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Aliases for ATF2 Gene

Aliases for ATF2 Gene

  • Activating Transcription Factor 2 2 3 4
  • CREB2 3 4 6
  • Cyclic AMP-Responsive Element-Binding Protein 2 3 4
  • CAMP Response Element-Binding Protein CRE-BP1 3 4
  • CAMP-Dependent Transcription Factor ATF-2 3 4
  • CAMP-Responsive Element-Binding Protein 2 3 4
  • Histone Acetyltransferase ATF2 3 4
  • CREB-2 3 4
  • HB16 3 4
  • Activating Transcription Factor 2 Splice Variant ATF2-Var2 3
  • CAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 2, Formerly 3
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Transcription Factor ATF-2 3
  • CAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 2 2
  • EC 2.3.1.48 4
  • CRE-BP1 3
  • CREBP1 4
  • TREB7 3

External Ids for ATF2 Gene

Previous Symbols for ATF2 Gene

  • CREB2

Summaries for ATF2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ATF2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. The encoded protein may also be involved in cell's DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GeneCards Summary for ATF2 Gene

ATF2 (Activating Transcription Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ATF2 include eccrine porocarcinoma. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity and chromatin binding. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000267281.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ATF2 Gene

  • Transcriptional activator which regulates the transcription of various genes, including those involved in anti-apoptosis, cell growth, and DNA damage response. Dependent on its binding partner, binds to CRE (cAMP response element) consensus sequences (5-TGACGTCA-3) or to AP-1 (activator protein 1) consensus sequences (5-TGACTCA-3). In the nucleus, contributes to global transcription and the DNA damage response, in addition to specific transcriptional activities that are related to cell development, proliferation and death. In the cytoplasm, interacts with and perturbs HK1- and VDAC1-containing complexes at the mitochondrial outer membrane, thereby impairing mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing mitochondrial leakage and promoting cell death. The phosphorylated form (mediated by ATM) plays a role in the DNA damage response and is involved in the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced S phase checkpoint control and in the recruitment of the MRN complex into the IR-induced foci (IRIF). Exhibits histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity which specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro. In concert with CUL3 and RBX1, promotes the degradation of KAT5 thereby attenuating its ability to acetylate and activate ATM. Can elicit oncogenic or tumor suppressor activities depending on the tissue or cell type.

Gene Wiki entry for ATF2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ATF2 Gene

Genomics for ATF2 Gene

Genomic Location for ATF2 Gene

Start:
175,072,250 bp from pter
End:
175,168,382 bp from pter
Size:
96,133 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for ATF2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for ATF2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ATF2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ATF2 Gene

Proteins for ATF2 Gene

  • Protein details for ATF2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P15336-ATF2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2
    Protein Accession:
    P15336
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A1L3Z2
    • A4D7U4
    • A4D7U5
    • A4D7V1
    • D3DPE9
    • G8JLM5
    • Q13000
    • Q3B7B7
    • Q4ZFU9
    • Q53RY2
    • Q8TAR1
    • Q96JT8

    Protein attributes for ATF2 Gene

    Size:
    505 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    54537 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Binds DNA as a dimer and can form a homodimer in the absence of DNA. Can form a heterodimer with JUN. Heterodimerization is essential for its transcriptional activity. Interacts with SMAD3 and SMAD4. Binds through its N-terminal region to UTF1 which acts as a coactivator of ATF2 transcriptional activity. Interacts with the HK1/VDAC1 complex. Interacts with NBN, MRE11A, XPO1, KAT5 and CUL3.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAY17203.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAY17207.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ATF2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ATF2 Gene

neXtProt entry for ATF2 Gene

Proteomics data for ATF2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ATF2 Gene

  • Phosphorylation of Thr-69 by MAPK14 and MAPK11, and at Thr-71 by MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1, MAPK11, MAPK12 and MAPK14 in response to external stimulus like insulin causes increased transcriptional activity. Phosphorylated by PLK3 following hyperosmotic stress. Also phosphorylated and activated by JNK and CaMK4. ATM-mediated phosphorylation at Ser-490 and Ser-498 stimulates its function in DNA damage response. Phosphorylation at Ser-62, Thr-73 and Ser-121 activates its transcriptional activity. Phosphorylation at Thr-69 or Thr-71 enhances its histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys409

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ATF2 Gene

Domains for ATF2 Gene

Gene Families for ATF2 Gene

HGNC:
  • bZIP :basic leucine zipper proteins

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ATF2_HUMAN
Domain:
  • The nuclear export signal 1 (N-NES) negatively regulates its nuclear localization and transcriptional activity:
    • P15336
  • Contains 1 bZIP (basic-leucine zipper) domain.:
    • P15336
Family:
  • Belongs to the bZIP family. ATF subfamily.:
    • P15336
Similarity:
  • Contains 1 C2H2-type zinc finger.:
    • P15336
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ATF2: view

Function for ATF2 Gene

Molecular function for ATF2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: activating transcription factor 2,cAMP response element binding protein
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Acetyl-CoA + [histone] = CoA + acetyl-[histone].
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Transcriptional activator which regulates the transcription of various genes, including those involved in anti-apoptosis, cell growth, and DNA damage response. Dependent on its binding partner, binds to CRE (cAMP response element) consensus sequences (5-TGACGTCA-3) or to AP-1 (activator protein 1) consensus sequences (5-TGACTCA-3). In the nucleus, contributes to global transcription and the DNA damage response, in addition to specific transcriptional activities that are related to cell development, proliferation and death. In the cytoplasm, interacts with and perturbs HK1- and VDAC1-containing complexes at the mitochondrial outer membrane, thereby impairing mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing mitochondrial leakage and promoting cell death. The phosphorylated form (mediated by ATM) plays a role in the DNA damage response and is involved in the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced S phase checkpoint control and in the recruitment of the MRN complex into the IR-induced foci (IRIF). Exhibits histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity which specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro. In concert with CUL3 and RBX1, promotes the degradation of KAT5 thereby attenuating its ability to acetylate and activate ATM. Can elicit oncogenic or tumor suppressor activities depending on the tissue or cell type.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ATF2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ATF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000977 RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IMP 2516827
GO:0000980 RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding IDA 19861239
GO:0001076 RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding transcription factor activity IC 19861239
GO:0001077 RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription IEA --
GO:0001102 RNA polymerase II activating transcription factor binding IPI 19861239
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ATF2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ATF2: view

Animal Models for ATF2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ATF2:

Transcription Factor Targeting for ATF2 Gene

Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for ATF2

No data available for HOMER Transcription for ATF2 Gene

Localization for ATF2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ATF2 Gene

Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion outer membrane. Note=Shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus and heterodimerization with JUN is essential for the nuclear localization. Localization to the cytoplasm is observed under conditions of cellular stress and in disease states. Localizes at the mitochondrial outer membrane in response to genotoxic stress. Phosphorylation at Thr-52 is required for its nuclear localization and negatively regulates its mitochondrial localization. Co-localizes with the MRN complex in the IR-induced foci (IRIF).

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for ATF2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ATF2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ATF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 18397884
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 22304920
GO:0005741 mitochondrial outer membrane IDA 22304920
GO:0016020 membrane --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ATF2: view

Pathways for ATF2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ATF2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ATF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002224 toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0002755 MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0002756 MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0003151 outflow tract morphogenesis IEA --
GO:0006325 chromatin organization TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ATF2: view

Compounds for ATF2 Gene

(1) HMDB Compounds for ATF2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Cyclic AMP
  • Cyclic AMP
60-92-4

(43) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ATF2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
sb 203580 79.6 10
sp 600125 76.3 7
leucine 63.5 30
cyclic amp 59.9 22
anisomycin 57.1 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ATF2: view

Transcripts for ATF2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ATF2 Gene

Activating transcription factor 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ATF2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - - - -
SP12: - - - - - - -
SP13: - - - - - - -
SP14: - - - - - - - -
SP15: -
SP16: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP17: -

Relevant External Links for ATF2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ATF2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
ATF2

Expression for ATF2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ATF2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for ATF2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ATF2 Gene Hs.592510

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ATF2 Gene

P15336-ATF2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed, with more abundant expression in the brain
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with ATF2: view

Orthologs for ATF2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for ATF2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ATF2 36
  • 99.76 (n)
  • 100 (a)
CHN1 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ATF2 36
  • 95.84 (n)
  • 98.61 (a)
ATF2 37
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ATF2 36
  • 96.37 (n)
  • 99.41 (a)
ATF2 37
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Atf2 36
  • 94.39 (n)
  • 99.18 (a)
Atf2 16
Atf2 37
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ATF2 37
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ATF2 37
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Atf2 36
  • 93.57 (n)
  • 98.36 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ATF2 36
  • 85.37 (n)
  • 94.73 (a)
ATF2 37
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ATF2 37
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia atf2-A 36
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia atf2 36
  • 80.46 (n)
  • 86.55 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii atf2 36
  • 68.79 (n)
  • 76.97 (a)
atf2 37
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for ATF2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ATF2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ATF2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ATF2 (if available)

Paralogs for ATF2 Gene

Paralogs for ATF2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ATF2: view

Variants for ATF2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ATF2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs182427 -- 175,114,269(+) GCATC(A/T)TAAAT intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs212340 -- 175,112,859(+) ggatt(A/G)caggc intron-variant
rs212341 -- 175,114,568(+) AAATT(C/T)GAAGC intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs212342 -- 175,082,011(+) tgaga(C/T)tgtgc intron-variant
rs212343 -- 175,081,709(+) AAGCT(C/G)AGGCA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ATF2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv3044 CNV Loss 18451855

Relevant External Links for ATF2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
ATF2

Disorders for ATF2 Gene

(1) MalaCards Diseases for ATF2 Gene

Search for ATF2 Gene in MalaCards »

(22) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ATF2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
leukemia t-cell 46.3 3
picks disease 42.6 1
necrosis 32.2 7
melanoma 31 27
tumors 26.9 24

Relevant External Links for ATF2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
ATF2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
ATF2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ATF2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ATF2 Gene

Publications for ATF2 Gene

  1. A cDNA for a human cyclic AMP response element-binding protein which is distinct from CREB and expressed preferentially in brain. (PMID: 2320002) Kara C.J. … Glimcher L.H. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1990) 3 4 23
  2. Characterization of functional domains of an embryonic stem cell coactivator UTF1 which are conserved and essential for potentiation of ATF-2 activity. (PMID: 9748258) Fukushima A. … Muramatsu M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998) 3 4 23
  3. ATF-2 has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity which is modulated by phosphorylation. (PMID: 10821277) Kawasaki H. … Yokoyama K.K. (Nature 2000) 3 4 23
  4. Characterization and functional analysis of cAMP response element modulator protein and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) isoforms in the human myometrium during pregnancy and labor: identification of a novel ATF2 species with potent transactivation properties. (PMID: 11932306) Bailey J. … Europe-Finner G.N. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2002) 3 4 23
  5. Human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) activates the ATF2 transcriptional activity by novel phosphorylation on Thr-73 and Ser-62 and cooperates with JNK. (PMID: 15105425) Sevilla A. … Lazo P.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 4 23

Products for ATF2 Gene

Sources for ATF2 Gene

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