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Aliases for YWHAH Gene

Aliases for YWHAH Gene

  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, Eta 2 3
  • YWHA1 3 4 6
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, Eta Polypeptide 2 3
  • 14-3-3 Eta 2 3
  • 14-3-3 Protein Eta 3
  • Protein AS1 4

External Ids for YWHAH Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for YWHAH Gene

  • YWHA1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for YWHAH Gene

  • GC22P029036
  • GC22P030665
  • GC22P032340
  • GC22P015296

Summaries for YWHAH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for YWHAH Gene

  • This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 99% identical to the mouse, rat and bovine orthologs. This gene contains a 7 bp repeat sequence in its 5' UTR, and changes in the number of this repeat have been associated with early-onset schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

GeneCards Summary for YWHAH Gene

YWHAH (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, Eta) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with YWHAH include bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Akt Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is YWHAZ.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YWHAH Gene

  • Adapter protein implicated in the regulation of a large spectrum of both general and specialized signaling pathways. Binds to a large number of partners, usually by recognition of a phosphoserine or phosphothreonine motif. Binding generally results in the modulation of the activity of the binding partner. Negatively regulates the kinase activity of PDPK1.

Tocris Summary for YWHAH Gene

  • 14.3.3 proteins are a group of highly conserved proteins that are involved in many vital cellular processes such as metabolism, protein trafficking, signal transduction, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. 14.3.3 proteins are phospho-serine/phospho-threonine binding proteins that have a diverse array of partners including transcription factors, biosynthetic enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, signalling molecules, apoptosis factors and tumour suppressors. The 14.3.3 family consists of 7 isoforms; beta, gamma, epsilon, sigma, zeta, tau and eta. 14.3.3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed and self assemble into homo- and heterodimers, with the exception of 14.3.3sigma, which exclusively forms homodimers and is found in cells of epithelial origin only. Each monomer contains an independent ligand-binding site, thus the 14.3.3 dimer can interact with two target proteins simultaneously. 14.3.3 proteins are highly rigid structures and ligand binding can induce conformational changes that alter the stability and/or catalytic activity of the ligand. Furthermore, 14.3.3 protein binding can physically occlude sequence-specific or structural motifs on the target that prevent molecular interactions and/or modulate the accessibility of a target protein to modifying enzymes such as kinases, phosphatases and proteases. In addition, 14.3.3 proteins can act as a scaffold molecule to anchor target proteins within close proximity of one another. 14.3.3 proteins represent an integration point for proliferative, survival, apoptotic and stress signalling pathways. Members of the 14.3.3 protein family enhance the activity of many proteins with proliferative and/or survival functions, such as Raf kinases, and antagonise the activity of proteins that promote cell death and senescence, such as Bad, Bim and Bax. In contrast, 14.3.3sigma acts as a tumour suppressor and its expression is upregulated coordinately with p53 and BRAC1. This isoform sequesters cdk1-cyclin B complexes in the cytoplasm, and thus delays cell cycle progression. 14.3.3sigma is also a crucial regulator of translation during mitosis. Because many 14.3.3 interactions are phosphorylation dependent, 14.3.3 proteins have been integrated into the core regulatory pathways that are crucial for normal growth and development. 14.3.3 proteins are directly involved in cellular processes such as cytokinesis, cell-contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth and cell adhesion, and it is these pathways that often become dysregulated in disease states such as cancer.

Gene Wiki entry for YWHAH Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for YWHAH Gene

Genomics for YWHAH Gene

Regulatory Elements for YWHAH Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for YWHAH Gene

31,944,461 bp from pter
31,957,603 bp from pter
13,143 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for YWHAH Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for YWHAH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for YWHAH Gene

Proteins for YWHAH Gene

  • Protein details for YWHAH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    14-3-3 protein eta
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:

    Protein attributes for YWHAH Gene

    246 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    28219 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer (By similarity). Interacts with many nuclear hormone receptors and cofactors including AR, ESR1, ESR2, MC2R, NR3C1, NRIP1, PPARBP and THRA. Interacts with ABL1 (phosphorylated form); the interaction retains it in the cytoplasm. Interacts with ARHGEF28 and CDK16 (By similarity). Weakly interacts with CDKN1B. Interacts with GAB2. Interacts with KCNK18 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Interacts with SAMSN1 (By similarity). Interacts with the Ser-241 phosphorylated form of PDPK1.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for YWHAH Gene

neXtProt entry for YWHAH Gene

Proteomics data for YWHAH Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for YWHAH Gene

  • Phosphorylated on Ser-59 by protein kinase C delta type catalytic subunit in a sphingosine-dependent fashion.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys50, Lys69, Lys110, Lys125, and Lys127
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for YWHAH Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for YWHAH (14-3-3 eta)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for YWHAH Gene

Domains for YWHAH Gene

Protein Domains for YWHAH Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for YWHAH Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



1433F_HUMAN :
  • Q04917
  • Belongs to the 14-3-3 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with YWHAH: view

No data available for Gene Families for YWHAH Gene

Function for YWHAH Gene

Molecular function for YWHAH Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/trytophan 5 monooxygenase activation protein,14-3-3 eta protein,multifunctional regulator involved in cell-cyle control (checkpoint), and signal transduction,inhibitor of apoptosis through inhibiting the activation of p38 MAP kinase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Adapter protein implicated in the regulation of a large spectrum of both general and specialized signaling pathways. Binds to a large number of partners, usually by recognition of a phosphoserine or phosphothreonine motif. Binding generally results in the modulation of the activity of the binding partner. Negatively regulates the kinase activity of PDPK1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for YWHAH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003779 actin binding IEA --
GO:0005159 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding ISS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10713667
GO:0017080 sodium channel regulator activity IDA 16728661
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IPI 17255105
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YWHAH: view

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for YWHAH

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for YWHAH Gene

Localization for YWHAH Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for YWHAH Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for YWHAH gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
endoplasmic reticulum 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for YWHAH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm ISS --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA 16728661
GO:0014704 intercalated disc IC 16728661
GO:0030659 cytoplasmic vesicle membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YWHAH: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YWHAH Gene

Pathways for YWHAH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with YWHAH: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for YWHAH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002028 regulation of sodium ion transport IDA 16728661
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
GO:0006713 glucocorticoid catabolic process IDA 15790729
GO:0006886 intracellular protein transport ISS --
GO:0006915 apoptotic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YWHAH: view

Compounds for YWHAH Gene

(2) Tocris Compounds for YWHAH Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Difopein High affinity inhibitor of 14.3.3 proteins; induces apoptosis [396834-58-5]
R18 Inhibitor of 14.3.3 proteins; induces apoptosis [211364-78-2]

(1) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for YWHAH Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
tyrosine 33.8 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with YWHAH: view

Transcripts for YWHAH Gene

Unigene Clusters for YWHAH Gene

Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for YWHAH

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for YWHAH Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: -
SP5: - - - -
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for YWHAH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for YWHAH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for YWHAH Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for YWHAH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (5.3), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (5.1), Brain - Amygdala (4.2), and Brain - Cortex (4.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for YWHAH Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for YWHAH Gene Hs.226755

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for YWHAH Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed mainly in the brain and present in other tissues albeit at lower levels
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with YWHAH: view

Expression partners for YWHAH Gene

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues for YWHAH Gene

Orthologs for YWHAH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for YWHAH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia YWHAH 35
  • 90.24 (n)
  • 98.78 (a)
  • 59 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia YWHAH 35
  • 95.93 (n)
  • 99.19 (a)
  • 99 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ywhah 35
  • 93.22 (n)
  • 99.19 (a)
Ywhah 16
Ywhah 36
  • 99 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia YWHAH 35
  • 99.46 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ywhah 35
  • 92.82 (n)
  • 99.19 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia YWHAH 36
  • 97 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia YWHAH 36
  • 98 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves YWHAH 35
  • 85.91 (n)
  • 97.97 (a)
  • 98 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 50 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.16325 35
ywhah 35
  • 78.86 (n)
  • 92.68 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii wufb51h04 35
ywhah 35
  • 76.87 (n)
  • 84.9 (a)
ywhah 36
  • 85 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta 14-3-3zgr 37
  • 73 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea M117.3 36
  • 38 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes BMH1 36
  • 56 (a)
BMH2 36
  • 55 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 47 (a)
-- 36
  • 50 (a)
-- 36
  • 59 (a)
CSA.10834 36
  • 58 (a)
CSA.10888 36
  • 53 (a)
CSA.11325 36
  • 49 (a)
Species with no ortholog for YWHAH:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for YWHAH Gene

Gene Tree for YWHAH (if available)
Gene Tree for YWHAH (if available)

Paralogs for YWHAH Gene

Paralogs for YWHAH Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for YWHAH Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with YWHAH: view

Variants for YWHAH Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for YWHAH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs135315 -- 31,950,775(+) CTTGC(A/C)CAGTG intron-variant
rs933226 -- 31,947,860(+) GTGGA(C/T)ATTCA intron-variant
rs1049583 -- 31,956,804(+) TTCAG(A/G)TCCCC utr-variant-3-prime
rs1049816 -- 31,957,421(+) TTTGG(G/T)TGCAA utr-variant-3-prime
rs1049865 -- 31,957,548(+) GACTT(C/T)TAAAA utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for YWHAH Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv508731 CNV Insertion 20534489

Relevant External Links for YWHAH Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YWHAH Gene

Disorders for YWHAH Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database.

Search for YWHAH Gene in MalaCards »

(2) Diseases for YWHAH Gene including...

(2) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for YWHAH Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
schizophrenia 31 2
tumors 0 1

Relevant External Links for YWHAH

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with YWHAH: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , University of Copenhagen DISEASES and Genatlas for YWHAH Gene

Publications for YWHAH Gene

  1. cDNA cloning and chromosome assignment of the gene for human brain 14-3-3 protein eta chain. (PMID: 1578511) Ichimura-Ohshima Y. … Kuwano R. (J. Neurosci. Res. 1992) 3 4 23
  2. The human and bovine 14-3-3 eta protein mRNAs are highly conserved in both their translated and untranslated regions. (PMID: 8218406) Swanson K.D. … Joshi J.G. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1993) 3 4 23
  3. 14-3-3 protein eta chain gene (YWHAH) polymorphism and its genetic association with schizophrenia. (PMID: 10206237) Toyooka K. … Takahashi Y. (Am. J. Med. Genet. 1999) 3 23 48
  4. Systematic screening of the 14-3-3 eta (eta) chain gene for polymorphic variants and case-control analysis in schizophrenia. (PMID: 11121172) Bell R. … Collier D.A. (Am. J. Med. Genet. 2000) 3 23 48
  5. The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is overexpressed in human cancers and interacts with YWHAH protein. (PMID: 16545136) Namkoong H. … Kim J.W. (BMC Cancer 2006) 3 23

Products for YWHAH Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for YWHAH

Sources for YWHAH Gene

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