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Aliases for GPNMB Gene

Aliases for GPNMB Gene

  • Glycoprotein (Transmembrane) Nmb 2 3
  • Transmembrane Glycoprotein HGFIN 3 4
  • Glycoprotein Nmb-Like Protein 2 3
  • Glycoprotein NMB 2 3
  • Osteoactivin 2 3
  • HGFIN 3 4
  • NMB 3 4
  • Transmembrane Glycoprotein NMB 3
  • Transmembrane Glycoprotein 2

External Ids for GPNMB Gene

Summaries for GPNMB Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GPNMB Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein which shows homology to the pMEL17 precursor, a melanocyte-specific protein. GPNMB shows expression in the lowly metastatic human melanoma cell lines and xenografts but does not show expression in the highly metastatic cell lines. GPNMB may be involved in growth delay and reduction of metastatic potential. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GPNMB Gene

GPNMB (Glycoprotein (Transmembrane) Nmb) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GPNMB include iris disease and melanoma. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include heparin binding and integrin binding. An important paralog of this gene is PMEL.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPNMB Gene

  • Could be a melanogenic enzyme.

Gene Wiki entry for GPNMB Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GPNMB Gene

Genomics for GPNMB Gene

Genomic Location for GPNMB Gene

23,235,967 bp from pter
23,275,110 bp from pter
39,144 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GPNMB Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GPNMB Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GPNMB Gene

Regulatory Elements for GPNMB Gene

Proteins for GPNMB Gene

  • Protein details for GPNMB Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Transmembrane glycoprotein NMB
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D155
    • Q6UVX1
    • Q8N1A1

    Protein attributes for GPNMB Gene

    572 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    63923 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for GPNMB Gene


neXtProt entry for GPNMB Gene

Proteomics data for GPNMB Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GPNMB Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation at Asn93, Asn134, Asn146, Asn200, Asn249, Asn275, Asn296, Asn300, Asn306, Asn312, Asn459, and Asn467

Other Protein References for GPNMB Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GPNMB Gene

Domains for GPNMB Gene

Protein Domains for GPNMB Gene


Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 PKD domain.:
    • Q14956
  • Belongs to the PMEL/NMB family.:
    • Q14956
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GPNMB: view

No data available for Gene Families for GPNMB Gene

Function for GPNMB Gene

Molecular function for GPNMB Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Could be a melanogenic enzyme.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GPNMB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005178 integrin binding IEA --
GO:0008201 heparin binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPNMB: view

Phenotypes for GPNMB Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GPNMB: view

miRNA for GPNMB Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GPNMB

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GPNMB Gene

Localization for GPNMB Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPNMB Gene

Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Melanosome. Note=Identified by mass spectrometry in melanosome fractions from stage I to stage IV. Detected at the cell surface in different types of cancers cells, including glioblastoma multiforme cells and most melanoma cell lines.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GPNMB Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GPNMB gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 1
extracellular 1
lysosome 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GPNMB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane TAS 7814155
GO:0016023 cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle --
GO:0042470 melanosome IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPNMB: view

Pathways for GPNMB Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GPNMB: view

Interacting Proteins for GPNMB Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GPNMB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001649 osteoblast differentiation IEA --
GO:0007155 cell adhesion IEA --
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation TAS 7814155
GO:0030282 bone mineralization IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPNMB: view

Transcripts for GPNMB Gene

Unigene Clusters for GPNMB Gene

Glycoprotein (transmembrane) nmb:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GPNMB Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: -
SP4: - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - -
SP6: - -
SP8: - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - -
SP10: - - - -

ExUns: 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b · 15c · 15d · 15e
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP12: -
SP13: -

Relevant External Links for GPNMB Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GPNMB Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GPNMB Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GPNMB Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin - Not Sun Exposed (Suprapubic) (4.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GPNMB Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GPNMB Gene Hs.190495

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GPNMB Gene

Tissue specificity: Up-regulated in various cancer cells, including in glioblastoma multiforme. Expressed in many melanoma cells, as well as in tissue macrophages, including liver Kuppfer cells and lung alveolar macrophages, in podocytes and in some cells of the ciliary body of the eye (at protein level). Hardly detectable in healthy brain.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GPNMB: view

Orthologs for GPNMB Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GPNMB Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPNMB 35
  • 99.42 (n)
  • 99.3 (a)
  • 94 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GPNMB 35
  • 85.31 (n)
  • 79.96 (a)
  • 77 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GPNMB 35
  • 82.97 (n)
  • 75.91 (a)
  • 73 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpnmb 35
  • 76.85 (n)
  • 70.34 (a)
Gpnmb 16
Gpnmb 36
  • 68 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GPNMB 36
  • 60 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GPNMB 36
  • 60 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpnmb 35
  • 76.55 (n)
  • 69.26 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GPNMB 35
  • 61.92 (n)
  • 54.12 (a)
  • 51 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GPNMB 36
  • 50 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.6913 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gpnmb 35
  • 59.8 (n)
  • 53.43 (a)
Str.6500 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gpnmb 35
  • 48.8 (n)
  • 38.19 (a)
gpnmb 36
  • 29 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GPNMB:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GPNMB Gene

Gene Tree for GPNMB (if available)
Gene Tree for GPNMB (if available)

Paralogs for GPNMB Gene

Paralogs for GPNMB Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GPNMB Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GPNMB: view

Variants for GPNMB Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GPNMB Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1783 -- 23,257,969(-) AAATT(A/T)AAAAA intron-variant
rs5850 -- 23,274,928(-) CGACT(A/G)TACAA utr-variant-3-prime
rs14114 -- 23,274,575(-) CCTCT(G/T)CTTGC utr-variant-3-prime
rs156420 -- 23,273,649(-) TACAC(C/T)ATAGT intron-variant
rs156421 -- 23,272,868(-) agacc(C/T)tgcct intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GPNMB Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7393 OTHER Inversion 18451855
nsv887840 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv520600 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv5661 CNV Insertion 18451855

Relevant External Links for GPNMB Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPNMB Gene

Disorders for GPNMB Gene


  • Note=Glioblastoma multiforme patients that exhibit increased mRNA and protein levels (>3-fold over normal brain) in biopsy samples have a significantly higher risk of death (PubMed:16609006). In the context of cancer immunotherapy, including that of melanoma, has been proposed to be used as a cell surface protein antigen targeted by antibodies coupled to cytotoxic drugs (PubMed:16489096). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16489096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16609006}.

(2) MalaCards Diseases for GPNMB Gene

Search for GPNMB Gene in MalaCards »

(3) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GPNMB Gene

(3) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GPNMB Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
metastatic melanoma 50.6 2
melanoma 30.4 4
tumors 5.81 5

Relevant External Links for GPNMB

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GPNMB: view

Publications for GPNMB Gene

  1. NMB, a novel gene, is expressed in low-metastatic human melanoma cell lines and xenografts. (PMID: 7814155) Weterman M.A.J. … Bloemers H.P.J. (Int. J. Cancer 1995) 2 3 4 23
  2. Hematopoietic growth factor inducible neurokinin-1 type: a transmembrane protein that is similar to neurokinin 1 interacts with substance P. (PMID: 12609765) Bandari P.S. … Rameshwar P. (Regul. Pept. 2003) 3 4 23
  3. mRNA expression of the murine glycoprotein (transmembrane) nmb (Gpnmb) gene is linked to the developing retinal pigment epithelium and iris. (PMID: 12638126) BAochner D. … Gross G. (Brain Res. Gene Expr. Patterns 2002) 3 23
  4. Cloning and characterization of the 5' flanking region of the HGFIN gene indicate a cooperative role among p53 and cytokine-mediated transcription factors: relevance to cell cycle regulation. (PMID: 15684612) Metz R.L. … Rameshwar P. (Cell Cycle 2005) 3 23
  5. CR011, a fully human monoclonal antibody-auristatin E conjugate, for the treatment of melanoma. (PMID: 16489096) Tse K.F. … LaRochelle W.J. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2006) 4 23

Products for GPNMB Gene

Sources for GPNMB Gene

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