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Aliases for PARP1 Gene

Aliases for PARP1 Gene

  • Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 2 3
  • ADPRT 3 4 6
  • PPOL 3 4 6
  • ADP-Ribosyltransferase (NAD+; Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase) 2 3
  • ADP-Ribosyltransferase Diphtheria Toxin-Like 1 3 4
  • Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Family, Member 1 2 3
  • NAD(+) ADP-Ribosyltransferase 1 3 4
  • Poly[ADP-Ribose] Synthase 1 3 4
  • EC 2.4.2.30 4 63
  • ADPRT 1 3 4
  • PARP-1 3 4
  • ARTD1 3 4
  • PARP 3 6
  • Poly [ADP-Ribose] Polymerase 1 3
  • ADP-Ribosyltransferase NAD(+) 3
  • Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)Transferase 3
  • Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase 3
  • Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 3
  • PADPRT-1 3
  • EC 2.4.2 63
  • ADPRT1 3

External Ids for PARP1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PARP1 Gene

  • PPOL
  • ADPRT

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PARP1 Gene

  • GC01M222855
  • GC01M224615
  • GC01M226548
  • GC01M197065
  • GC01M224102

Summaries for PARP1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PARP1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a chromatin-associated enzyme, poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, which modifies various nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The modification is dependent on DNA and is involved in the regulation of various important cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation and also in the regulation of the molecular events involved in the recovery of cell from DNA damage. In addition, this enzyme may be the site of mutation in Fanconi anemia, and may participate in the pathophysiology of type I diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PARP1 Gene

PARP1 (Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PARP1 include diphtheria and hemorrhagic cystitis. Among its related pathways are RhoGDI Pathway and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and protein N-terminus binding. An important paralog of this gene is PARP3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARP1 Gene

  • Involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, by catalyzing the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a limited number of acceptor proteins involved in chromatin architecture and in DNA metabolism. This modification follows DNA damages and appears as an obligatory step in a detection/signaling pathway leading to the reparation of DNA strand breaks. Mediates the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of APLF and CHFR. Positively regulates the transcription of MTUS1 and negatively regulates the transcription of MTUS2/TIP150. With EEF1A1 and TXK, forms a complex that acts as a T-helper 1 (Th1) cell-specific transcription factor and binds the promoter of IFN-gamma to directly regulate its transcription, and is thus involved importantly in Th1 cytokine production. Required for PARP9 and DTX3L recruitment to DNA damage sites. PARP1-dependent PARP9-DTX3L-mediated ubiquitination promotes the rapid and specific recruitment of 53BP1/TP53BP1, UIMC1/RAP80, and BRCA1 to DNA damage sites.

Tocris Summary for PARP1 Gene

  • Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) catalyzes the post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of multiple ADP-ribose moieties. PARP transfers ADP-ribose from nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD) to glu/asp residues on the substrate protein, and also polymerizes ADP-ribose to form long/branched chain polymers. PARP-1, one of 5 confirmed PARPs, is the most abundant and highly expressed enzyme. PARP1 detects and relocates to single strand breaks or nicks in chromosomal DNA. PARP-1 is thought to play an important role in the initiation of the DNA repair pathway, although high levels of activation are also associated with increased apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. In addition, PARP-1 may also operate downstream of the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway through direct interaction with ERK2 in the nucleus in a mechanism DNA damage. PARP inhibitors are being developed for use in a number of pathologies including cancer, diabetes, stroke and cardiovascular disease.

Gene Wiki entry for PARP1 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PARP1 Gene

Genomics for PARP1 Gene

Genomic Location for PARP1 Gene

Start:
226,360,691 bp from pter
End:
226,408,100 bp from pter
Size:
47,410 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PARP1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PARP1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PARP1 Gene

Proteins for PARP1 Gene

  • Protein details for PARP1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P09874-PARP1_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1
    Protein Accession:
    P09874
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1ANJ4
    • Q8IUZ9

    Protein attributes for PARP1 Gene

    Size:
    1014 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    113084 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of a base excision repair (BER) complex, containing at least XRCC1, PARP2, POLB and LRIG3. Homo- and heterodimer with PARP2. Interacts with PARP3, APTX and SRY. The SWAP complex consists of NPM1, NCL, PARP1 and SWAP70. Interacts with TIAM2 (By similarity). Interacts (when poly-ADP-ribosylated) with CHD1L. Interacts with the DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit POLA1; this interaction functions as part of the control of replication fork progression. Interacts with EEF1A1, RNF4 and TXK. Interacts with RNF146. Interacts with ZNF423. Interacts with SNAI1 (via zinc fingers); the interaction requires SNAI1 to be poly-ADP-ribosylated and non-phosphorylated (active) by GSK3B. Interacts (when poly-ADP-ribosylated) with PARP9.
    Miscellaneous:
    • The ADP-D-ribosyl group of NAD(+) is transferred to an acceptor carboxyl group on a histone or the enzyme itself, and further ADP-ribosyl groups are transferred to the 2-position of the terminal adenosine moiety, building up a polymer with an average chain length of 20-30 units

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PARP1 Gene

neXtProt entry for PARP1 Gene

Proteomics data for PARP1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PARP1 Gene

  • Phosphorylated by PRKDC and TXK.
  • Poly-ADP-ribosylated by PARP2. Poly-ADP-ribosylation mediates the recruitment of CHD1L to DNA damage sites
  • S-nitrosylated, leading to inhibit transcription regulation activity.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys97, Lys108, Lys119, Lys165, Lys239, Lys269, Lys320, Lys337, Lys394, Lys400, Lys528, Lys548, Lys551, Lys564, Lys579, Lys600, and Lys637
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PARP1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for PARP1 (PARP1)

Domains for PARP1 Gene

Gene Families for PARP1 Gene

HGNC:
  • PARP :Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PARP1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P09874

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PARP1_HUMAN :
  • P09874
Domain:
  • Contains 1 BRCT domain.
  • Contains 1 PARP alpha-helical domain.
  • Contains 1 PARP catalytic domain.
Similarity:
  • Contains 2 PARP-type zinc fingers.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PARP1: view

Function for PARP1 Gene

Molecular function for PARP1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: NAD(+) + (ADP-D-ribosyl)(n)-acceptor = nicotinamide + (ADP-D-ribosyl)(n+1)-acceptor.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, by catalyzing the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a limited number of acceptor proteins involved in chromatin architecture and in DNA metabolism. This modification follows DNA damages and appears as an obligatory step in a detection/signaling pathway leading to the reparation of DNA strand breaks. Mediates the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of APLF and CHFR. Positively regulates the transcription of MTUS1 and negatively regulates the transcription of MTUS2/TIP150. With EEF1A1 and TXK, forms a complex that acts as a T-helper 1 (Th1) cell-specific transcription factor and binds the promoter of IFN-gamma to directly regulate its transcription, and is thus involved importantly in Th1 cytokine production. Required for PARP9 and DTX3L recruitment to DNA damage sites. PARP1-dependent PARP9-DTX3L-mediated ubiquitination promotes the rapid and specific recruitment of 53BP1/TP53BP1, UIMC1/RAP80, and BRCA1 to DNA damage sites.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PARP1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PARP1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003677 DNA binding IEA --
GO:0003950 NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11248244
GO:0008134 transcription factor binding IPI 19303849
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PARP1: view

Animal Models for PARP1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PARP1:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PARP1

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PARP1 Gene

Localization for PARP1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARP1 Gene

Nucleus. Nucleus, nucleolus. Note=Localizes at sites of DNA damage.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PARP1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PARP1 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 3
mitochondrion 3
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
extracellular 2
plasma membrane 2
endosome 1
golgi apparatus 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PARP1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005635 nuclear envelope IDA 9518481
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005667 transcription factor complex IDA 19303849
GO:0005730 nucleolus IDA 16107709
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP1: view

Pathways for PARP1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PARP1: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PARP1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
GO:0000723 telomere maintenance IEA --
GO:0006259 DNA metabolic process --
GO:0006281 DNA repair TAS 17396150
GO:0006284 base-excision repair TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP1: view

Compounds for PARP1 Gene

Compound Products

(5) Tocris Compounds for PARP1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
JW 55 Tankyrase inhibitor; inhibits canonical Wnt signaling [664993-53-7]
NU 1025 Potent PARP inhibitor [90417-38-2]
PJ 34 hydrochloride Potent PARP inhibitor [344458-15-7]
WIKI4 Tankyrase inhibitor; inhibits Wnt signaling [838818-26-1]
XAV 939 Tankyrase inhibitor; inhibits Wnt signaling [284028-89-3]

(19) ApexBio Compounds for PARP1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
4-HQN Inhibitor of PARP [491-36-1]
A-966492 novel and potent inhibitor of PARP1 and PARP2 [934162-61-5]
ABT-888 (Veliparib) potent inhibitor of PARP1 and PARP2 [912444-00-9]
AG-14361 potent inhibitor of PARP1 [328543-09-5]
AZD2461 novel PARP inhibitor [1174043-16-3]
BMN 673 potent and selective inhibitor of PARP1,PARP2 [1207456-01-6]
BYK 204165 Potent and selective PARP1 inhibitor [1104546-89-5]
BYK 49187 PARP-1 and PARP-2 inhibitor [163120-31-8]
DR 2313 competitive inhibitor of PARP1 and PARP2 [284028-90-6]
EB 47 potent inhibitor of PARP-1 [1190332-25-2]
Iniparib (BSI-201) inhibitor of PARP1 [160003-66-7]
INO-1001 potent inhibitor of PARP [3544-24-9]
ME0328 potent and selective PARP inhibitor [1445251-22-8]
MK-4827 potent, selective inhibitor of PARP 1 and PARP 2 [1038915-60-4]
NU 1025 Novel, potent inhibitor of PARPK [90417-38-2]
Olaparib (AZD2281, Ku-0059436) potent inhibitor of PARP1and PARP2 [763113-22-0]
PJ34 novel potent specific inhibitor of PARP-l/2. [344458-19-1]
Rucaparib (AG-014699,PF-01367338) inhibitor of PARP1 [459868-92-9]
UPF 1069 selective inhibitor of PARP2 [1048371-03-4]

(3) HMDB Compounds for PARP1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
NAD
  • 3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
53-84-9
NADH
  • 1,4-Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
58-68-4
Niacinamide
  • 3-Carbamoylpyridine
98-92-0

(134) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PARP1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
adpribose 97 128
3-aminobenzamide 90.1 113
nad+ 85.2 160
nu1025 83.2 25
polyadenosine diphosphate ribose 82.1 26
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PARP1: view

Transcripts for PARP1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PARP1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PARP1 Gene

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PARP1

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PARP1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18a · 18b ^
SP1: - - -
SP2: -
SP3:
SP4: - - -
SP5: -
SP6:
SP7:

ExUns: 19a · 19b ^ 20a · 20b ^ 21a · 21b ^ 22 ^ 23 ^ 24a · 24b
SP1: -
SP2: - -
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:

Relevant External Links for PARP1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PARP1
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PARP1

Expression for PARP1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PARP1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PARP1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PARP1 Gene Hs.177766

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PARP1: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PARP1 Gene

Orthologs for PARP1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PARP1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PARP1 35
  • 99.18 (n)
  • 99.01 (a)
PARP1 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PARP1 35
  • 88.38 (n)
  • 90.42 (a)
PARP1 36
  • 91 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PARP1 35
  • 88.41 (n)
  • 94.05 (a)
PARP1 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Parp1 35
  • 86.48 (n)
  • 92.2 (a)
Parp1 16
Parp1 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PARP1 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PARP1 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Parp1 35
  • 86.11 (n)
  • 91.61 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PARP1 35
  • 75.17 (n)
  • 79.54 (a)
PARP1 36
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PARP1 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia PARP 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia parp1 35
  • 71.98 (n)
  • 75.7 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii parp1 35
  • 69.45 (n)
  • 72.14 (a)
parp1 36
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003230 35
  • 53.1 (n)
  • 46.49 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Parp 35
  • 49.48 (n)
  • 43.8 (a)
Parp 36
  • 22 (a)
OneToOne
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pme-1 35
  • 48.15 (n)
  • 41.13 (a)
pme-1 36
  • 21 (a)
OneToOne
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons PARP1 35
  • 50.21 (n)
  • 42.25 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.31900 35
Os07g0413700 35
  • 51.72 (n)
  • 42.67 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for PARP1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PARP1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PARP1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PARP1 (if available)

Paralogs for PARP1 Gene

Paralogs for PARP1 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PARP1 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PARP1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PARP1: view

Variants for PARP1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PARP1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs8679 -- 226,360,853(-) AGGAA(C/T)ACTGA utr-variant-3-prime
rs167591 -- 226,405,730(+) TTTGT(G/T)TGTCT intron-variant
rs167592 -- 226,406,281(+) ttttt(G/T)cttat intron-variant
rs167593 -- 226,387,791(+) GAAGA(G/T)AGAAG intron-variant
rs170304 -- 226,372,589(+) agaat(C/T)gcttg intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PARP1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832770 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv527874 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv832781 CNV Gain 17160897

Relevant External Links for PARP1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PARP1
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PARP1

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARP1 Gene

Disorders for PARP1 Gene

(92) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PARP1 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
cancer 71 147
leukemia 68.1 25
tumors 63.9 136
necrosis 62.2 120
promyelocytic leukemia 60.2 6

Relevant External Links for PARP1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PARP1
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PARP1
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PARP1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARP1 Gene

Publications for PARP1 Gene

  1. Suppression of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity by DNA- dependent protein kinase in vitro. (PMID: 10467406) Ariumi Y. … Noda M. (Oncogene 1999) 3 4 23
  2. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in the nervous system. (PMID: 10964595) Ha H.C. … Snyder S.H. (Neurobiol. Dis. 2000) 2 3 23
  3. A dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase gene is not associated with predisposition to type 1 diabetes in French Caucasians. (PMID: 11591122) Delrieu O. … Caillat-Zucman S. (J. Autoimmun. 2001) 3 23 48
  4. Polymorphisms of ADPRT Val762Ala and XRCC1 Arg399Glu and risk of breast cancer in Chinese women: a case control analysis. (PMID: 16328064) Zhai X. … Shen H. (Oncol. Rep. 2006) 3 23 48
  5. Genetic polymorphisms in base-excision repair pathway genes and risk of breast cancer. (PMID: 16492928) Zhang Y. … Garcia-Closas M. (Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2006) 3 23 48

Products for PARP1 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PARP1

Sources for PARP1 Gene

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