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Aliases for TUBB4B Gene

Aliases for TUBB4B Gene

  • Tubulin Beta 4B Class IVb 2 3 5
  • Class IVb Beta-Tubulin 2 3
  • Tubulin Beta-2C Chain 3 4
  • Tubulin Beta-2 Chain 3 4
  • Tubulin, Beta 2C 2 3
  • TUBB2C 3 4
  • Tubulin, Beta 4B Class IVb 3
  • Class IVb Beta Tubulin 3
  • Tubulin, Beta, 2 3
  • BETA2 3
  • TUBB2 3

External Ids for TUBB4B Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TUBB4B Gene

  • TUBB2C

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TUBB4B Gene

  • GC09P140136

Summaries for TUBB4B Gene

GeneCards Summary for TUBB4B Gene

TUBB4B (Tubulin Beta 4B Class IVb) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TUBB4B include Hypomyelinating Leukoencephalopathy and Chondroid Chordoma. Among its related pathways are Cooperation of Prefoldin and TriC/CCT in actin and tubulin folding and Regulation of CFTR activity (norm and CF). GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and unfolded protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is TUBB2B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB4B Gene

  • Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.

Gene Wiki entry for TUBB4B Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TUBB4B Gene

Genomics for TUBB4B Gene

Regulatory Elements for TUBB4B Gene

Enhancers for TUBB4B Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TUBB4B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TUBB4B Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around TUBB4B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TUBB4B Gene

137,241,213 bp from pter
137,243,707 bp from pter
2,495 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TUBB4B Gene

Genes around TUBB4B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TUBB4B Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TUBB4B Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TUBB4B Gene

Proteins for TUBB4B Gene

  • Protein details for TUBB4B Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tubulin beta-4B chain
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A2BFA2
    • P05217

    Protein attributes for TUBB4B Gene

    445 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    49831 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.

neXtProt entry for TUBB4B Gene

Proteomics data for TUBB4B Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TUBB4B Gene

  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate residues and results in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Also monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles, axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of such modifications is still unclear but they regulate the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules (Probable).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TUBB4B Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TUBB4B Gene

Domains & Families for TUBB4B Gene

Gene Families for TUBB4B Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TUBB4B Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium.
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
  • The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium.
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TUBB4B: view

Function for TUBB4B Gene

Molecular function for TUBB4B Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TUBB4B: view

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TUBB4B Gene

Localization for TUBB4B Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB4B Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TUBB4B Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TUBB4B gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TUBB4B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton TAS 16130169
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB4B: view

Pathways & Interactions for TUBB4B Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TUBB4B: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for TUBB4B Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TUBB4B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000086 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0006928 movement of cell or subcellular component TAS 16130169
GO:0006996 organelle organization TAS --
GO:0007017 microtubule-based process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB4B: view

Drugs & Compounds for TUBB4B Gene

(11) Drugs for TUBB4B Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Albendazole Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 74
Mebendazole Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 23
Colchicine Approved Pharma Antagonist Tubulin Inhibitor, Inhibitor of tubulin 105
Taxol Approved August 1997 Pharma Agonist Promotes assembly and inhibits disassembly of microtubules 0
Epothilone B Experimental, Investigational Pharma Target 67

(2) Additional Compounds for TUBB4B Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Vinblastine sulfate
Vincristine sulfate

(5) Tocris Compounds for TUBB4B Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Colchicine Inhibitor of tubulin 64-86-8
Nocodazole Microtubule inhibitor 31430-18-9
Taxol Promotes assembly and inhibits disassembly of microtubules 33069-62-4
Vinblastine sulfate Disrupts microtubules 143-67-9
Vincristine sulfate Disrupts microtubules 2068-78-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TUBB4B: view

Transcripts for TUBB4B Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TUBB4B Gene

Unigene Clusters for TUBB4B Gene

Tubulin, beta 4B class IVb:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TUBB4B Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7: - - - - - -

Relevant External Links for TUBB4B Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TUBB4B Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TUBB4B Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TUBB4B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TUBB4B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (9.3) and Retina (7.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TUBB4B Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TUBB4B Gene Hs.433615

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TUBB4B Gene

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TUBB4B: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TUBB4B Gene

Primer Products

Orthologs for TUBB4B Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TUBB4B Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TUBB4B 35
  • 91.84 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC102153202 35
  • 92.43 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tubb4b 35
  • 90.11 (n)
  • 100 (a)
Tubb4b 16
Tubb4b 36
  • 100 (a)
Tubb4b-ps1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TUBB2C 35
  • 99.7 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tubb4b 35
  • 90.71 (n)
  • 99.78 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TUBB4B 36
  • 100 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 91 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TUBB2C 35
  • 86.83 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TUBB4B 36
  • 100 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tubb4b 35
  • 86.82 (n)
  • 99.33 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tubb4b 35
  • 83.07 (n)
  • 98.88 (a)
zgc:123194 36
  • 98 (a)
zgc:55461 36
  • 99 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010929 35
  • 81.58 (n)
  • 97.89 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta betaTub56D 35
  • 84.23 (n)
  • 97.66 (a)
betaTub56D 36
  • 91 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea tbb-4 35
  • 74.55 (n)
  • 95.78 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACR225C 35
  • 70.65 (n)
  • 77.99 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0D05269g 35
  • 62.92 (n)
  • 75.18 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TUB2 35
  • 66.59 (n)
  • 77.05 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TUB1 35
  • 71.66 (n)
  • 86.42 (a)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.5502 35
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.1232 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0780600 35
  • 76.97 (n)
  • 88.76 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU04054 35
  • 76.27 (n)
  • 85.48 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes nda3 35
  • 65.18 (n)
  • 78.45 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 59 (a)
CSA.4227 36
  • 97 (a)
CSA.7878 36
  • 98 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TUBB4B:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TUBB4B Gene

Gene Tree for TUBB4B (if available)
Gene Tree for TUBB4B (if available)

Paralogs for TUBB4B Gene

Paralogs for TUBB4B Gene Pseudogenes for TUBB4B Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TUBB4B: view

Variants for TUBB4B Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TUBB4B Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs113032304 -- 137,240,629(+) TATCT(G/T)CCTGC upstream-variant-2KB
rs113202796 -- 137,240,712(+) CCCAG(A/C)GCGCA upstream-variant-2KB
rs113402395 -- 137,240,767(+) CGTGG(A/G)GCCGC upstream-variant-2KB
rs113707038 -- 137,242,552(+) CGGAG(C/T)TGGTG reference, synonymous-codon
rs114026338 -- 137,242,340(+) AGGGC(A/G)GGCTG intron-variant

Variation tolerance for TUBB4B Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 4.26% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.07; 1.59% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) and Relevant External Links for TUBB4B Gene

Disorders for TUBB4B Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for TUBB4B Gene - From: DISEASES

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Relevant External Links for TUBB4B

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TUBB4B: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TUBB4B Gene

Publications for TUBB4B Gene

  1. Three expressed sequences within the human beta-tubulin multigene family each define a distinct isotype. (PMID: 3999141) Lewis S.A. … Cowan N.J. (J. Mol. Biol. 1985) 2 3 4 67
  2. Potent inhibition of tubulin polymerisation and proliferation of paclitaxel-resistant 1A9PTX22 human ovarian cancer cells by albendazole. (PMID: 19846910) Chu S.W. … Pourgholami M.H. (Anticancer Res. 2009) 25 26
  3. Proteomic comparison of nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines C666-1 and NP69 identifies down-regulation of annexin II and beta2-tubulin for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (PMID: 18384219) Chan C.M. … Chan A.T. (Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 2008) 3 23
  4. Classical ligands interact with native and recombinant tubulin from Onchocerca volvulus with similar rank order of magnitude. (PMID: 17662615) Wampande E.M. … Lubega G.W. (Protein Expr. Purif. 2007) 25 26
  5. Characterisation of benzimidazole binding with recombinant tubulin from Giardia duodenalis, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, and Cryptosporidium parvum. (PMID: 15500920) MacDonald L.M. … Reynoldson J.A. (Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 2004) 25 26

Products for TUBB4B Gene

Sources for TUBB4B Gene