Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for GDF11 Gene

Aliases for GDF11 Gene

  • Growth Differentiation Factor 11 2 3
  • BMP11 3 4 6
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 11 3 4
  • BMP-11 3 4
  • GDF-11 3 4
  • Growth/Differentiation Factor 11 3

External Ids for GDF11 Gene

Summaries for GDF11 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GDF11 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and the TGF-beta superfamily. This group of proteins is characterized by a polybasic proteolytic processing site which is cleaved to produce a mature protein containing seven conserved cysteine residues. The members of this family are regulators of cell growth and differentiation in both embryonic and adult tissues. Studies in mice and Xenopus suggest that this protein is involved in mesodermal formation and neurogenesis during embryonic development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GDF11 Gene

GDF11 (Growth Differentiation Factor 11) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GDF11 include currarino syndrome. GO annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and growth factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is INHBB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GDF11 Gene

  • Secreted signal that acts globally to specify positional identity along the anterior/posterior axis during development. Play critical roles in patterning both mesodermal and neural tissues and in establishing the skeletal pattern

Gene Wiki entry for GDF11 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GDF11 Gene

Genomics for GDF11 Gene

Genomic Location for GDF11 Gene

55,743,280 bp from pter
55,757,466 bp from pter
14,187 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GDF11 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GDF11 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GDF11 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GDF11 Gene

Proteins for GDF11 Gene

  • Protein details for GDF11 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Growth/differentiation factor 11
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9UID1
    • Q9UID2

    Protein attributes for GDF11 Gene

    407 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45091 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked.

neXtProt entry for GDF11 Gene

Proteomics data for GDF11 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GDF11 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation at Asn94

Other Protein References for GDF11 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GDF11 Gene

Domains for GDF11 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GDF11 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the TGF-beta family.:
    • O95390
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GDF11: view

No data available for Gene Families for GDF11 Gene

Function for GDF11 Gene

Molecular function for GDF11 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Secreted signal that acts globally to specify positional identity along the anterior/posterior axis during development. Play critical roles in patterning both mesodermal and neural tissues and in establishing the skeletal pattern

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GDF11 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IBA --
GO:0005160 transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding --
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GDF11: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GDF11: view

Animal Models for GDF11 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GDF11:

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GDF11 Gene

Localization for GDF11 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GDF11 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GDF11 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GDF11 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 4
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GDF11 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005575 cellular_component ND --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA --
GO:0043234 protein complex IDA 24019467
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GDF11: view

Pathways for GDF11 Gene

SuperPathways for GDF11 Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GDF11 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001501 skeletal system development TAS 10391213
GO:0001656 metanephros development IEA --
GO:0001657 ureteric bud development IEA --
GO:0007399 nervous system development TAS 10075854
GO:0007498 mesoderm development TAS 10075854
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GDF11: view

No data available for Pathways by source for GDF11 Gene

Transcripts for GDF11 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GDF11 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GDF11 Gene

Growth differentiation factor 11:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GDF11 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GDF11 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GDF11 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GDF11 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GDF11 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GDF11 Gene Hs.600883

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GDF11: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GDF11 Gene

Orthologs for GDF11 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GDF11 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GDF11 35
  • 100 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GDF11 36
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GDF11 35
  • 94.22 (n)
  • 99.47 (a)
GDF11 36
  • 99 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GDF11 36
  • 92 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gdf11 35
  • 94 (n)
  • 99.45 (a)
Gdf11 16
Gdf11 36
  • 100 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GDF11 36
  • 97 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gdf11 35
  • 93.26 (n)
  • 99.72 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GDF11 36
  • 80 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.13638 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gdf11 35
  • 76.8 (n)
  • 86.84 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.119 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gdf11 35
  • 73.98 (n)
  • 80.99 (a)
gdf11 36
  • 73 (a)
gdf8 35
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP005289 35
  • 64.26 (n)
  • 61.26 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta myo 36
  • 17 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea daf-7 35
  • 43.3 (n)
  • 29.58 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 27 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GDF11:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GDF11 Gene

Gene Tree for GDF11 (if available)
Gene Tree for GDF11 (if available)

Paralogs for GDF11 Gene

Paralogs for GDF11 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GDF11 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GDF11: view

Variants for GDF11 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GDF11 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs772250 -- 55,747,719(+) TAAAG(C/T)TGGGA intron-variant
rs772251 -- 55,750,560(+) AACCC(C/T)GCTCT utr-variant-3-prime, intron-variant
rs1681083 -- 55,743,181(+) CCCCC(C/G)GGTCC upstream-variant-2KB
rs3782241 -- 55,745,983(-) CCCCC(C/G)CAAAC intron-variant
rs3843621 -- 55,744,646(+) ACCCC(C/T)CCTTT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GDF11 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832423 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv469410 CNV Loss 19166990

Relevant External Links for GDF11 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GDF11 Gene

Disorders for GDF11 Gene

(1) MalaCards Diseases for GDF11 Gene

Search for GDF11 Gene in MalaCards »

Relevant External Links for GDF11

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GDF11: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GDF11 Gene

Publications for GDF11 Gene

  1. GDF11 forms a bone morphogenetic protein 1-activated latent complex that can modulate nerve growth factor-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. (PMID: 15988002) Ge G. … Greenspan D.S. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2005) 2 3 23
  2. A novel BMP expressed in developing mouse limb, spinal cord, and tail bud is a potent mesoderm inducer in Xenopus embryos. (PMID: 10075854) Gamer L.W. … Rosen V. (Dev. Biol. 1999) 3 4
  3. Regulation of anterior/posterior patterning of the axial skeleton by growth/differentiation factor 11. (PMID: 10391213) McPherron A.C. … Lee S.-J. (Nat. Genet. 1999) 3 4
  4. Clinical significance of growth differentiation factor 11 in colorectal cancer. (PMID: 17912435) Yokoe T. … Mori M. (Int. J. Oncol. 2007) 3 23
  5. A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause. (PMID: 20734064) He C. … Hunter D.J. (Hum. Genet. 2010) 3 48

Products for GDF11 Gene

Sources for GDF11 Gene

Back to Top