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Aliases for PLK2 Gene

Aliases for PLK2 Gene

  • Polo-Like Kinase 2 2 3 4
  • Serum-Inducible Kinase 2 3 4
  • SNK 3 4 6
  • Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase SNK 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.21 4 64
  • PLK-2 3 4
  • HPlk2 3 4
  • HSNK 3 4
  • Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase PLK2 3
  • Polo-Like Kinase 2 (Drosophila) 2
  • EC 2.7.11 64

External Ids for PLK2 Gene

Summaries for PLK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PLK2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the polo family of serine/threonine protein kinases that have a role in normal cell division. This gene is most abundantly expressed in testis, spleen and fetal tissues, and its expression is inducible by serum, suggesting that it may also play an important role in cells undergoing rapid cell division. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PLK2 Gene

PLK2 (Polo-Like Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are FoxO signaling pathway and FoxO signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include protein serine/threonine kinase activity and signal transducer activity. An important paralog of this gene is PLK4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLK2 Gene

  • Tumor suppressor serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in synaptic plasticity, centriole duplication and G1/S phase transition. Polo-like kinases act by binding and phosphorylating proteins are that already phosphorylated on a specific motif recognized by the POLO box domains. Phosphorylates CENPJ, NPM1, RAPGEF2, RASGRF1, SNCA, SIPA1L1 and SYNGAP1. Plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and memory by regulating the Ras and Rap protein signaling: required for overactivity-dependent spine remodeling by phosphorylating the Ras activator RASGRF1 and the Rap inhibitor SIPA1L1 leading to their degradation by the proteasome. Conversely, phosphorylates the Rap activator RAPGEF2 and the Ras inhibitor SYNGAP1, promoting their activity. Also regulates synaptic plasticity independently of kinase activity, via its interaction with NSF that disrupts the interaction between NSF and the GRIA2 subunit of AMPARs, leading to a rapid rundown of AMPAR-mediated current that occludes long term depression. Required for procentriole formation and centriole duplication by phosphorylating CENPJ and NPM1, respectively. Its induction by p53/TP53 suggests that it may participate in the mitotic checkpoint following stress.

Gene Wiki entry for PLK2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PLK2 Gene

Genomics for PLK2 Gene

Genomic Location for PLK2 Gene

Start:
58,453,982 bp from pter
End:
58,460,260 bp from pter
Size:
6,279 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PLK2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PLK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PLK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PLK2 Gene

Proteins for PLK2 Gene

  • Protein details for PLK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9NYY3-PLK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK2
    Protein Accession:
    Q9NYY3
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O60679
    • Q96CV7
    • Q9UE61

    Protein attributes for PLK2 Gene

    Size:
    685 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    78237 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with NSF; causing NSF dissociation from GRIA2. Interacts with CIB1 (By similarity).
    Miscellaneous:
    • There are indications that PLK2 might act as a tumor suppressor: PLK2 is significantly down-regulated in a wide range of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) and B-cell lymphomas due to aberrant cytosine methylation in the CpG island located at the 5 of the PLK2 gene (PubMed:16160013, PubMed:21340720). Moreover, miR-126, a microRNA that negatively regulates PLK2 is up-regulated in AMLs, suggesting that PLK2 down-regulation by miR-126 could also contribute to leukemogenesis (PubMed:18832181).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PLK2 Gene

neXtProt entry for PLK2 Gene

Proteomics data for PLK2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PLK2 Gene

  • Catalytic activity is enhanced by phosphorylation of Thr-239.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PLK2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for PLK2 Gene

Gene Families for PLK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PLK2_HUMAN
Domain:
  • The POLO box domains act as phosphopeptide-binding module that recognize and bind serine-[phosphothreonine/phosphoserine]-(proline/X) motifs. PLK2 recognizes and binds docking proteins that are already phosphorylated on these motifs, and then phosphorylates them (By similarity).:
    • Q9NYY3
  • Contains 2 POLO box domains.:
    • Q9NYY3
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.:
    • Q9NYY3
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC5/Polo subfamily.:
    • Q9NYY3
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PLK2: view

Function for PLK2 Gene

Molecular function for PLK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Activated by phosphorylation of Thr-239. Once activated, activity is stimulated by binding target proteins (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Tumor suppressor serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in synaptic plasticity, centriole duplication and G1/S phase transition. Polo-like kinases act by binding and phosphorylating proteins are that already phosphorylated on a specific motif recognized by the POLO box domains. Phosphorylates CENPJ, NPM1, RAPGEF2, RASGRF1, SNCA, SIPA1L1 and SYNGAP1. Plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and memory by regulating the Ras and Rap protein signaling: required for overactivity-dependent spine remodeling by phosphorylating the Ras activator RASGRF1 and the Rap inhibitor SIPA1L1 leading to their degradation by the proteasome. Conversely, phosphorylates the Rap activator RAPGEF2 and the Ras inhibitor SYNGAP1, promoting their activity. Also regulates synaptic plasticity independently of kinase activity, via its interaction with NSF that disrupts the interaction between NSF and the GRIA2 subunit of AMPARs, leading to a rapid rundown of AMPAR-mediated current that occludes long term depression. Required for procentriole formation and centriole duplication by phosphorylating CENPJ and NPM1, respectively. Its induction by p53/TP53 suggests that it may participate in the mitotic checkpoint following stress.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: Directly regulated by p53/TP53. Negatively regulated by miR-126.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PLK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PLK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA 19001868
GO:0004713 protein tyrosine kinase activity --
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IMP 12761501
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 20352051
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PLK2: view

Animal Models for PLK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PLK2:

miRNA for PLK2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PLK2

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PLK2 Gene

Localization for PLK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLK2 Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome, centriole. Cell projection, dendrite. Note=Localizes to centrosomes during early G1 phase where it only associates to the mother centriole and then distributes equally to both mother and daughter centrioles at the onset of S phase.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PLK2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PLK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PLK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular ISS --
GO:0005813 centrosome IDA 15242618
GO:0005814 centriole IDA 19001868
GO:0030425 dendrite ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLK2: view

Pathways for PLK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PLK2: view

Pathways by source for PLK2 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for PLK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PLK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000082 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IMP 15242618
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle --
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IDA 20352051
GO:0007052 mitotic spindle organization IDA 19001868
GO:0007093 mitotic cell cycle checkpoint ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLK2: view

Compounds for PLK2 Gene

(8) ApexBio Compounds for PLK2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
BI 2536 PLK1 inhibitor [755038-02-9]
BI6727 (Volasertib) highly potent Polo-like kinase inhibitor. [755038-65-4]
GSK461364 inhibits purified Plk1. [929095-18-1]
GW843682X selective inhibitor of PLK1 and PLK3 [660868-91-7]
HMN-214 potent inhibitor of Polo-like kinase (Plk) [173529-46-9]
MLN0905 small-molecule PLK1 inhibitor. [1228960-69-7]
Poloxin non-ATP competitive Polo-like Kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitor [321688-88-4]
Rigosertib (ON-01910) PLK1 Inhibitor [1225497-78-8]

(2) HMDB Compounds for PLK2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
56-65-5
ADP
  • adenosindiphosphorsaeure
58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PLK2: view

Transcripts for PLK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PLK2 Gene

Polo-like kinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLK2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b · 13c ^ 14a ·
SP1: - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: -
SP5: - - - -
SP6: -
SP7: -
SP8: - - -
SP9:
SP10:
SP11: -
SP12:

ExUns: 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:

Relevant External Links for PLK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PLK2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PLK2

Expression for PLK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PLK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PLK2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PLK2 Gene Hs.398157

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PLK2 Gene

Q9NYY3-PLK2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed at higher level in the fetal lung, kidney, spleen and heart.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PLK2: view

Orthologs for PLK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PLK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PLK2 36
  • 99.66 (n)
  • 99.85 (a)
PLK2 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PLK2 36
  • 93.28 (n)
  • 97.96 (a)
PLK2 37
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PLK2 36
  • 92.99 (n)
  • 97.08 (a)
PLK2 37
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Plk2 36
  • 89.98 (n)
  • 97.07 (a)
Plk2 16
Plk2 37
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PLK2 37
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PLK2 37
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Plk2 36
  • 89.78 (n)
  • 97.21 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PLK2 36
  • 80.49 (n)
  • 89.14 (a)
PLK2 37
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PLK2 37
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia plk2 36
  • 74.72 (n)
  • 83.84 (a)
Str.15804 36
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii cnk 36
plk2a 36
  • 70.85 (n)
  • 76.61 (a)
plk2a 37
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CDC5 37
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8152 37
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PLK2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PLK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PLK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PLK2 (if available)

Paralogs for PLK2 Gene

Paralogs for PLK2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PLK2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PLK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PLK2: view

Variants for PLK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PLK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs15009 -- 58,454,523(+) TTTGG(C/G)TTCCC utr-variant-3-prime
rs15915 -- 58,460,016(-) GGCTC(A/G)GACGT utr-variant-5-prime
rs32613 -- 58,454,440(-) ACTGG(G/T)TGGAA utr-variant-3-prime
rs697133 -- 58,458,981(-) AGGTG(C/T)GTATG intron-variant
rs697134 -- 58,458,305(+) GACAC(C/G)AGATC intron-variant

Relevant External Links for PLK2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PLK2

No data available for Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PLK2 Gene

Disorders for PLK2 Gene

(1) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PLK2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
tumors 0 6

Relevant External Links for PLK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PLK2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PLK2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PLK2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLK2 Gene

Publications for PLK2 Gene

  1. Identification of the human homologue of the early-growth response gene Snk, encoding a serum-inducible kinase. (PMID: 11696980) Liby K. … Dai W. (DNA Seq. 2001) 3 4 23
  2. Radiation-inducible hSNK gene is transcriptionally regulated by p53 binding homology element in human thyroid cells. (PMID: 11716500) Shimizu-Yoshida Y. … Yamashita S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2001) 3 4 23
  3. Polo-like kinase-2 is required for centriole duplication in mammalian cells. (PMID: 15242618) Warnke S. … Hoffmann I. (Curr. Biol. 2004) 3 4 23
  4. Plk2 regulated centriole duplication is dependent on its localization to the centrioles and a functional polo-box domain. (PMID: 19001868) Cizmecioglu O. … Hoffmann I. (Cell Cycle 2008) 3 4 23
  5. The p53 target Plk2 interacts with TSC proteins impacting mTOR signaling, tumor growth and chemosensitivity under hypoxic conditions. (PMID: 20054236) Matthew E.M. … El-Deiry W.S. (Cell Cycle 2009) 3 23

Products for PLK2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PLK2

Sources for PLK2 Gene

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