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Aliases for PLK2 Gene

Aliases for PLK2 Gene

  • Polo Like Kinase 2 2 3
  • Polo-Like Kinase 2 2 3 4 5
  • Serum-Inducible Kinase 2 3 4
  • Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase SNK 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.21 4 63
  • PLK-2 3 4
  • HPlk2 3 4
  • HSNK 3 4
  • SNK 3 4
  • Polo-Like Kinase 2 (Drosophila) 2
  • EC 2.7.11 63

External Ids for PLK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PLK2 Gene

  • GC05M057765
  • GC05M057785
  • GC05M057749
  • GC05M054706

Summaries for PLK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PLK2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the polo family of serine/threonine protein kinases that have a role in normal cell division. This gene is most abundantly expressed in testis, spleen and fetal tissues, and its expression is inducible by serum, suggesting that it may also play an important role in cells undergoing rapid cell division. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PLK2 Gene

PLK2 (Polo Like Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are FoxO signaling pathway and DNA Damage. GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PLK4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLK2 Gene

  • Tumor suppressor serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in synaptic plasticity, centriole duplication and G1/S phase transition. Polo-like kinases act by binding and phosphorylating proteins are that already phosphorylated on a specific motif recognized by the POLO box domains. Phosphorylates CENPJ, NPM1, RAPGEF2, RASGRF1, SNCA, SIPA1L1 and SYNGAP1. Plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and memory by regulating the Ras and Rap protein signaling: required for overactivity-dependent spine remodeling by phosphorylating the Ras activator RASGRF1 and the Rap inhibitor SIPA1L1 leading to their degradation by the proteasome. Conversely, phosphorylates the Rap activator RAPGEF2 and the Ras inhibitor SYNGAP1, promoting their activity. Also regulates synaptic plasticity independently of kinase activity, via its interaction with NSF that disrupts the interaction between NSF and the GRIA2 subunit of AMPARs, leading to a rapid rundown of AMPAR-mediated current that occludes long term depression. Required for procentriole formation and centriole duplication by phosphorylating CENPJ and NPM1, respectively. Its induction by p53/TP53 suggests that it may participate in the mitotic checkpoint following stress.

Gene Wiki entry for PLK2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PLK2 Gene

Genomics for PLK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PLK2 Gene

Enhancers for PLK2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around PLK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PLK2 Gene

Chromosome:
5
Start:
58,453,982 bp from pter
End:
58,460,260 bp from pter
Size:
6,279 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PLK2 Gene

Genes around PLK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PLK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PLK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PLK2 Gene

Proteins for PLK2 Gene

  • Protein details for PLK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9NYY3-PLK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK2
    Protein Accession:
    Q9NYY3
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O60679
    • Q96CV7
    • Q9UE61

    Protein attributes for PLK2 Gene

    Size:
    685 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    78237 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with NSF; causing NSF dissociation from GRIA2. Interacts with CIB1 (By similarity).
    Miscellaneous:
    • There are indications that PLK2 might act as a tumor suppressor: PLK2 is significantly down-regulated in a wide range of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) and B-cell lymphomas due to aberrant cytosine methylation in the CpG island located at the 5 of the PLK2 gene (PubMed:16160013, PubMed:21340720). Moreover, miR-126, a microRNA that negatively regulates PLK2 is up-regulated in AMLs, suggesting that PLK2 down-regulation by miR-126 could also contribute to leukemogenesis (PubMed:18832181).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PLK2 Gene

neXtProt entry for PLK2 Gene

Proteomics data for PLK2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PLK2 Gene

  • Catalytic activity is enhanced by phosphorylation of Thr-239.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PLK2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for PLK2 (PLK2)

Domains & Families for PLK2 Gene

Gene Families for PLK2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PLK2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9NYY3

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PLK2_HUMAN :
  • The POLO box domains act as phosphopeptide-binding module that recognize and bind serine-[phosphothreonine/phosphoserine]-(proline/X) motifs. PLK2 recognizes and binds docking proteins that are already phosphorylated on these motifs, and then phosphorylates them (By similarity).
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC5/Polo subfamily.
Domain:
  • The POLO box domains act as phosphopeptide-binding module that recognize and bind serine-[phosphothreonine/phosphoserine]-(proline/X) motifs. PLK2 recognizes and binds docking proteins that are already phosphorylated on these motifs, and then phosphorylates them (By similarity).
  • Contains 2 POLO box domains.
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC5/Polo subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PLK2: view

Function for PLK2 Gene

Molecular function for PLK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Activated by phosphorylation of Thr-239. Once activated, activity is stimulated by binding target proteins (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Tumor suppressor serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in synaptic plasticity, centriole duplication and G1/S phase transition. Polo-like kinases act by binding and phosphorylating proteins are that already phosphorylated on a specific motif recognized by the POLO box domains. Phosphorylates CENPJ, NPM1, RAPGEF2, RASGRF1, SNCA, SIPA1L1 and SYNGAP1. Plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and memory by regulating the Ras and Rap protein signaling: required for overactivity-dependent spine remodeling by phosphorylating the Ras activator RASGRF1 and the Rap inhibitor SIPA1L1 leading to their degradation by the proteasome. Conversely, phosphorylates the Rap activator RAPGEF2 and the Ras inhibitor SYNGAP1, promoting their activity. Also regulates synaptic plasticity independently of kinase activity, via its interaction with NSF that disrupts the interaction between NSF and the GRIA2 subunit of AMPARs, leading to a rapid rundown of AMPAR-mediated current that occludes long term depression. Required for procentriole formation and centriole duplication by phosphorylating CENPJ and NPM1, respectively. Its induction by p53/TP53 suggests that it may participate in the mitotic checkpoint following stress.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Directly regulated by p53/TP53. Negatively regulated by miR-126.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PLK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PLK2: view

Animal Models for PLK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PLK2:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PLK2 Gene

Localization for PLK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLK2 Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome, centriole. Cell projection, dendrite. Note=Localizes to centrosomes during early G1 phase where it only associates to the mother centriole and then distributes equally to both mother and daughter centrioles at the onset of S phase.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PLK2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PLK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 3
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PLK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0030425 dendrite IEA,ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLK2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PLK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PLK2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PLK2 Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PLK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000082 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IMP 15242618
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA,IDA 20352051
GO:0007052 mitotic spindle organization IDA 19001868
GO:0007093 mitotic cell cycle checkpoint IEA,ISS --
GO:0007613 memory IEA,ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLK2: view

Drugs & Compounds for PLK2 Gene

(6) Drugs for PLK2 Gene - From: ApexBio and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
GSK461364 Pharma Plk1 inhibitor, Kinase Inhibitors, Polo-like kinase inhibitor 0
HMN-214 Pharma Plk inhibitor,broad-spectrum anti-tumor agent 0
MLN0905 Pharma Potent PLK1 inhibitor 0
NMS-1286937 Pharma Kinase Inhibitors 0

(1) Additional Compounds for PLK2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0

(5) ApexBio Compounds for PLK2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
GSK461364 Plk1 inhibitor 929095-18-1
HMN-214 Plk inhibitor,broad-spectrum anti-tumor agent 173529-46-9
MLN0905 Potent PLK1 inhibitor 1228960-69-7
NMS-1286937 1034616-18-6
Rigosertib (ON-01910,Estybon) Plk1 inhibitor 1225497-78-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PLK2: view

Transcripts for PLK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PLK2 Gene

Polo-like kinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLK2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b · 13c ^ 14a ·
SP1: - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: -
SP5: - - - -
SP6: -
SP7: -
SP8: - - -
SP9:
SP10:
SP11: -
SP12:

ExUns: 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:

Relevant External Links for PLK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PLK2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PLK2

Expression for PLK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PLK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PLK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Plasma (63.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PLK2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PLK2 Gene Hs.398157

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PLK2 Gene

Q9NYY3-PLK2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed at higher level in the fetal lung, kidney, spleen and heart.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PLK2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PLK2 Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PLK2 Gene

Orthologs for PLK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PLK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PLK2 35
  • 93.28 (n)
  • 97.96 (a)
PLK2 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PLK2 35
  • 92.99 (n)
  • 97.08 (a)
PLK2 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Plk2 35
  • 89.98 (n)
  • 97.07 (a)
Plk2 16
Plk2 36
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PLK2 35
  • 99.66 (n)
  • 99.85 (a)
PLK2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PLK2 36
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PLK2 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Plk2 35
  • 89.78 (n)
  • 97.21 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PLK2 35
  • 80.49 (n)
  • 89.14 (a)
PLK2 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PLK2 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia plk2 35
  • 74.72 (n)
  • 83.84 (a)
Str.15804 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii cnk 35
plk2a 35
  • 70.85 (n)
  • 76.61 (a)
plk2a 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CDC5 36
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8152 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PLK2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PLK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PLK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PLK2 (if available)

Paralogs for PLK2 Gene

Paralogs for PLK2 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for PLK2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PLK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PLK2: view

Variants for PLK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PLK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_041023 An ovarian Endometrioid carcinoma sample
VAR_041024 A lung adenocarcinoma sample
rs55768901 - 58,456,104(+) GTTTT(C/T)TACTG reference, missense
rs55645589 - 58,455,704(+) CTTCC(A/G)GCATG reference, missense
rs15009 -- 58,454,523(+) TTTGG(C/G)TTCCC utr-variant-3-prime

Variation tolerance for PLK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 14.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.44; 28.25% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PLK2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PLK2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PLK2 Gene

Disorders for PLK2 Gene

Relevant External Links for PLK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PLK2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PLK2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PLK2

No disorders were found for PLK2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PLK2 Gene

Publications for PLK2 Gene

  1. Polo-like kinase-2 is required for centriole duplication in mammalian cells. (PMID: 15242618) Warnke S. … Hoffmann I. (Curr. Biol. 2004) 3 4 23 67
  2. The p53 target Plk2 interacts with TSC proteins impacting mTOR signaling, tumor growth and chemosensitivity under hypoxic conditions. (PMID: 20054236) Matthew E.M. … El-Deiry W.S. (Cell Cycle 2009) 3 23
  3. Calcipotriol affects keratinocyte proliferation by decreasing expression of early growth response-1 and polo-like kinase-2. (PMID: 17671831) Kristl J. … Strukelj B. (Pharm. Res. 2008) 3 23
  4. Plk2 regulated centriole duplication is dependent on its localization to the centrioles and a functional polo-box domain. (PMID: 19001868) Cizmecioglu O. … Hoffmann I. (Cell Cycle 2008) 3 23
  5. Replication stress, defective S-phase checkpoint and increased death in Plk2-deficient human cancer cells. (PMID: 17912033) Matthew E.M. … El-Deiry W.S. (Cell Cycle 2007) 3 23

Products for PLK2 Gene

Sources for PLK2 Gene

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