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Aliases for GRM1 Gene

Aliases for GRM1 Gene

  • Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 1 2 3
  • MGLUR1 3 4 6
  • SCAR13 3 6
  • GPRC1A 3 4
  • Protein Phosphatase 1, Regulatory Subunit 85 3
  • Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 3
  • Protein Phosphatase 1 2
  • Regulatory Subunit 85 2
  • PPP1R85 3
  • MGLU1 3
  • GRM1A 6

External Ids for GRM1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRM1 Gene

  • GC06P146196
  • GC06P146330
  • GC06P146390
  • GC06P143912

Summaries for GRM1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRM1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a metabotropic glutamate receptor that functions by activating phospholipase C. L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The canonical alpha isoform of the encoded protein is a disulfide-linked homodimer whose activity is mediated by a G-protein-coupled phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This gene may be associated with many disease states, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and breast cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

GeneCards Summary for GRM1 Gene

GRM1 (Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRM1 include spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 13 and autosomal recessive congenital cerebellar ataxia due to mglur1 deficiency. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and CREB Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TAS1R2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM1 Gene

  • G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. May participate in the central action of glutamate in the CNS, such as long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and long-term depression in the cerebellum.

Tocris Summary for GRM1 Gene

  • Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) group I receptors are members of the metabotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes mGlu group II and mGlu group III receptors. mGlu group I receptors are divided into two subtypes, mGlu1 and mGlu5. The receptors are coupled to Gq/11 which activates phospholipase C and they are also associated with Na+ and K+ channels. Their action is generally excitatory, increasing conductance, causing more glutamate to be released from the presynaptic cell. They can also increase inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), inhibit glutamate release and can modulate voltage-dependent calcium channels. Group I mGluRs, unlike other groups, are activated by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), allowing their function to be isolated. The human genes for mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptors have been localized to chromosomes 6 (6q24) and 11 (11q14.3) respectively.

Gene Wiki entry for GRM1 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GRM1 Gene

Genomics for GRM1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GRM1 Gene

Genomic Location for GRM1 Gene

146,027,646 bp from pter
146,437,646 bp from pter
410,001 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GRM1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GRM1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRM1 Gene

Proteins for GRM1 Gene

  • Protein details for GRM1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B9EG79
    • F8W805
    • Q13256
    • Q14757
    • Q14758
    • Q5VTF7
    • Q5VTF8
    • Q9NU10
    • Q9UGS9
    • Q9UGT0

    Protein attributes for GRM1 Gene

    1194 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    132357 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked. The PPXXF motif binds HOMER1, HOMER2 and HOMER3. Interacts with SIAH1, RYR1, RYR2, ITPR1, SHANK1, SHANK3 and GRASP (By similarity).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GRM1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GRM1 Gene


neXtProt entry for GRM1 Gene

Proteomics data for GRM1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GRM1 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn98, Asn223, Asn397, and Asn515
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GRM1 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GRM1 (mGluR1)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRM1 Gene

Domains for GRM1 Gene

Gene Families for GRM1 Gene

  • GRM :GPCR / Class C : Glutamate receptors, metabotropic
  • GR :Glutamate receptors

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GRM1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q13255
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRM1: view

Function for GRM1 Gene

Molecular function for GRM1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: metabotropic glutamate receptor 1,expressed in the brain,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,binding to HOMER proteins and linked to inositol phosphate receptors,activating PI turnover and triggering intracellular calcium release,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Signaling is inhibited by the antagonist LY341495. The LY341495 binding site partially overlaps with the glutamate binding site. Signaling is also inhibited by synthetic allosteric regulators, such as FITM (4-fluoro-N-(4-(6-(isopropylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)thiazol-2-yl)-N-methylbenzamide) that bind in a pocket between the transmembrane helices.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. May participate in the central action of glutamate in the CNS, such as long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and long-term depression in the cerebellum.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity TAS 7476890
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 19084525
GO:0008066 glutamate receptor activity TAS 7476890
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRM1: view

Animal Models for GRM1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRM1:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GRM1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GRM1

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GRM1

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GRM1 Gene

Localization for GRM1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM1 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GRM1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRM1 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytoskeleton 2
extracellular 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IMP 24603153
GO:0014069 postsynaptic density IBA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM1: view

Pathways for GRM1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRM1: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000186 activation of MAPKK activity IEA --
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IDA 24603153
GO:0007205 protein kinase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA --
GO:0007216 G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IMP 24603153
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM1: view

Compounds for GRM1 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for GRM1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(RS)-3,5-DHPG Selective group I mGlu agonist [19641-83-9]
(S)-3,5-DHPG Selective group I mGlu agonist. Active enantiomer of 3,5-DHPG (Cat. No. 0342) [162870-29-3]
FTIDC Potent and selective negative allosteric modulator at mGlu1; also mGlu1 inverse agonist [873551-53-2]
JNJ 16259685 Extremely potent, mGlu1-selective non-competitive antagonist [409345-29-5]
MPEP hydrochloride mGlu5 antagonist and positive allosteric modulator at mGlu4 [219911-35-0]

(2) HMDB Compounds for GRM1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Ca
L-Glutamic acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate

(3) Drugbank Compounds for GRM1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
4-(1-Amino-1-Carboxy-Ethyl)-Benzoic Acid
  • 3-(Acetylamino)propanesulphonic acid
77337-76-9 target antagonist
L-Glutamic Acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
56-86-0 target

(10) IUPHAR Ligand for GRM1 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
[3H]R214127 Allosteric regulator Negative 9
R214127 Allosteric regulator Negative 8.9
9-dimethylamino-3-(4-ethylphenyl)-3H-5-thia-1,3,6-triazafluoren-4-one Allosteric regulator Negative 8.3
A841720 Allosteric regulator Negative 8
LY456236 Allosteric regulator Negative 6.9
(S)-4C3HPG Antagonist Antagonist 6
CPCCOEt Allosteric regulator Negative 5.2
LY367385 Antagonist Antagonist 5.1
LY341495 Antagonist Antagonist 4.7
AIDA Antagonist Antagonist 4.2

(35) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GRM1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
ly367385 90 11
glutamate 89.1 161
cpccoet 87.5 9
2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine 82.1 2
quisqualate 77.5 12
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRM1: view

Transcripts for GRM1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GRM1 Gene

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 1:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GRM1

Primer Products

  • OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human,mouse,rat for GRM1

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRM1 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for GRM1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GRM1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GRM1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRM1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (13.3), Brain - Cerebellum (11.0), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (4.5), and Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (4.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GRM1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRM1 Gene Hs.32945

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GRM1 Gene

Tissue specificity: Detected in brain
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GRM1: view

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for GRM1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRM1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRM1 35
  • 99.66 (n)
  • 99.83 (a)
GRM1 36
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRM1 35
  • 90.49 (n)
  • 94.11 (a)
GRM1 36
  • 89 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GRM1 35
  • 92.28 (n)
  • 95.71 (a)
GRM1 36
  • 95 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Grm1 35
  • 87.77 (n)
  • 94.29 (a)
Grm1 16
Grm1 36
  • 94 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GRM1 36
  • 90 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRM1 36
  • 86 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Grm1 35
  • 88.41 (n)
  • 94.21 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GRM1 35
  • 79.11 (n)
  • 87.41 (a)
GRM1 36
  • 91 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GRM1 36
  • 86 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia grm1 35
  • 72.1 (n)
  • 81.02 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii grm1 35
  • 70.56 (n)
  • 74.83 (a)
GRM1 (2 of 2) 36
  • 73 (a)
grm1a 36
  • 70 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG30361 37
  • 41 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mgl-2 36
  • 38 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 33 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GRM1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRM1 Gene

Gene Tree for GRM1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GRM1 (if available)

Paralogs for GRM1 Gene

Paralogs for GRM1 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GRM1 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRM1: view

Variants for GRM1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GRM1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2941 - 146,433,996(+) CAGCC(A/G)TCATC missense, reference, utr-variant-3-prime
rs2942 Likely benign 146,434,004(+) ATCAA(A/G)CCCCT synonymous-codon, reference, utr-variant-3-prime
rs56566 -- 146,347,909(+) GTTTA(C/T)AGCCC intron-variant
rs61914 -- 146,355,129(-) CATTA(A/T)TACAG intron-variant
rs362815 -- 146,432,146(+) GTAAG(A/G)CATAT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRM1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv830836 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv527571 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv482962 CNV Loss 15286789
esv32685 CNV Loss 17666407
nsv886749 CNV Gain 21882294
esv2669145 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2660189 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv28078 CNV Loss 19812545

Relevant External Links for GRM1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM1 Gene

Disorders for GRM1 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for GRM1 Gene (604473)


  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive, 13 (SCAR13) [MIM:614831]: Spinocerebellar ataxia is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of cerebellar disorders. Patients show progressive incoordination of gait and often poor coordination of hands, speech and eye movements, due to degeneration of the cerebellum with variable involvement of the brainstem and spinal cord. SCAR13 is characterized by delayed psychomotor development beginning in infancy. Affected individuals show mild to profound mental retardation with poor or absent speech as well as gait and stance ataxia and hyperreflexia. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22901947}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GRM1 Gene

(16) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GRM1 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
hypocalcemia, autosomal dominant 81.3 1
neurodegenerative diseases 31.3 1
cns diseases 30.6 1
epilepsy temporal lobe 20.7 3
neurodegeneration 18 2

Relevant External Links for GRM1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRM1: view

Publications for GRM1 Gene

  1. Human metabotropic glutamate receptor 1: mRNA distribution, chromosome localization and functional expression of two splice variants. (PMID: 9076744) Stephan D. … Pruss R.M. (Neuropharmacology 1996) 2 3 4 23
  2. Expression of a novel splice variant of human mGluR1 in the cerebellum. (PMID: 9376535) Makoff A.J. … Emson P. (Neuroreport 1997) 2 3 23
  3. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 internalization induced by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation: differential dependency of internalization of splice variants on nonvisual arrestins. (PMID: 11961129) Mundell S.J. … Kelly E. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2002) 3 23
  4. Cys-140 is critical for metabotropic glutamate receptor-1 dimerization. (PMID: 10945991) Ray K. … Hauschild B.C. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000) 3 23
  5. Homer regulates the association of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors with multivalent complexes of homer-related, synaptic proteins. (PMID: 9808458) Xiao B. … Worley P.F. (Neuron 1998) 3 23

Products for GRM1 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for GRM1

Sources for GRM1 Gene

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