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Aliases for GLRX3 Gene

Aliases for GLRX3 Gene

  • Glutaredoxin 3 2 3
  • PICOT 3 4 6
  • PKC-Interacting Cousin Of Thioredoxin 3 4
  • PKC-Theta-Interacting Protein 3 4
  • Thioredoxin-Like Protein 2 3 4
  • PKCq-Interacting Protein 3 4
  • Glutaredoxin 4 2 3
  • TXNL2 3 4
  • Thioredoxin-Like 2 2
  • Glutaredoxin-3 3
  • GLRX4 3
  • TXNL3 3
  • GRX3 3
  • GRX4 3

External Ids for GLRX3 Gene

Previous Symbols for GLRX3 Gene

  • TXNL2

Summaries for GLRX3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLRX3 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the glutaredoxin family. Glutaredoxins are oxidoreductase enzymes that reduce a variety of substrates using glutathione as a cofactor. The encoded protein binds to and modulates the function of protein kinase C theta. The encoded protein may also inhibit apoptosis and play a role in cellular growth, and the expression of this gene may be a marker for cancer. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on the short arm of chromosomes 6 and 9. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

GeneCards Summary for GLRX3 Gene

GLRX3 (Glutaredoxin 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GLRX3 include lymphocytic choriomeningitis. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX3 Gene

  • Critical negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy and a positive inotropic regulator (By similarity). Crucial regulator of cellular iron homeostasis and hemoglobin maturation. May play a role in regulating the function of the thioredoxin system. Does not posses any thyoredoxin activity since it lacks the conserved motif that is essential for catalytic activity.

Gene Wiki entry for GLRX3 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLRX3 Gene

Genomics for GLRX3 Gene

Genomic Location for GLRX3 Gene

130,136,375 bp from pter
130,184,521 bp from pter
48,147 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GLRX3 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GLRX3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLRX3 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GLRX3 Gene

Proteins for GLRX3 Gene

  • Protein details for GLRX3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KMP7
    • B3KMQ5
    • D3DRG2
    • Q5JV01
    • Q96CE0
    • Q9P1B0
    • Q9P1B1

    Protein attributes for GLRX3 Gene

    335 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37432 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer and homodimer; the homodimer is probably linked by 2 2Fe-2S clusters that may serve as a redox sensor. The monomer interacts with other proteins. Interacts (via N-terminus) with PRKCQ/PKC-theta. Interacts (via C-terminus) with CSRP3 (By similarity). Interacts with CSRP2 (By similarity).
    • Silencing of Grx3 in HeLa cells decreases the activities of several cytosolic Fe/S proteins, such as ACO1, a major component of post-transcriptional iron regulation. As a consequence, Grx3-depleted cells show decreased levels of ferritin and increased levels of transferrin receptor, features characteristic of cellular iron starvation (PubMed:23615448).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GLRX3 Gene

neXtProt entry for GLRX3 Gene

Proteomics data for GLRX3 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GLRX3 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys240

Other Protein References for GLRX3 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GLRX3 Gene

Domains for GLRX3 Gene


  • The thioredoxin domain lacks the two redox-active cysteines. This strongly suggests that it lacks thioredoxin activity:
    • O76003
  • Contains 2 glutaredoxin domains.:
    • O76003
  • Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.:
    • O76003
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLRX3: view

No data available for Gene Families for GLRX3 Gene

Function for GLRX3 Gene

Molecular function for GLRX3 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Critical negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy and a positive inotropic regulator (By similarity). Crucial regulator of cellular iron homeostasis and hemoglobin maturation. May play a role in regulating the function of the thioredoxin system. Does not posses any thyoredoxin activity since it lacks the conserved motif that is essential for catalytic activity.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GLRX3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005080 protein kinase C binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10636891
GO:0009055 electron carrier activity IEA --
GO:0015035 protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0044822 poly(A) RNA binding IDA 22658674
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLRX3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GLRX3: view

miRNA for GLRX3 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLRX3

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GLRX3 Gene

Localization for GLRX3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX3 Gene

Cytoplasm, cell cortex. Cytoplasm, myofibril, sarcomere, Z line. Note=Under the plasma membrane. After PMA stimulation, GLRX3 and PRKCQ/PKC-theta translocate to a more extended submembrane area. In the Z line, found associated with CSRP3 (By similarity). {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GLRX3 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLRX3 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 3
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLRX3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005681 spliceosomal complex --
GO:0005938 cell cortex IEA --
GO:0030018 Z disc IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 23376485
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLRX3: view

Pathways for GLRX3 Gene

SuperPathways for GLRX3 Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLRX3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002026 regulation of the force of heart contraction ISS --
GO:0007067 mitotic nuclear division --
GO:0010614 negative regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy ISS --
GO:0045454 cell redox homeostasis IEA --
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLRX3: view

No data available for Pathways by source for GLRX3 Gene

Compounds for GLRX3 Gene

(3) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GLRX3 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
dithiol 55.5 1
cyanogen bromide 43.2 1
calcium 0 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLRX3: view

Transcripts for GLRX3 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GLRX3 Gene

Glutaredoxin 3:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLRX3 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13
SP1: - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: -

Relevant External Links for GLRX3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GLRX3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GLRX3 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GLRX3 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLRX3 Gene Hs.42644

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GLRX3 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in heart, spleen, testis and, to a lower extent, in thymus and peripheral blood leukocytes. Weakly expressed in lung, placenta, colon and small intestine
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GLRX3: view

Orthologs for GLRX3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GLRX3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLRX3 36
  • 99.5 (n)
  • 98.81 (a)
GLRX3 37
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GLRX3 36
  • 90.15 (n)
  • 94.65 (a)
GLRX3 37
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLRX3 36
  • 90.78 (n)
  • 93.4 (a)
GLRX3 37
  • 92 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Glrx3 36
  • 90.46 (n)
  • 93.4 (a)
Glrx3 16
Glrx3 37
  • 91 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GLRX3 37
  • 78 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Glrx3 36
  • 90.99 (n)
  • 93.71 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GLRX3 36
  • 79.04 (n)
  • 83.33 (a)
GLRX3 37
  • 80 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GLRX3 37
  • 77 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.9203 36
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia glrx3 36
  • 72.87 (n)
  • 79.5 (a)
Str.7370 36
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii glrx3 36
  • 68.99 (n)
  • 74.29 (a)
glrx3 37
  • 72 (a)
wufb38e09 36
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG6523 37
  • 45 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea glrx-3 36
  • 57.27 (n)
  • 52.92 (a)
glrx-3 37
  • 46 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGR111W 36
  • 51.74 (n)
  • 44.28 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GRX3 37
  • 33 (a)
GRX4 36
  • 52.33 (n)
  • 46.5 (a)
GRX4 37
  • 39 (a)
GRX4 39
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C17842g 36
  • 52.24 (n)
  • 52.24 (a)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.6485 36
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT4G04950 36
  • 58.5 (n)
  • 52.68 (a)
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.4967 36
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.7955 36
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.11576 36
Os10g0500700 36
  • 54.55 (n)
  • 48.15 (a)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.20390 36
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU09803 36
  • 51.83 (n)
  • 48.17 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes grx4 36
  • 52.45 (n)
  • 39.81 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.13908 36
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.9660 37
  • 56 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GLRX3:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for GLRX3 Gene

Gene Tree for GLRX3 (if available)
Gene Tree for GLRX3 (if available)

Paralogs for GLRX3 Gene Pseudogenes for GLRX3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GLRX3: view

No data available for Paralogs for GLRX3 Gene

Variants for GLRX3 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLRX3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs13991 - 130,136,483(-) TCAAA(C/G)TGCCC missense, reference, utr-variant-5-prime
rs1013563 -- 130,160,158(+) TCCCC(A/G)AATAT intron-variant
rs1016373 -- 130,173,410(-) TTAAG(A/C)GAAGC intron-variant
rs1016374 -- 130,172,402(+) TGTCA(C/G)GTAAG intron-variant
rs1016375 -- 130,172,527(+) TCTTT(A/T)AAAAA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLRX3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832024 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv825630 CNV Gain 20364138

Relevant External Links for GLRX3 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

Disorders for GLRX3 Gene

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GLRX3 Gene

Relevant External Links for GLRX3

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLRX3: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX3 Gene

Publications for GLRX3 Gene

  1. Inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/AP-1 and NF-kappaB pathways by PICOT, a novel protein kinase C-interacting protein with a thioredoxin homology domain. (PMID: 10636891) Witte S. … Altman A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000) 2 3 4
  2. Characterization of 16 novel human genes showing high similarity to yeast sequences. (PMID: 11124703) Stanchi F. … Valle G. (Yeast 2001) 2 3 4
  3. Preferential overexpression of glutaredoxin3 in human colon and lung carcinoma. (PMID: 19797004) Cha M.K. … Kim I.H. (Cancer Epidemiol 2009) 3 23
  4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4
  5. A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease. (PMID: 16385451) Grupe A. … Goate A. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2006) 3 49

Products for GLRX3 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for GLRX3

Sources for GLRX3 Gene

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