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Aliases for DCT Gene

Aliases for DCT Gene

  • Dopachrome Tautomerase 2 3 5
  • Tyrosinase-Related Protein 2 3 4
  • L-Dopachrome Delta-Isomerase 3 4
  • Dopachrome Delta-Isomerase 2 3
  • Tyrosine-Related Protein 2 2 3
  • L-Dopachrome Isomerase 2 3
  • EC 4 63
  • TYRP2 3 4
  • TRP-2 3 4
  • TRP2 3 4
  • DT 3 4
  • Dopachrome Tautomerase (Dopachrome Delta-Isomerase, Tyrosine-Related Protein 2) 3
  • Tyrosinase Related Protein-2 3

External Ids for DCT Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for DCT Gene

  • TYRP2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DCT Gene

  • GC13M093451
  • GC13M089476
  • GC13M093926
  • GC13M092789
  • GC13M093889
  • GC13M095091
  • GC13M075688

Summaries for DCT Gene

GeneCards Summary for DCT Gene

DCT (Dopachrome Tautomerase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DCT include Amelanotic Melanoma and Vitiligo-Associated Multiple Autoimmune Disease Susceptibility 1. Among its related pathways are Basal cell carcinoma and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and dopachrome isomerase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TYRP1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DCT Gene

  • Involved in regulating eumelanin and phaeomelanin levels.

Gene Wiki entry for DCT Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DCT Gene

Genomics for DCT Gene

Regulatory Elements for DCT Gene

Enhancers for DCT Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around DCT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for DCT Gene

94,436,808 bp from pter
94,550,265 bp from pter
113,458 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for DCT Gene

Genes around DCT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DCT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DCT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DCT Gene

Proteins for DCT Gene

  • Protein details for DCT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    L-dopachrome tautomerase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q09GT4

    Protein attributes for DCT Gene

    519 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    59145 Da
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Tyrosinase, TYRP1 and DCT/TYRP2 may form a multienzyme complex.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for DCT Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for DCT Gene


neXtProt entry for DCT Gene

Proteomics data for DCT Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for DCT Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 170, Asn 178, Asn 237, Asn 300, Asn 342, and Asn 377
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for DCT Gene

Protein Domains for DCT Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the tyrosinase family.
  • Belongs to the tyrosinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DCT: view

No data available for Gene Families for DCT Gene

Function for DCT Gene

Molecular function for DCT Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
DOPAchrome tautomerase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-dopachrome = 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in regulating eumelanin and phaeomelanin levels.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DCT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DCT: view

Animal Models for DCT Gene

MGI Knock Outs for DCT:
  • Dct tm1b(KOMP)Mbp

Animal Model Products

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DCT Gene

Localization for DCT Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DCT Gene

Melanosome membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for DCT Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DCT gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 3
extracellular 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
vacuole 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DCT Gene

Pathways & Interactions for DCT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DCT: view

Pathways by source for DCT Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for DCT Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P40126-TYRP2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Pigment biosynthesis; melanin biosynthesis.

Interacting Proteins for DCT Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000392762 P40126-TYRP2_HUMAN for DCT Gene via STRING I2D

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DCT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0034641 cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process TAS --
GO:0043473 pigmentation IEA --
GO:0048066 developmental pigmentation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DCT: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for DCT Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DCT Gene

(18) Drugs for DCT Gene - From: ClinicalTrials, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational Pharma VEGF antagonist, Therapeutic Antibodies, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors 1910
Ranibizumab Approved Pharma 463
5,6-Dihydroxyindole Experimental Pharma 0
Angiogenesis Inhibitors Pharma 4008
Angiogenesis Modulating Agents Pharma 3940

(16) Additional Compounds for DCT Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 2-L-Carboxy-2,3-dihydroindole-5,6-quinone
  • L-Dopachrome
5,6-Dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid
  • 5,6-Dhica
  • 5,6-Dihydroxy-1H-indole-2-carboxylate
  • 5,6-Dihydroxy-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid
  • 5,6-Dihydroxy-2-indolecarboxylate
  • 5,6-Dihydroxy-2-indolecarboxylic acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DCT: view

Transcripts for DCT Gene

Unigene Clusters for DCT Gene

Dopachrome tautomerase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DCT Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: -
SP5: -

Relevant External Links for DCT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DCT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for DCT Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DCT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin - Not Sun Exposed (Suprapubic) (x14.8) and Skin - Sun Exposed (Lower leg) (x14.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for DCT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for DCT Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DCT Gene Hs.301865

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DCT: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for DCT Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DCT Gene

Orthologs for DCT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for DCT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DCT 35
  • 85.94 (n)
  • 85.54 (a)
DCT 36
  • 85 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DCT 35
  • 85.43 (n)
  • 84.91 (a)
DCT 36
  • 83 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dct 35
  • 82.66 (n)
  • 83.56 (a)
Dct 16
Dct 36
  • 83 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DCT 35
  • 96.52 (n)
  • 95.36 (a)
DCT 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dct 35
  • 83.08 (n)
  • 84.53 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DCT 36
  • 75 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DCT 36
  • 72 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DCT 35
  • 70.91 (n)
  • 69.88 (a)
DCT 36
  • 70 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DCT 36
  • 68 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dct 35
  • 68.64 (n)
  • 70.95 (a)
Str.15440 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.12540 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dct 35
  • 63.3 (n)
  • 64.55 (a)
dct 36
  • 63 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.236 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 49 (a)
-- 36
  • 46 (a)
CSA.6982 36
  • 49 (a)
Species with no ortholog for DCT:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for DCT Gene

Gene Tree for DCT (if available)
Gene Tree for DCT (if available)

Paralogs for DCT Gene

Paralogs for DCT Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for DCT Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DCT: view

Variants for DCT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DCT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs14897 -- 94,437,522(+) AAAAG(C/T)ATTTC nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs927797 -- 94,538,692(+) CCATC(A/G)CAAAT intron-variant
rs717769 -- 94,510,108(+) ctctg(G/T)cctct intron-variant
rs727299 -- 94,456,247(-) GTAGA(A/G)TTGTT intron-variant
rs968016 -- 94,468,703(+) CAATC(A/C)CAAAC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DCT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv34004 CNV Loss 18971310
nsv1133 CNV Insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for DCT Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 40.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.91; 48.79% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for DCT Gene

Disorders for DCT Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for DCT Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search DCT in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for DCT

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DCT: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DCT Gene

Publications for DCT Gene

  1. Molecular characterization of a human tyrosinase-related-protein-2 cDNA. Patterns of expression in melanocytic cells. (PMID: 8306979) Bouchard B. … Dubertret L. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1994) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Absence of tyrosinase-related protein-2/dopachrome tautomerase transcripts in PBMCs from vitiligo patients. (PMID: 19284502) Bam M. … Bagchi T. (Scand. J. Immunol. 2009) 3 23
  3. Melanocyte-like cells in the heart and pulmonary veins contribute to atrial arrhythmia triggers. (PMID: 19855129) Levin M.D. … Patel V.V. (J. Clin. Invest. 2009) 3 23
  4. Anemonin is a natural bioactive compound that can regulate tyrosinase-related proteins and mRNA in human melanocytes. (PMID: 17766092) Huang Y.H. … Lee M.H. (J. Dermatol. Sci. 2008) 3 23
  5. TRP-2 specifically decreases WM35 cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. (PMID: 18206123) Michard Q. … Bernard B.A. (Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2008) 3 23

Products for DCT Gene

Sources for DCT Gene