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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

ZDHHC21 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 48
GCID: GC09M014605

Zinc Finger, DHHC-Type Containing 21

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Zinc Finger, DHHC-Type Containing 211 2     HSPC0972
Zinc Finger DHHC Domain-Containing Protein 212 3     Palmitoyltransferase ZDHHC212
DHHC-212 3     Probable Palmitoyltransferase ZDHHC212
9130404H11Rik2     Zinc Finger, DHHC Domain Containing 212
DHHC212     EC 2.3.1.-3
DNZ12     EC 2.3.18

External Ids:    HGNC: 207501   Entrez Gene: 3404812   Ensembl: ENSG000001758937   OMIM: 6146055   UniProtKB: Q8IVQ63   

Export aliases for ZDHHC21 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC00U907487 GC09M014607


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

GeneCards Summary for ZDHHC21 Gene: 
ZDHHC21 (zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 21) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with ZDHHC21 include hypothyroidism, and endotheliitis, and among its related super-pathways are Metabolism of nitric oxide and Metabolic pathways. GO annotations related to this gene include palmitoyltransferase activity and zinc ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is ZDHHC3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ZDH21_HUMAN, Q8IVQ6
Function: Palmitoylates sex steroid hormone receptors, including ESR1, PGR and AR, thereby regulating their
targeting to the plasma membrane. This affects rapid intracellular signaling by sex hormones via ERK and AKT
kinases and the generation of cAMP, but does not affect that mediated by their nuclear receptor (By similarity)




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000009.11  NT_008413.18  NC_018920.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the ZDHHC21 gene promoter:
         Nkx3-1   LHX3b/Lhx3b   Nkx3-1 v4   AML1a   Nkx3-1 v1   LUN-1   RORalpha1   Nkx3-1 v2   Nkx3-1 v3   LHX3a/Lhx3a   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidZDHHC21 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for ZDHHC21

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat ZDHHC21


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 9p22.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  9p22.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 9p22.3

ZDHHC21 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
ZDHHC21 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 9         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC09M014605:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
14,611,069 bp from pter      End:
14,693,480 bp from pter
Size:
82,412 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ZDH21_HUMAN, Q8IVQ6 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Palmitoyltransferase ZDHHC21  
Size: 265 amino acids; 31385 Da
Subcellular location: Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein (Potential). Golgi apparatus (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: A8KA95 D3DRI7 Q5VWG1

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for ZDHHC21: NX_Q8IVQ6

Explore proteomics data for ZDHHC21 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q8IVQ6

  • 3 DME Specific Peptides for ZDHHC21 (Q8IVQ6)
     MDHHCPW  CVRRMDHHC  TDPGRLPENPKIPH 

    ZDHHC21 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    ZDHHC21 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_848661.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000370303  
    Reactome Protein details: Q8IVQ6
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for ZDHHC21: 
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for ZDHHC21 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000139Golgi membrane TAS--
    GO:0005794Golgi apparatus IDA--
    GO:0016021integral to membrane IEA--

    ZDHHC21 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    ZDHHC: Zinc fingers, DHHC-type

    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR001594 Znf_DHHC_palmitoyltrfase

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q8IVQ6

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q8IVQ6

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001594 Zn-finger

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ZDH21_HUMAN, Q8IVQ6
    Domain: The DHHC domain is required for palmitoyltransferase activity (By similarity)
    Similarity: Belongs to the DHHC palmitoyltransferase family
    Similarity: Contains 1 DHHC-type zinc finger


    ZDHHC21 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: ZDH21_HUMAN, Q8IVQ6
    Function: Palmitoylates sex steroid hormone receptors, including ESR1, PGR and AR, thereby regulating their
    targeting to the plasma membrane. This affects rapid intracellular signaling by sex hormones via ERK and AKT
    kinases and the generation of cAMP, but does not affect that mediated by their nuclear receptor (By similarity)
    Catalytic activity: Palmitoyl-CoA + protein-cysteine = S-palmitoyl protein + CoA

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.3.12 EC 2.3.1.-1

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0008270zinc ion binding IEA--
    GO:0016409palmitoyltransferase activity IEA--
         
    ZDHHC21 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for ZDHHC21:
     Decreased nuclei size in G2M 

         4 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Zdhhc21):
     craniofacial  endocrine/exocrine gland  integument  pigmentation 

    ZDHHC21 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
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    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidZDHHC21 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for ZDHHC21 About                                                                                                See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Metabolism of nitric oxide
    Metabolism of nitric oxide0.59
    eNOS activation0.41
    eNOS activation and regulation0.59
    2Metabolism
    Metabolism0.40

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    4        Reactome Pathways for ZDHHC21
        eNOS activation and regulation
    Metabolism of nitric oxide
    eNOS activation
    Metabolism



    ZDHHC21 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for ZDHHC21

    1 Interacting protein for ZDHHC21 (Q8IVQ63) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CREB3O438893I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/7 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001942hair follicle development IEA--
    GO:0018230peptidyl-L-cysteine S-palmitoylation IMP--
    GO:0018345protein palmitoylation ----
    GO:0044281small molecule metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0046209nitric oxide metabolic process TAS--

    ZDHHC21 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section
    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for ZDHHC21 (ZDH21)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about ZDHHC21 / ZDH21

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
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    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for ZDHHC21 gene: 
    NM_178566.4  

    Unigene Clusters for ZDHHC21:

    Zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 21
    Hs.649522  [show with all ESTs], Hs.714266  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequences: AK124263, NM_178566
    2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000380916(uc003zlg.2 uc003zlh.2) ENST00000497966
    miRNA
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF161360.1 AK026322.1 AK096860.1 AK127313.1 AK292960.1 BC042439.1 BC042558.1 

    8 DOTS entries:

    DT.109484  DT.97802447  DT.110189  DT.75188405  DT.443263  DT.100814140  DT.121145262  DT.95251223 

    24/110 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 110):

    AI658548 BM721007 BF940847 AA454645 BX091719 CR606494 AW134761 AA489238 
    AA402623 BQ009516 AL539073 AA456258 AW468985 AA278314 AL700436 BC042439 
    AF150301 BM684202 AI089177 AA743491 AI683062 BG771641 BE501639 AF161360 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    ZDHHC21 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      ZDHHC21 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    ZDHHC21 Expression
    About this image


    ZDHHC21 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/2 selected tissues (see all 2) fully expand
     
     Umbilical Cord (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)
             Umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells

    See ZDHHC21 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for ZDHHC21

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene clusters: Hs.649522 Hs.714266
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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for ZDHHC21 gene from 5/13 species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Zdhhc211 , 5 zinc finger, DHHC domain containing 211, 5 91.82(n)1
    97.74(a)1
      4 (39.40 cM)5
    682681  NM_026647.31  NP_080923.21 
     827987385 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves ZDHHC211 zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 21 80.75(n)
    82.64(a)
      427356  NM_001031438.1  NP_001026609.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia ZDHHC216
    Uncharacterized protein
    79(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    2(34520540-34562348)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.305702 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence 79.11(n)    48046489 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc:1584201 zgc:158420 65.15(n)
    64.64(a)
      100144560  NM_001123055.1  NP_001116527.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for ZDHHC21 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for ZDHHC21 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for ZDHHC21 gene
    ZDHHC32  ZDHHC122  ZDHHC72  ZDHHC202  ZDHHC22  ZDHHC152  

    ZDHHC21 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/2111 SNPs in ZDHHC21 are shown (see all 2111)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 9 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1816670011,2
    --14610571(+) ACTCAC/TTGTCT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs13437061,2
    C,F,O,A,H--14610591(+) GCTGAT/CTGATT 1 -- ds500122Minor allele frequency- C:0.33NA NS EA WA 2484
    rs1863353551,2
    C--14610625(+) TTTTTA/GGCCAA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs13437051,2
    C,F,O,A,H--14610866(+) TTTCAA/GCCCTA 1 -- ds500130Minor allele frequency- G:0.30EA NA NS WA CSA 2974
    rs1164916041,2
    C,F--14610920(+) ATTATG/AGCAGA 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.05WA 118
    rs1912335711,2
    --14610938(+) CCTAAC/GGCTAG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1436598761,2
    --14610972(+) TGTATA/CAAATT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1383592101,2
    --14610981(+) TTTTTA/CAAAGT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs169320561,2
    C,F--14611025(+) TTTGGG/TTTAAT 1 -- ds50015Minor allele frequency- T:0.05NA WA 262
    rs126827371,2
    H--14611066(+) AACAGT/ACCTAC 1 -- ds50014Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NS EA 412

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for ZDHHC21 (14611069 - 14693480 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 10/21 variations for ZDHHC21 (see all 21):    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2425554CNV Deletion19546169
    esv1979971CNV Deletion18987734
    esv2738226CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2738227CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2738229CNV Deletion23290073
    dgv1326e199CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv507507CNV Insertion20534489
    nsv466260CNV Loss19166990
    nsv521363CNV Loss19592680
    dgv8108n71CNV Loss21882294

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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 614605    OMIM disorders: --

    2 diseases for ZDHHC21:    About MalaCards
    hypothyroidism    endotheliitis


    ZDHHC21 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): ZDHHC21

    Export disorders for ZDHHC21 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for ZDHHC21 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 13):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with ZDHHC21)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. DHHC-7 and -21 are palmitoylacyltransferases for sex steroid receptors. (PubMed id 22031296)1, 2 Pedram A.... Levin E.R. (2012)
    2. Palmitoylation regulates epidermal homeostasis and ha ir follicle differentiation. (PubMed id 19956733)1, 3 Mill P....Jackson I.J. (2009)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S....Malek J. (2004)
    4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (2004)
    5. DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9. (PubMed id 15164053)1, 2 Humphray S.J.... Dunham I. (2004)
    6. Endothelial cell palmitoylproteomic identifies novel l ipid-modified targets and potential substrates for protein acyl transferases. (PubMed id 22496122)1 Marin E.P....Sessa W.C. (2012)
    7. Novel associations for hypothyroidism include known au toimmune risk loci. (PubMed id 22493691)1 Eriksson N....Do C.B. (2012)
    8. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women. (PubMed id 22589738)1 Fox C.S....Borecki I.B. (2012)
    9. Genomewide association study of a rapid progression c ohort identifies new susceptibility alleles for AIDS (ANRS Genomewide Associati on Study 03). (PubMed id 19754311)1 Le Clerc S....Sladek R. (2009)
    10. hORFeome v3.1: a resource of human open reading frames representing over 10,000 human genes. (PubMed id 17207965)1 Lamesch P.... Vidal M. (2007)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 340481 HGNC: 20750 AceView: ZDHHC21 Ensembl:ENSG00000175893 euGenes: HUgn340481
    ECgene: ZDHHC21 H-InvDB: ZDHHC21

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for ZDHHC21 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for ZDHHC21 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving ZDHHC21

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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