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Aliases for CHRM2 Gene

Aliases for CHRM2 Gene

  • Cholinergic Receptor, Muscarinic 2 2 3
  • Acetylcholine Receptor, Muscarinic 2 3
  • Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M2 3
  • Acetylcholine Receptor 2
  • Muscarinic M2 Receptor 3
  • Muscarinic 2 2
  • 7TM Receptor 3
  • HM2 3

External Ids for CHRM2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CHRM2 Gene

  • GC07M135039
  • GC07P135955
  • GC07P136115
  • GC07P136010
  • GC07P136203
  • GC07P136553
  • GC07P130859

Summaries for CHRM2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CHRM2 Gene

  • The muscarinic cholinergic receptors belong to a larger family of G protein-coupled receptors. The functional diversity of these receptors is defined by the binding of acetylcholine to these receptors and includes cellular responses such as adenylate cyclase inhibition, phosphoinositide degeneration, and potassium channel mediation. Muscarinic receptors influence many effects of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. The muscarinic cholinergic receptor 2 is involved in mediation of bradycardia and a decrease in cardiac contractility. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for CHRM2 Gene

CHRM2 (Cholinergic Receptor, Muscarinic 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CHRM2 include tendinosis and neurogenic bladder. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is CHRM4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CHRM2 Gene

  • The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition. Signaling promotes phospholipase C activity, leading to the release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); this then triggers calcium ion release into the cytosol.

Tocris Summary for CHRM2 Gene

  • Muscarinic receptors are widely distributed throughout the body and control distinct functions according to location and subtype (M1, M2, M3, M4, M5). They are predominantly expressed in the parasympathetic nervous system where they exert both inhibitory and excitatory effects. Muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists could prove useful in the research and treatment of a wide range of central nervous system diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

Gene Wiki entry for CHRM2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CHRM2 Gene

Genomics for CHRM2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for CHRM2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for CHRM2 Gene

136,868,652 bp from pter
137,020,255 bp from pter
151,604 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for CHRM2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for CHRM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CHRM2 Gene

Proteins for CHRM2 Gene

  • Protein details for CHRM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q4VBK6
    • Q9P1X9

    Protein attributes for CHRM2 Gene

    466 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    51715 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with ARRB1 and ARRB2. Interacts with GNB2L1/RACK1; the interaction regulates CHRM2 internalization.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CHRM2 Gene

neXtProt entry for CHRM2 Gene

Proteomics data for CHRM2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for CHRM2 Gene

  • Phosphorylated in response to agonist treatment.
  • Glycosylation at Asn2, Asn3, Asn6, and Asn9
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CHRM2 Gene

Domains for CHRM2 Gene

Gene Families for CHRM2 Gene

  • CHR :Cholinergic receptors
  • CHRM :GPCR / Class A : Cholinergic receptors, muscarinic

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P08172
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subfamily. CHRM2 sub-subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CHRM2: view

Function for CHRM2 Gene

Molecular function for CHRM2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
cholinergic receptor,muscarinic 2,G protein coupled receptor superfalily
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition. Signaling promotes phospholipase C activity, leading to the release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); this then triggers calcium ion release into the cytosol.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated in response to enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CHRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity --
GO:0016907 G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity IDA 24256733
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CHRM2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CHRM2: view

Animal Models for CHRM2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CHRM2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for CHRM2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CHRM2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for CHRM2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for CHRM2 Gene

Localization for CHRM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CHRM2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell junction, synapse, postsynaptic cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Phosphorylation in response to agonist binding promotes receptor internalization. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for CHRM2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CHRM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 3
mitochondrion 3
extracellular 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CHRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IDA 24256733
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane --
GO:0030054 cell junction IEA --
GO:0045202 synapse IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CHRM2: view

Pathways for CHRM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CHRM2: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CHRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006940 regulation of smooth muscle contraction IBA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 9603968
GO:0007187 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger TAS 10895079
GO:0007188 adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 8139539
GO:0007197 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CHRM2: view

Compounds for CHRM2 Gene

Compound Products

(5) Tocris Compounds for CHRM2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(S)-(+)-Dimethindene maleate M2-selective antagonist [136152-65-3]
AF-DX 116 Selective M2 antagonist [102394-31-0]
AQ-RA 741 Selective, high affinity M2 antagonist [123548-16-3]
Arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate Muscarinic agonist [119630-77-2]
Arecaidine propargyl ester tosylate Muscarinic agonist [147202-94-6]

(15) ApexBio Compounds for CHRM2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
"5-hydroxymethyl Tolterodine (PNU 200577, 5-HMT, 5-HM)" [207679-81-0]
Aclidinium Bromide LAMAs antagonist [320345-99-1]
Arecoline hydrobromide Muscarinic receptor agonist [300-08-3]
Biperiden HCl Anticholinergic drug [1235-82-1]
Darifenacin HBr [133099-07-7]
Dicyclomine HCl [67-92-5]
Diphenidol HCl [3254-89-5]
Diphenylpyraline HCl [132-18-3]
Fesoterodine Fumarate [286930-03-8]
Mepenzolate Bromide mAChR antagonist [76-90-4]
Pridinol Methanesulfonate [6856-31-1]
Scopolamine butylbromide [149-64-4]
Scopolamine hydrobromide [114-49-8]
Solifenacin succinate Muscarinic receptor antagonist [242478-38-2]
Tolterodine tartrate [124937-52-6]

(1) HMDB Compounds for CHRM2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Lanzac

(61) Drugbank Compounds for CHRM2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • 14115700
320345-99-1 target antagonist
  • Amitriprolidine
50-48-6 target antagonist
Anisotropine Methylbromide
80-50-2 target antagonist
  • OPC 31
129722-12-9 target antagonist
  • Atropin [German]
51-55-8 target antagonist

(69) IUPHAR Ligand for CHRM2 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
[3H]QNB None None 10.7
propantheline Antagonist Antagonist 10
[3H]N-methyl scopolamine Antagonist Antagonist 9.7
atropine Antagonist Antagonist 9.7
[3H](-)MQNB Antagonist Antagonist 9.6
tripitramine Antagonist Antagonist 9.6
scopolamine Antagonist Antagonist 9.4
4-DAMP Antagonist Antagonist 9
dexetimide Antagonist Antagonist 8.9
ipratropium Antagonist Antagonist 8.8
silahexocyclium Antagonist Antagonist 8.7
[3H]AF DX-384 Antagonist Antagonist 8.6
tolterodine Antagonist Inverse agonist 8.6
SCH 57790 Antagonist Antagonist 8.6
darifenacin Antagonist Antagonist 8.6
dimethyl-W84 Allosteric regulator Positive 8.5
[3H]dimethyl-W84 Allosteric regulator Positive 8.5
hexocyclium Antagonist Antagonist 8.4
NNC 11-1585 Agonist Full agonist 8.3
NNC 11-1607 Agonist Full agonist 8.2
pentylthio-TZTP Agonist Full agonist 8.1
NNC 11-1314 Agonist Full agonist 7.8
oxybutynin Antagonist Inverse agonist 7.7
W-84 Allosteric regulator Positive 7.6
methoctramine Antagonist Antagonist 7.2
HHSiD Antagonist Antagonist 7.2
hexahydrodifenidol Antagonist Antagonist 7.1
WDuo3 Allosteric regulator Positive 6.9
imipramine Antagonist Antagonist 6.9
pirenzepine Antagonist Antagonist 6.9
dicyclomine Antagonist Antagonist 6.6
himbacine Antagonist Antagonist 6.5
AFDX384 Antagonist Antagonist 6.3
p-F-HHSiD Antagonist Antagonist 6.3
acetylcholine Agonist Full agonist 6.1
MT3 Antagonist Antagonist 6
gallamine Channel blocker None 6
xanomeline Agonist Full agonist 5.9
alcuronium Allosteric regulator Negative 5.8
arecaidine propargyl ester Agonist Full agonist 5.7
KT 5823 Allosteric regulator Positive 5.7
vincamine Allosteric regulator Neutral 5.7
AF-DX 116 Antagonist Antagonist 5.6
VU0255035 Antagonist Antagonist 5.6
(+)aceclidine Agonist Full agonist 5.5
WIN 51,708 Allosteric regulator Negative 5.5
arecoline Agonist Full agonist 5.4
oxotremorine Agonist Full agonist 5.3
staurosporine Allosteric regulator Neutral 5.3
lithocholylcholine Antagonist Antagonist 5.2
eburnamonine Allosteric regulator Neutral 5.2
(-)aceclidine Agonist Partial agonist 5.1
WIN 62,577 Allosteric regulator Positive 5.1
Gouml 7874 Allosteric regulator Negative 5.1
oxotremorine-M Agonist Full agonist 5.1
levetimide Antagonist Antagonist 5
MT7 Antagonist Antagonist 5
pilocarpine Agonist Partial agonist 5
carbachol Agonist Full agonist 4.9
methylfurmethide Agonist Full agonist 4.6
N-chloromethyl-brucine Allosteric regulator Negative 4.4
thiochrome Allosteric regulator Neutral 4.4
bethanechol Agonist Full agonist 4.2
furmethide Agonist Full agonist 4.1
N-benzyl brucine Allosteric regulator Neutral 3.7
brucine Allosteric regulator Negative 2.9
brucine N-oxide Allosteric regulator Positive 2.3
strychnine Antagonist Antagonist
[18F]FP-TZTP None None

(68) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for CHRM2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
methoctramine 86.7 7
pfhhsid 86 1
gallamine 83.9 8
carbachol 81.6 13
5,11-dihydro-6h-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepin-6-one 80.6 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CHRM2: view

Transcripts for CHRM2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for CHRM2 Gene

Cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for CHRM2

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CHRM2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5
SP1: - - - -
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for CHRM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CHRM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for CHRM2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CHRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Colon - Sigmoid (10.7), Heart - Left Ventricle (9.1), Heart - Atrial Appendage (7.8), and Bladder (4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for CHRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urinary Bladder (51.6) and Colon (17.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for CHRM2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CHRM2 Gene Hs.535891

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with CHRM2: view

Expression partners for CHRM2 Gene

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CHRM2 Gene

Orthologs for CHRM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for CHRM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CHRM2 35
  • 92.97 (n)
  • 97.8 (a)
CHRM2 36
  • 98 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CHRM2 35
  • 93.35 (n)
  • 97.59 (a)
CHRM2 36
  • 97 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Chrm2 35
  • 89.38 (n)
  • 96.48 (a)
Chrm2 16
Chrm2 36
  • 96 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CHRM2 35
  • 99.86 (n)
  • 100 (a)
CHRM2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC102551851 35
  • 89.16 (n)
  • 96.48 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CHRM2 36
  • 90 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CHRM2 36
  • 84 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CHRM2 35
  • 79.13 (n)
  • 87.39 (a)
CHRM2 36
  • 86 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CHRM2 36
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia chrm2 35
  • 75.68 (n)
  • 83.59 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii chrm2a 35
  • 70.4 (n)
  • 75.11 (a)
chrm2a 36
  • 67 (a)
chrm2b 36
  • 53 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta mAcR-60C 37
  • 55 (a)
mAcR-60C 36
  • 24 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea M03F4.3 37
  • 28 (a)
gar-3 36
  • 30 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 35 (a)
Species with no ortholog for CHRM2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CHRM2 Gene

Gene Tree for CHRM2 (if available)
Gene Tree for CHRM2 (if available)

Paralogs for CHRM2 Gene

Paralogs for CHRM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CHRM2: view

Variants for CHRM2 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CHRM2 Gene

Genetic variations in CHRM2 can influence susceptibility to alcoholism [MIM:103780]

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CHRM2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs328068 -- 136,867,597(+) ctgga(G/T)atata upstream-variant-2KB
rs328069 -- 136,867,606(+) tatat(A/C)tatat upstream-variant-2KB
rs889934 -- 136,892,602(-) TATGT(A/G)TAACC intron-variant
rs1364492 -- 136,887,118(-) caaga(A/G)cagct intron-variant
rs1364493 -- 136,880,366(-) CTGAC(A/C)AATAT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CHRM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv889235 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2735202 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv831147 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv528311 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv527148 CNV Gain 19592680

Relevant External Links for CHRM2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for CHRM2 Gene


  • Major depressive disorder (MDD) [MIM:608516]: A common psychiatric disorder. It is a complex trait characterized by one or more major depressive episodes without a history of manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes. A major depressive episode is characterized by at least 2 weeks during which there is a new onset or clear worsening of either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities. Four additional symptoms must also be present including changes in appetite, weight, sleep, and psychomotor activity; decreased energy; feelings of worthlessness or guilt; difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions; or recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation, plans, or attempts. The episode must be accompanied by distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15229186}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(3) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for CHRM2 Gene

(26) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for CHRM2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
dilated cardiomyopathy 45.1 8
overactive bladder 36.4 1
cardiomyopathy 36.2 4
drug dependence 35.9 4
bradycardia 34.4 1

Relevant External Links for CHRM2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CHRM2: view

No data available for OMIM and Genatlas for CHRM2 Gene

Publications for CHRM2 Gene

  1. CHRM2 gene predisposes to alcohol dependence, drug dependence and affective disorders: results from an extended case-control structured association study. (PMID: 16000316) Luo X. … Gelernter J. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2005) 3 23 48
  2. Association of CHRM2 with IQ: converging evidence for a gene influencing intelligence. (PMID: 17160701) Dick D.M. … Bierut L. (Behav. Genet. 2007) 3 23 48
  3. Alcohol dependence with comorbid drug dependence: genetic and phenotypic associations suggest a more severe form of the disorder with stronger genetic contribution to risk. (PMID: 17567401) Dick D.M. … Bierut L.J. (Addiction 2007) 3 23 48
  4. A missense mutation in the CHRM2 gene is associated with familial dilated cardiomyopathy. (PMID: 18451336) Zhang L. … Shen Y. (Circ. Res. 2008) 3 23 48
  5. Association of a variant in the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 2 gene (CHRM2) with nicotine addiction. (PMID: 19644963) Mobascher A. … Winterer G. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2010) 3 23 48

Products for CHRM2 Gene

Sources for CHRM2 Gene

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