Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for PROS1 Gene

Aliases for PROS1 Gene

  • Protein S (Alpha) 2 3
  • PROS 3 4
  • Vitamin K-Dependent Plasma Protein S 3
  • Protein Sa 3
  • EC 3.4.21 63
  • THPH5 3
  • THPH6 3
  • PS21 3
  • PS22 3
  • PS23 3
  • PS24 3
  • PS25 3
  • PSA 3

External Ids for PROS1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PROS1 Gene

  • PROS

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PROS1 Gene

  • GC03P090396
  • GC03M092806
  • GC03M090130
  • GC03M094912
  • GC03M095074
  • GC03M093591
  • GC03M090954

Summaries for PROS1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PROS1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that functions as a cofactor for the anticoagulant protease, activated protein C (APC) to inhibit blood coagulation. It is found in plasma in both a free, functionally active form and also in an inactive form complexed with C4b-binding protein. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant hereditary thrombophilia. An inactive pseudogene of this locus is located at an adjacent region on chromosome 3. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms that may undergo similar processing to generate mature protein. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2015]

GeneCards Summary for PROS1 Gene

PROS1 (Protein S (Alpha)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PROS1 include protein s deficiency and hereditary thrombophilia due to congenital protein s deficiency. Among its related pathways are Immune System and Hemostasis. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and endopeptidase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is SHBG.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PROS1 Gene

  • Anticoagulant plasma protein; it is a cofactor to activated protein C in the degradation of coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. It helps to prevent coagulation and stimulating fibrinolysis

Gene Wiki entry for PROS1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PROS1 Gene

Genomics for PROS1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PROS1 Gene

Genomic Location for PROS1 Gene

93,873,033 bp from pter
93,974,090 bp from pter
101,058 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PROS1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PROS1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PROS1 Gene

Proteins for PROS1 Gene

  • Protein details for PROS1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Vitamin K-dependent protein S
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8KAC9
    • D3DN28
    • Q15518
    • Q7Z715
    • Q9UCZ8

    Protein attributes for PROS1 Gene

    676 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    75123 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAP45054.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PROS1 Gene

neXtProt entry for PROS1 Gene

Proteomics data for PROS1 Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PROS1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PROS1 Gene

  • The iron and 2-oxoglutarate dependent 3-hydroxylation of aspartate and asparagine is (R) stereospecific within EGF domains.
  • Glycosylation at Asn 499, Asn 509, and Asn 530
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PROS1 Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for PROS1 (Protein S/PROS1)

Domains & Families for PROS1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 4 EGF-like domains.
  • Contains 4 EGF-like domains.
  • Contains 1 Gla (gamma-carboxy-glutamate) domain.
  • Contains 2 laminin G-like domains.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PROS1: view

No data available for Gene Families for PROS1 Gene

Function for PROS1 Gene

Molecular function for PROS1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
protein S,alpha coagulation factor (cofactor of proC),vitamin K-dependent,ligand for TYRO3,AXL family of receptor tyrosine kinase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Anticoagulant plasma protein; it is a cofactor to activated protein C in the degradation of coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. It helps to prevent coagulation and stimulating fibrinolysis

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PROS1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PROS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004866 endopeptidase inhibitor activity TAS 8146182
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding --
GO:0032403 protein complex binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PROS1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PROS1: view

Animal Models for PROS1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PROS1:

miRNA for PROS1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PROS1

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PROS1

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PROS1 Gene

Localization for PROS1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PROS1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PROS1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PROS1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
golgi apparatus 4
plasma membrane 4
nucleus 2
cytosol 1
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PROS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 14607961
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
GO:0005796 Golgi lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PROS1: view

Pathways & Interactions for PROS1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PROS1: view

Pathways by source for PROS1 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for PROS1 Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PROS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0006508 proteolysis TAS --
GO:0007596 blood coagulation TAS --
GO:0010951 negative regulation of endopeptidase activity TAS 8146182
GO:0017187 peptidyl-glutamic acid carboxylation TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PROS1: view

Drugs & Compounds for PROS1 Gene

(24) Drugs for PROS1 Gene - From: NovoSeek, DrugBank, PharmGKB, DGIdb, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Menadione Approved Nutra inhibitor, Target, activator 183
Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 4
Drotrecogin alfa Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma Target 0
Drospirenone Approved Pharma Antagonist 87
Ethinyl Estradiol Approved Pharma Oral contraceptive 636

(12) Additional Compounds for PROS1 Gene - From: NovoSeek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 1-Methylglycocyamidine
  • 1-Methylhydantoin-2-imide
  • 2-Amino-1-methyl-1,5-dihydroimidazol-4-one
  • 2-Amino-1-methylimidazolin-4-one
  • Creatine anhydride
Estramustine phosphate
gamma-Carboxyglutamic acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PROS1: view

Transcripts for PROS1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PROS1 Gene

Protein S (alpha):
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PROS1

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PROS1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PROS1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PROS1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PROS1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PROS1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x7.4) and Artery - Aorta (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PROS1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (20.1), Plasma (20.1), and Synovial fluid (11.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PROS1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PROS1 Gene Hs.64016

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PROS1 Gene

Tissue specificity: Plasma
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PROS1: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PROS1 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for PROS1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PROS1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PROS1 35
  • 87.6 (n)
  • 82.07 (a)
PROS1 36
  • 81 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PROS1 35
  • 81.05 (n)
  • 77.49 (a)
PROS1 36
  • 76 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pros1 35
  • 82.2 (n)
  • 79.82 (a)
Pros1 16
Pros1 36
  • 79 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PROS1 35
  • 99.65 (n)
  • 99.41 (a)
PROS1 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pros1 35
  • 83.43 (n)
  • 80.42 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PROS1 36
  • 68 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PROS1 36
  • 65 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PROS1 35
  • 70.44 (n)
  • 64.86 (a)
PROS1 36
  • 63 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PROS1 36
  • 56 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pros1 35
  • 64.53 (n)
  • 61.31 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pros1 35
  • 55.11 (n)
  • 53.99 (a)
pros1 36
  • 50 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 18 (a)
-- 36
  • 34 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PROS1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PROS1 Gene

Gene Tree for PROS1 (if available)
Gene Tree for PROS1 (if available)

Paralogs for PROS1 Gene

Paralogs for PROS1 Gene Pseudogenes for PROS1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PROS1: view

Variants for PROS1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PROS1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs6121 -- 93,927,256(-) GACCC(A/G/T)GAAAC synonymous-codon, reference
rs6122 Thrombophilia due to protein S deficiency, autosomal dominant (THPH5) 93,927,251(-) GGAAA(C/T)GGTAA reference, missense
rs6123 -- 93,874,275(-) TGTCC(A/G)TCAGT reference, synonymous-codon
rs4414894 -- 93,938,487(-) gggac(A/C)agtct intron-variant
rs4417906 -- 93,908,009(-) cacca(C/T)gcccc intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PROS1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv834764 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv877161 CNV Gain 21882294
esv2657355 CNV Deletion 23128226

Variation tolerance for PROS1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 38.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.85; 48.13% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PROS1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PROS1 Gene

Disorders for PROS1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(19) MalaCards diseases for PROS1 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

- elite association
Search PROS1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Thrombophilia due to protein S deficiency, autosomal dominant (THPH5) [MIM:612336]: A hemostatic disorder characterized by impaired regulation of blood coagulation and a tendency to recurrent venous thrombosis. Based on the plasma levels of total and free PROS1 as well as the serine protease-activated protein C cofactor activity, three types of THPH5 have been described: type I, characterized by reduced total and free PROS1 levels together with reduced anticoagulant activity; type III, in which only free PROS1 antigen and PROS1 activity levels are reduced; and the rare type II which is characterized by normal concentrations of both total and free PROS1 antigen, but low cofactor activity. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10447256, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10613647, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10706858, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10790208, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11372770, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11776305, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11858485, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11927129, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12351389, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12632031, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15238143, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15712227, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7482398, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7545463, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7579449, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7803790, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8298131, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8639833, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8701404, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8765219, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8781426, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8943854, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8977443, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9031443, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9241758, ECO:0000269 Ref.15}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Thrombophilia due to protein S deficiency, autosomal recessive (THPH6) [MIM:614514]: A very rare and severe hematologic disorder resulting in thrombosis and secondary hemorrhage usually beginning in early infancy. Some affected individuals develop neonatal purpura fulminans, multifocal thrombosis, or intracranial hemorrhage. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20484936}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for PROS1 Gene

thrombosis,recurrent (pro-S deficiency),types I with reduced level of antigen and activity,type II with normal antigen level,reduced activity but excluding most cases of type III

Relevant External Links for PROS1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PROS1: view

Publications for PROS1 Gene

  1. Significant and sustained antitumor activity in post-docetaxel, castration-resistant prostate cancer with the CYP17 inhibitor abiraterone acetate. (PMID: 20159823) Reid A.H. … de Bono J.S. (J. Clin. Oncol. 2010) 23 67
  2. Down-regulation of PROS1 gene expression by 17beta-estradiol via estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-Sp1 interaction recruiting receptor-interacting protein 140 and the corepressor-HDAC3 complex. (PMID: 20200160) Suzuki A. … Kojima T. (J. Biol. Chem. 2010) 23 67
  3. A review of the patterns of docetaxel use for hormone-resistant prostate cancer at the Princess Margaret Hospital. (PMID: 20404974) Chin S.N. … Sridhar S.S. (Curr Oncol 2010) 23 67
  4. Association between periodontal disease and prostate-specific antigen levels in chronic prostatitis patients. (PMID: 20450358) Joshi N. … Skillicorn R. (J. Periodontol. 2010) 23 67
  5. Gross deletions/duplications in PROS1 are relatively common in point mutation-negative hereditary protein S deficiency. (PMID: 19466456) Pintao M.C. … Reitsma P.H. (Hum. Genet. 2009) 23 67

Products for PROS1 Gene

Sources for PROS1 Gene

Back to Top