Aliases for CHEK1 Gene
External Ids for CHEK1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CHEK1 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is required for checkpoint mediated cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage or the presence of unreplicated DNA. This protein acts to integrate signals from ATM and ATR, two cell cycle proteins involved in DNA damage responses, that also associate with chromatin in meiotic prophase I. Phosphorylation of CDC25A protein phosphatase by this protein is required for cells to delay cell cycle progression in response to double-strand DNA breaks. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
GeneCards Summary for CHEK1 Gene
CHEK1 (Checkpoint Kinase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CHEK1 include hypoxia. Among its related pathways are PI-3K cascade and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and histone kinase activity (H3-T11 specific).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CHEK1 Gene
Serine/threonine-protein kinase which is required for checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest and activation of DNA repair in response to the presence of DNA damage or unreplicated DNA. May also negatively regulate cell cycle progression during unperturbed cell cycles. This regulation is achieved by a number of mechanisms that together help to preserve the integrity of the genome. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [R-X-X-S/T]. Binds to and phosphorylates CDC25A, CDC25B and CDC25C. Phosphorylation of CDC25A at Ser-178 and Thr-507 and phosphorylation of CDC25C at Ser-216 creates binding sites for 14-3-3 proteins which inhibit CDC25A and CDC25C. Phosphorylation of CDC25A at Ser-76, Ser-124, Ser-178, Ser-279 and Ser-293 promotes proteolysis of CDC25A. Phosphorylation of CDC25A at Ser-76 primes the protein for subsequent phosphorylation at Ser-79, Ser-82 and Ser-88 by NEK11, which is required for polyubiquitination and degradation of CDCD25A. Inhibition of CDC25 leads to increased inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of CDK-cyclin complexes and blocks cell cycle progression. Also phosphorylates NEK6. Binds to and phosphorylates RAD51 at Thr-309, which promotes the release of RAD51 from BRCA2 and enhances the association of RAD51 with chromatin, thereby promoting DNA repair by homologous recombination. Phosphorylates multiple sites within the C-terminus of TP53, which promotes activation of TP53 by acetylation and promotes cell cycle arrest and suppression of cellular proliferation. Also promotes repair of DNA cross-links through phosphorylation of FANCE. Binds to and phosphorylates TLK1 at Ser-743, which prevents the TLK1-dependent phosphorylation of the chromatin assembly factor ASF1A. This may enhance chromatin assembly both in the presence or absence of DNA damage. May also play a role in replication fork maintenance through regulation of PCNA. May regulate the transcription of genes that regulate cell-cycle progression through the phosphorylation of histones. Phosphorylates histone H3.1 (to form H3T11ph), which leads to epigenetic inhibition of a subset of genes. May also phosphorylate RB1 to promote its interaction with the E2F family of transcription factors and subsequent cell cycle arrest
Isoform 2: Endogenous repressor of isoform 1, interacts with, and antagonizes CHK1 to promote the S to G2/M phase transition
Checkpoint kinases (Chks) are serine/threonine kinases that are involved in the control of the cell cycle. Two subtypes have so far been identified, Chk1 and Chk2. They are essential components to delay cell cycle progression in normal and damaged cells and can act at all three cell cycle checkpoints. Chks are activated by phosphorylation. ATR kinase phosphorylates Chk1 in response to single strand DNA breaks and ATM kinase phosphorylates Chk2 in response to double strand breaks. Chks phosphorylate Cdc25 phosphatase at Ser216, which leads to Cdc25 sequestration in the cytoplasm. Therefore Cdc25 cannot remove the inhibitory phosphorylation on mitotic promoting factor (MPF) and entry into mitosis is prohibited. In addition, Chks have a role in the physiological stress of hypoxia/reoxygenation.