tyrosine-Related Protein 2) 3
  • Tyrosinase-Related Protein 2) 6
  • L-Dopachrome Tautomerase 3

External Ids for DCT Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for DCT Gene

  • TYRP2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DCT Gene

  • GC13M093451
  • GC13M089476
  • GC13M093926
  • GC13M092789
  • GC13M093889
  • GC13M095091
  • GC13M075688

Summaries for DCT Gene

GeneCards Summary for DCT Gene

DCT (Dopachrome Tautomerase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DCT include amelanotic melanoma and degenerative disc disease. Among its related pathways are Neural Crest Differentiation and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and dopachrome isomerase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TYRP1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DCT Gene

  • Involved in regulating eumelanin and phaeomelanin levels

Gene Wiki entry for DCT Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DCT Gene

Genomics for DCT Gene

Regulatory Elements for DCT Gene

Genomic Location for DCT Gene

94,436,808 bp from pter
94,479,682 bp from pter
42,875 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for DCT Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for DCT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DCT Gene

Proteins for DCT Gene

  • Protein details for DCT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    L-dopachrome tautomerase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q09GT4

    Protein attributes for DCT Gene

    519 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    59145 Da
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105; Note=Binds 2 Zn(2+) ions per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Tyrosinase, TYRP1 and DCT/TYRP2 may form a multienzyme complex.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for DCT Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for DCT Gene


neXtProt entry for DCT Gene

Proteomics data for DCT Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for DCT Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn170, Asn178, Asn237, Asn300, Asn342, and Asn377
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for DCT Gene

Antibody Products

Domains for DCT Gene

Protein Domains for DCT Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DCT Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the tyrosinase family.
  • Belongs to the tyrosinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DCT: view

No data available for Gene Families for DCT Gene

Function for DCT Gene

Molecular function for DCT Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
DOPAchrome tautomerase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-dopachrome = 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylate
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in regulating eumelanin and phaeomelanin levels

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DCT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DCT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004167 dopachrome isomerase activity ISS --
GO:0005507 copper ion binding TAS 8206391
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DCT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DCT: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for DCT

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DCT Gene

Localization for DCT Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DCT Gene

Melanosome membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for DCT Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DCT gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
endosome 2
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
extracellular 1
lysosome 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
peroxisome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DCT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005829 cytosol ISS --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0033162 melanosome membrane TAS --
GO:0042470 melanosome ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DCT: view

Pathways for DCT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DCT: view

Pathways by source for DCT Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for DCT Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P40126-TYRP2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Pigment biosynthesis; melanin biosynthesis

Interacting Proteins for DCT Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000392762 P40126-TYRP2_HUMAN for DCT Gene via STRING I2D

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DCT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002052 positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation IEA --
GO:0006583 melanin biosynthetic process from tyrosine ISS --
GO:0008152 metabolic process --
GO:0008544 epidermis development TAS 8206391
GO:0021847 ventricular zone neuroblast division IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DCT: view

Drugs for DCT Gene

(3) HMDB Compounds for DCT Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Aminochrome
5,6-Dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid
  • 5,6-Dhica
  • 2-L-Carboxy-2,3-dihydroindole-5,6-quinone

(28) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for DCT Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
dopachrome 98.3 118
l-dopachrome 91.8 7
dhica 91 13
eumelanin 85.8 8
5,6-dihydroxyindole 84.2 6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DCT: view

Transcripts for DCT Gene

Unigene Clusters for DCT Gene

Dopachrome tautomerase:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for DCT

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DCT Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: -
SP5: -

Relevant External Links for DCT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DCT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for DCT Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DCT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin - Not Sun Exposed (Suprapubic) (14.8) and Skin - Sun Exposed (Lower leg) (14.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for DCT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for DCT Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DCT Gene Hs.301865

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with DCT: view

Expression partners for DCT Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DCT Gene

Orthologs for DCT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for DCT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DCT 35
  • 85.94 (n)
  • 85.54 (a)
DCT 36
  • 85 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DCT 35
  • 85.43 (n)
  • 84.91 (a)
DCT 36
  • 83 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dct 35
  • 82.66 (n)
  • 83.56 (a)
Dct 16
Dct 36
  • 83 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DCT 35
  • 96.52 (n)
  • 95.36 (a)
DCT 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dct 35
  • 83.08 (n)
  • 84.53 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DCT 36
  • 75 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DCT 36
  • 72 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DCT 35
  • 70.91 (n)
  • 69.88 (a)
DCT 36
  • 70 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DCT 36
  • 68 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dct 35
  • 68.64 (n)
  • 70.95 (a)
Str.15440 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.12540 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dct 35
  • 63.3 (n)
  • 64.55 (a)
dct 36
  • 63 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.236 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 49 (a)
-- 36
  • 46 (a)
CSA.6982 36
  • 49 (a)
Species with no ortholog for DCT:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for DCT Gene

Gene Tree for DCT (if available)
Gene Tree for DCT (if available)

Paralogs for DCT Gene

Paralogs for DCT Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for DCT Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DCT: view

Variants for DCT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DCT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs727299 -- 94,456,247(-) GTAGA(A/G)TTGTT intron-variant
rs755684 -- 94,445,702(+) AGCCT(C/T)CCAGG intron-variant
rs968016 -- 94,468,703(+) CAATC(A/C)CAAAC intron-variant
rs1028805 -- 94,467,015(+) CTAAA(G/T)GAAAT intron-variant
rs1028806 -- 94,467,173(+) CACCC(A/G)TCAAT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DCT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv34004 CNV Loss 18971310
nsv1133 CNV Insertion 18451855

Relevant External Links for DCT Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DCT Gene

Disorders for DCT Gene

(4) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for DCT Gene

(22) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for DCT Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
melanoma 82.4 136
melanoma b16 79.3 12
melanoma cloudman s91 77.3 1
vitiligo 75.4 12
microphthalmia 70.7 8

Relevant External Links for DCT

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DCT: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DCT Gene

Publications for DCT Gene

  1. Molecular characterization of a human tyrosinase-related-protein-2 cDNA. Patterns of expression in melanocytic cells. (PMID: 8306979) Bouchard B. … Dubertret L. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1994) 2 3 4 23
  2. Sequence of the human dopachrome tautomerase-encoding TRP-2 cDNA. (PMID: 8206391) Cassady J.L. … Sturm R.A. (Gene 1994) 3 4 23
  3. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a cDNA coding for human DOPAchrome tautomerase/tyrosinase-related protein-2. (PMID: 8148378) Yokoyama K. … Shibahara S. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1994) 3 4 23
  4. Cloning of the human DOPAchrome tautomerase/tyrosinase-related protein 2 gene and identification of two regulatory regions required for its pigment cell-specific expression. (PMID: 7929451) Yokoyama K. … Shibahara S. (J. Biol. Chem. 1994) 3 4 23
  5. Chromosomal structure of the human TYRP1 and TYRP2 loci and comparison of the tyrosinase-related protein gene family. (PMID: 8530077) Sturm R.A. … Dunn I.S. (Genomics 1995) 3 4 23

Products for DCT Gene

Sources for DCT Gene

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