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Aliases for YWHAQ Gene

Aliases for YWHAQ Gene

  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, Theta 2 3
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, Theta Polypeptide 2 3
  • 14-3-3 Protein T-Cell 3 4
  • 14-3-3 Protein Tau 3 4
  • 14-3-3 Protein Theta 3
  • Protein Tau 2
  • Protein HS1 4
  • 14-3-3 3
  • TYHAQ 6
  • HS1 3
  • 1C5 3

External Ids for YWHAQ Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for YWHAQ Gene

  • GC02M009507
  • GC02M009775
  • GC02M009745
  • GC02M009674
  • GC02M009724

Summaries for YWHAQ Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for YWHAQ Gene

  • This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 99% identical to the mouse and rat orthologs. This gene is upregulated in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It contains in its 5' UTR a 6 bp tandem repeat sequence which is polymorphic, however, there is no correlation between the repeat number and the disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for YWHAQ Gene

YWHAQ (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, Theta) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Akt Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include protein domain specific binding and protein N-terminus binding. An important paralog of this gene is YWHAZ.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YWHAQ Gene

  • Adapter protein implicated in the regulation of a large spectrum of both general and specialized signaling pathways. Binds to a large number of partners, usually by recognition of a phosphoserine or phosphothreonine motif. Binding generally results in the modulation of the activity of the binding partner. Negatively regulates the kinase activity of PDPK1.

Tocris Summary for YWHAQ Gene

  • 14.3.3 proteins are a group of highly conserved proteins that are involved in many vital cellular processes such as metabolism, protein trafficking, signal transduction, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. 14.3.3 proteins are phospho-serine/phospho-threonine binding proteins that have a diverse array of partners including transcription factors, biosynthetic enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, signalling molecules, apoptosis factors and tumour suppressors. The 14.3.3 family consists of 7 isoforms; beta, gamma, epsilon, sigma, zeta, tau and eta. 14.3.3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed and self assemble into homo- and heterodimers, with the exception of 14.3.3sigma, which exclusively forms homodimers and is found in cells of epithelial origin only. Each monomer contains an independent ligand-binding site, thus the 14.3.3 dimer can interact with two target proteins simultaneously. 14.3.3 proteins are highly rigid structures and ligand binding can induce conformational changes that alter the stability and/or catalytic activity of the ligand. Furthermore, 14.3.3 protein binding can physically occlude sequence-specific or structural motifs on the target that prevent molecular interactions and/or modulate the accessibility of a target protein to modifying enzymes such as kinases, phosphatases and proteases. In addition, 14.3.3 proteins can act as a scaffold molecule to anchor target proteins within close proximity of one another. 14.3.3 proteins represent an integration point for proliferative, survival, apoptotic and stress signalling pathways. Members of the 14.3.3 protein family enhance the activity of many proteins with proliferative and/or survival functions, such as Raf kinases, and antagonise the activity of proteins that promote cell death and senescence, such as Bad, Bim and Bax. In contrast, 14.3.3sigma acts as a tumour suppressor and its expression is upregulated coordinately with p53 and BRAC1. This isoform sequesters cdk1-cyclin B complexes in the cytoplasm, and thus delays cell cycle progression. 14.3.3sigma is also a crucial regulator of translation during mitosis. Because many 14.3.3 interactions are phosphorylation dependent, 14.3.3 proteins have been integrated into the core regulatory pathways that are crucial for normal growth and development. 14.3.3 proteins are directly involved in cellular processes such as cytokinesis, cell-contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth and cell adhesion, and it is these pathways that often become dysregulated in disease states such as cancer.

Gene Wiki entry for YWHAQ Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for YWHAQ Gene

Genomics for YWHAQ Gene

Regulatory Elements for YWHAQ Gene

Genomic Location for YWHAQ Gene

9,583,967 bp from pter
9,631,055 bp from pter
47,089 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for YWHAQ Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for YWHAQ Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for YWHAQ Gene

Proteins for YWHAQ Gene

  • Protein details for YWHAQ Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    14-3-3 protein theta
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D6W4Z5
    • Q567U5
    • Q5TZU8
    • Q9UP48

    Protein attributes for YWHAQ Gene

    245 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    27764 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Interacts with CDK16 (By similarity). Interacts with SSH1. Interacts with CDKN1B (Thr-198 phosphorylated form); the interaction translocates CDKN1B to the cytoplasm. Interacts with GAB2. Interacts with the Ser-241 phosphorylated form of PDPK1.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for YWHAQ Gene

neXtProt entry for YWHAQ Gene

Proteomics data for YWHAQ Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for YWHAQ Gene

  • Ser-232 is probably phosphorylated by CK1.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys9, Lys11, Lys27, Lys49, Lys74, Lys75, Lys80, Lys115, Lys120, Lys122, Lys139, and Lys158
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for YWHAQ Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for YWHAQ Gene

Domains for YWHAQ Gene

Protein Domains for YWHAQ Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for YWHAQ Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



1433T_HUMAN :
  • P27348
  • Belongs to the 14-3-3 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with YWHAQ: view

No data available for Gene Families for YWHAQ Gene

Function for YWHAQ Gene

Molecular function for YWHAQ Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein,theta polypeptide stratifin,with likely several forms,one expressed in the cytoplasmic of keratinocyte,another in T cells,multifunctional regulator involved in cell-cyle control (checkpoint) and signal transduction,inhibitor of apoptosis through inhibiting the activation of p38 MAP kinase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Adapter protein implicated in the regulation of a large spectrum of both general and specialized signaling pathways. Binds to a large number of partners, usually by recognition of a phosphoserine or phosphothreonine motif. Binding generally results in the modulation of the activity of the binding partner. Negatively regulates the kinase activity of PDPK1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for YWHAQ Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10954706
GO:0019904 protein domain specific binding IEA --
GO:0047485 protein N-terminus binding IPI 11984006
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YWHAQ: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with YWHAQ: view

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for YWHAQ Gene

Localization for YWHAQ Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YWHAQ Gene

Cytoplasm. Note=In neurons, axonally transported to the nerve terminals.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for YWHAQ Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for YWHAQ gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
cytoskeleton 2
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for YWHAQ Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 15163635
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005925 focal adhesion IDA 21423176
GO:0016020 membrane IDA 19946888
GO:0030659 cytoplasmic vesicle membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YWHAQ: view

Pathways for YWHAQ Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with YWHAQ: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for YWHAQ Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
GO:0006605 protein targeting IEA --
GO:0006915 apoptotic process TAS --
GO:0007264 small GTPase mediated signal transduction TAS --
GO:0010467 gene expression TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YWHAQ: view

Compounds for YWHAQ Gene

(2) Tocris Compounds for YWHAQ Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Difopein High affinity inhibitor of 14.3.3 proteins; induces apoptosis [396834-58-5]
R18 Inhibitor of 14.3.3 proteins; induces apoptosis [211364-78-2]
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with YWHAQ: view

Transcripts for YWHAQ Gene

Unigene Clusters for YWHAQ Gene

Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta polypeptide:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for YWHAQ Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: -
SP5: -

Relevant External Links for YWHAQ Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for YWHAQ Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for YWHAQ Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for YWHAQ Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for YWHAQ Gene Hs.74405

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for YWHAQ Gene

Tissue specificity: Abundantly expressed in brain, heart and pancreas, and at lower levels in kidney and placenta. Up-regulated in the lumbar spinal cord from patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) compared with controls, with highest levels of expression in individuals with predominant lower motor neuron involvement.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with YWHAQ: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for YWHAQ Gene

Orthologs for YWHAQ Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for YWHAQ Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia YWHAQ 35
  • 99.86 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia YWHAQ 35
  • 94.29 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia YWHAQ 35
  • 95.78 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 93 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia LOC102634437 35
  • 93.88 (n)
  • 99.59 (a)
Ywhaq 16
Ywhaq 36
  • 100 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia YWHAQ 36
  • 82 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia YWHAQ 36
  • 95 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ywhaq 35
  • 94.29 (n)
  • 99.59 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves YWHAQ 35
  • 88.03 (n)
  • 98.78 (a)
  • 99 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia YWHAQ 36
  • 96 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ywhaq 35
  • 72.38 (n)
  • 77.96 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2365 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.1068 35
ywhaqa 36
  • 82 (a)
ywhaqb 35
  • 75.92 (n)
  • 82.86 (a)
ywhaqb 36
  • 83 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta 14-3-3zeta 36
  • 76 (a)
14-3-3zgr 37
  • 77 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ftt-2 36
  • 75 (a)
par-5 36
  • 73 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.2673 35
Species with no ortholog for YWHAQ:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for YWHAQ Gene

Gene Tree for YWHAQ (if available)
Gene Tree for YWHAQ (if available)

Paralogs for YWHAQ Gene

Paralogs for YWHAQ Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for YWHAQ Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with YWHAQ: view

Variants for YWHAQ Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for YWHAQ Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs7594 -- 9,584,138(-) ATTGT(A/G)CATTG utr-variant-3-prime
rs1111976 -- 9,599,426(-) aaagt(A/C)cttga intron-variant
rs1130874 -- 9,630,484(-) CCTCG(C/T)CCTcc utr-variant-5-prime
rs1524667 -- 9,627,642(-) GTTAC(A/G)CCCAG intron-variant
rs1534044 -- 9,610,436(-) AAGAT(G/T)TGTGT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for YWHAQ Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv214045 CNV Loss 16902084

Relevant External Links for YWHAQ Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YWHAQ Gene

Disorders for YWHAQ Gene

(3) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for YWHAQ Gene

Relevant External Links for YWHAQ

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with YWHAQ: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YWHAQ Gene

Publications for YWHAQ Gene

  1. A 14-3-3 mRNA is up-regulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord. (PMID: 11080204) Malaspina A. … de Belleroche J. (J. Neurochem. 2000) 2 3 4
  2. Structure of a 14-3-3 protein and implications for coordination of multiple signalling pathways. (PMID: 7603573) Xiao B. … Gamblin S.J. (Nature 1995) 3 4
  3. Molecular cloning and expression of the transformation sensitive epithelial marker stratifin. A member of a protein family that has been involved in the protein kinase C signalling pathway. (PMID: 8515476) Leffers H. … Celis J.E. (J. Mol. Biol. 1993) 3 4
  4. 14-3-3 is phosphorylated by casein kinase I on residue 233. Phosphorylation at this site in vivo regulates Raf/14-3-3 interaction. (PMID: 9360956) Dubois T. … Aitken A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1997) 3 4
  5. 14-3-3 Interacts directly with and negatively regulates pro-apoptotic Bax. (PMID: 12426317) Nomura M. … Tsujimoto Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 23

Products for YWHAQ Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for YWHAQ

Sources for YWHAQ Gene

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