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Aliases for GLUD1 Gene

Aliases for GLUD1 Gene

  • Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1 2 3 5
  • EC 1.4.1.3 4 63
  • GLUD 3 4
  • Epididymis Tissue Sperm Binding Protein Li 18mP 3
  • Glutamate Dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+) 3
  • EC 1.4.1 63
  • GDH 1 4
  • GDH1 3
  • GDH 3

External Ids for GLUD1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GLUD1 Gene

  • GLUD

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GLUD1 Gene

  • GC10M087691
  • GC10M088031
  • GC10M088941
  • GC10M088474
  • GC10M088800
  • GC10M082663
  • GC10M088809

Summaries for GLUD1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLUD1 Gene

  • This gene encodes glutamate dehydrogenase, which is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia. This enzyme has an important role in regulating amino acid-induced insulin secretion. It is allosterically activated by ADP and inhibited by GTP and ATP. Activating mutations in this gene are a common cause of congenital hyperinsulinism. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. The related glutamate dehydrogenase 2 gene on the human X-chromosome originated from this gene via retrotransposition and encodes a soluble form of glutamate dehydrogenase. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 10, 18 and X. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]

GeneCards Summary for GLUD1 Gene

GLUD1 (Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GLUD1 include hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome and glud1-related hyperinsulinism. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Viral mRNA Translation. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and oxidoreductase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GLUD2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLUD1 Gene

  • Mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase that converts L-glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate. Plays a key role in glutamine anaplerosis by producing alpha-ketoglutarate, an important intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. May be involved in learning and memory reactions by increasing the turnover of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for GLUD1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLUD1 Gene

Genomics for GLUD1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GLUD1 Gene

Promoters for GLUD1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GLUD1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GLUD1 Gene

Chromosome:
10
Start:
87,050,202 bp from pter
End:
87,095,019 bp from pter
Size:
44,818 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GLUD1 Gene

Genes around GLUD1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GLUD1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GLUD1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLUD1 Gene

Proteins for GLUD1 Gene

  • Protein details for GLUD1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P00367-DHE3_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    P00367
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KV55
    • B4DGN5
    • Q5TBU3

    Protein attributes for GLUD1 Gene

    Size:
    558 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    61398 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homohexamer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GLUD1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GLUD1 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GLUD1 Gene

Proteomics data for GLUD1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GLUD1 Gene

  • ADP-ribosylated by SIRT4, leading to inactivate glutamate dehydrogenase activity (By similarity). Stoichiometry shows that ADP-ribosylation occurs in one subunit per catalytically active homohexamer.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 365
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GLUD1 Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for GLUD1 (Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1/GLUD1)
  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GLUD1 (GLUD1)

Domains & Families for GLUD1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P00367

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

DHE3_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the Glu/Leu/Phe/Val dehydrogenases family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the Glu/Leu/Phe/Val dehydrogenases family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLUD1: view

No data available for Gene Families for GLUD1 Gene

Function for GLUD1 Gene

Molecular function for GLUD1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutamate dehydrogenase 1,key enzyme linking glutamate metabolism with the Krebs cycle and catalyzing the conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate controlled by allosteric inhibition by GTP
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NAD(P)(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NAD(P)H.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Subject to allosteric regulation. Activated by ADP. Inhibited by GTP and ATP. ADP can occupy the NADH binding site and activate the enzyme.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase that converts L-glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate. Plays a key role in glutamine anaplerosis by producing alpha-ketoglutarate, an important intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. May be involved in learning and memory reactions by increasing the turnover of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (By similarity).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GLUD1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GLUD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004352 glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity IDA 11903050
GO:0004353 glutamate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity IDA 11032875
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding TAS 11903050
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLUD1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GLUD1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GLUD1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GLUD1 Gene

Localization for GLUD1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLUD1 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GLUD1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLUD1 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 1
extracellular 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLUD1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GLUD1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GLUD1: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GLUD1 Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLUD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006537 glutamate biosynthetic process IDA 11032875
GO:0006538 glutamate catabolic process IDA 6121377
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLUD1: view

Drugs & Compounds for GLUD1 Gene

(55) Drugs for GLUD1 Gene - From: Novoseek, DrugBank, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Hexachlorophene Approved, Withdrawn Pharma Target, inhibitor 3
Famotidine Approved Pharma Histamine H2-receptor antagonist 57
L-Aspartic acid Approved Nutra NMDA agonist 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma Target 0
NADH Nutra Target 0

(65) Additional Compounds for GLUD1 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
nadph
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
53-57-6
Ammonia
  • Ammonia anhydrous
  • Ammonia inhalant
  • Ammonia solution strong [usan]
  • Ammonia water
  • Ammoniak
7664-41-7
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
NADP
  • Adenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate
  • b-NADP
  • b-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  • b-TPN
  • beta-NADP
53-59-8
Oxoglutaric acid
  • 2-Ketoglutarate
  • 2-Ketoglutaric acid
  • 2-Oxo-1,5-pentanedioate
  • 2-Oxo-1,5-pentanedioic acid
  • 2-Oxoglutarate
328-50-7
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLUD1: view

Transcripts for GLUD1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GLUD1 Gene

Glutamate dehydrogenase 1:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLUD1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10
SP1: -
SP2:
SP3:
SP4: - - - -
SP5: -

Relevant External Links for GLUD1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GLUD1
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GLUD1

Expression for GLUD1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GLUD1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GLUD1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GLUD1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (22.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GLUD1 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLUD1 Gene Hs.500409

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GLUD1: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GLUD1 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GLUD1 Gene

Orthologs for GLUD1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GLUD1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GLUD1 35
  • 91.1 (n)
  • 95.88 (a)
GLUD1 36
  • 96 (a)
OneToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLUD1 35
  • 92.49 (n)
  • 98.98 (a)
-- 36
  • 91 (a)
ManyToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Glud1 35
  • 92.35 (n)
  • 97.85 (a)
Glud1 16
Glud1 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToMany
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLUD1 35
  • 99.88 (n)
  • 99.82 (a)
GLUD2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Glud1 35
  • 90.74 (n)
  • 96.95 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 63 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 83 (a)
ManyToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 89 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 97 (a)
ManyToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GLUD1 35
  • 84.8 (n)
  • 95.37 (a)
-- 36
  • 91 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 87 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia glud1 35
  • 79.69 (n)
  • 89.81 (a)
Str.4482 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.11458 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii glud1a 35
  • 75.61 (n)
  • 86.03 (a)
wufb16e02 35
glud1a 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.9944 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4434 37
  • 46 (a)
Gdh 37
  • 67 (a)
Gdh 35
  • 66.48 (n)
  • 69.19 (a)
Gdh 36
  • 65 (a)
OneToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004362 35
  • 66.26 (n)
  • 71.31 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ZK829.4 37
  • 62 (a)
gdh-1 35
  • 62.31 (n)
  • 63.78 (a)
gdh-1 36
  • 60 (a)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GDH1 36
  • 25 (a)
ManyToMany
GDH3 36
  • 25 (a)
ManyToMany
GDH3 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons GDH2 35
  • 51.72 (n)
  • 46.02 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0650900 35
  • 52.62 (n)
  • 46.54 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10003 36
  • 66 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for GLUD1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GLUD1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GLUD1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GLUD1 (if available)

Paralogs for GLUD1 Gene

Paralogs for GLUD1 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for GLUD1 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for GLUD1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GLUD1: view

Variants for GLUD1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLUD1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_008666 Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 6 (HHF6)
VAR_008667 Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 6 (HHF6)
VAR_008668 Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 6 (HHF6)
VAR_008669 Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 6 (HHF6)
VAR_008670 Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 6 (HHF6)

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLUD1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv310e1 CNV Complex 17122850
dgv311e1 CNV Complex 17122850
dgv312e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv428236 CNV Loss 18775914
essv23924 CNV CNV 17122850
dgv313e1 CNV Complex 17122850
dgv314e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv831939 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv895862 CNV Loss 21882294
esv27843 CNV Loss 19812545
nsv8714 CNV Loss 18304495
esv2673849 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv825493 CNV Gain 20364138

Variation tolerance for GLUD1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 9.69% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.81; 34.06% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GLUD1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GLUD1
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GLUD1

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLUD1 Gene

Disorders for GLUD1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(12) MalaCards diseases for GLUD1 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome
  • ha/hi syndrome
glud1-related hyperinsulinism
  • hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome
hyperinsulinism
  • hyperinsulinemia
hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia
  • islet cell hyperplasia
hyperammonemia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GLUD1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

DHE3_HUMAN
  • Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 6 (HHF6) [MIM:606762]: Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia [MIM:256450], also referred to as congenital hyperinsulinism, nesidioblastosis, or persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PPHI), is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infancy and is due to defective negative feedback regulation of insulin secretion by low glucose levels. In HHF6 elevated oxidation rate of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate stimulates insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta cells, while they impair detoxification of ammonium in the liver. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10636977, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11214910, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11297618, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9571255}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for GLUD1 Gene

hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome characterized by hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with concomittant hyperammonemia

Relevant External Links for GLUD1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GLUD1
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GLUD1
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GLUD1
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLUD1: view

Publications for GLUD1 Gene

  1. Expression, purification and characterization of human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) allosteric regulatory mutations. (PMID: 11903050) Fang J. … Stanley C.A. (Biochem. J. 2002) 3 4 23 67
  2. Novel inhibitors complexed with glutamate dehydrogenase: allosteric regulation by control of protein dynamics. (PMID: 19531491) Li M. … Smith T.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 23 25 26
  3. Chromosomal mapping of two members of the human glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) gene family to chromosomes 10q22.3-q23 and Xq22-q23. (PMID: 8288265) Anagnou N.P. … Moschonas N.K. (Hum. Hered. 1993) 23 25 26
  4. Human GLUD1 and GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase localize to mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. (PMID: 19448744) Mastorodemos V. … Plaitakis A. (Biochem. Cell Biol. 2009) 3 23
  5. Expression of enzymes regulating placental ammonia homeostasis in human fetal growth restricted pregnancies. (PMID: 19500843) Jozwik M. … Anthony R.V. (Placenta 2009) 3 23

Products for GLUD1 Gene

Sources for GLUD1 Gene

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