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Aliases for YARS2 Gene

Aliases for YARS2 Gene

  • Tyrosyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial 2 3
  • TYRRS 3 4 6
  • EC 4 63
  • MLASA2 3 6
  • Tyrosine TRNA Ligase 2, Mitochondrial 3
  • Tyrosine--TRNA Ligase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Tyrosyl-TRNA Synthetase 4
  • Tyrosine TRNA Ligase 2 2
  • Mitochondrial 2
  • MT-TYRRS 3
  • CGI-04 3

External Ids for YARS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for YARS2 Gene

  • GC12M032789
  • GC12M032899
  • GC12M032651
  • GC12M032880

Summaries for YARS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for YARS2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein that catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr). Mutations in this gene are associated with myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia type 2 (MLASA2). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

GeneCards Summary for YARS2 Gene

YARS2 (Tyrosyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with YARS2 include myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 2 and mitochondrial myopathy and sideroblastic anemia 1. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and tRNA Aminoacylation. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and tyrosine-tRNA ligase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YARS2 Gene

  • Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) in a two-step reaction: tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Tyr).

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for YARS2 Gene

Genomics for YARS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for YARS2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for YARS2 Gene

32,725,361 bp from pter
32,755,961 bp from pter
30,601 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for YARS2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for YARS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for YARS2 Gene

Proteins for YARS2 Gene

  • Protein details for YARS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tyrosine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DUW8
    • Q9H817

    Protein attributes for YARS2 Gene

    477 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    53199 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for YARS2 Gene

neXtProt entry for YARS2 Gene

Proteomics data for YARS2 Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for YARS2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for YARS2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for YARS2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for YARS2 Gene

Gene Families for YARS2 Gene

  • aaRS1 :Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases / Class I

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for YARS2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q9Y2Z4
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with YARS2: view

Function for YARS2 Gene

Molecular function for YARS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: ATP + L-tyrosine + tRNA(Tyr) = AMP + diphosphate + L-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) in a two-step reaction: tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Tyr).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for YARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for YARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000049 tRNA binding TAS 15779907
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity --
GO:0004831 tyrosine-tRNA ligase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YARS2: view

Phenotypes for YARS2 Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for YARS2:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with YARS2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for YARS2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target YARS2

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for YARS2 Gene

Localization for YARS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YARS2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for YARS2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for YARS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for YARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion TAS 15779907
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YARS2: view

Pathways for YARS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with YARS2: view

Pathways by source for YARS2 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for YARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for YARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation NAS 10810093
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006437 tyrosyl-tRNA aminoacylation --
GO:0010467 gene expression TAS --
GO:0043039 tRNA aminoacylation IDA 15779907
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YARS2: view

Compounds for YARS2 Gene

(5) HMDB Compounds for YARS2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine monophosphate
  • 5'-AMP
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
  • (-)-a-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamate
Phosphoric acid
  • acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion

(1) Drugbank Compounds for YARS2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • 2-Amino-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid
60-18-4 target

(1) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for YARS2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
tyrosine 35.9 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with YARS2: view

Transcripts for YARS2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for YARS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for YARS2 Gene

Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for YARS2

Primer Products

  • OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human,mouse,rat for YARS2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for YARS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for YARS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for YARS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for YARS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for YARS2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for YARS2 Gene Hs.505231

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with YARS2: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for YARS2 Gene

Orthologs for YARS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for YARS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia YARS2 35
  • 99.72 (n)
  • 99.58 (a)
YARS2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia YARS2 35
  • 88.33 (n)
  • 89.31 (a)
YARS2 36
  • 89 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia YARS2 35
  • 86.09 (n)
  • 87.21 (a)
YARS2 36
  • 87 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Yars2 35
  • 83.86 (n)
  • 85.77 (a)
Yars2 16
Yars2 36
  • 85 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 76 (a)
-- 36
  • 86 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia YARS2 36
  • 63 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Yars2 35
  • 83.23 (n)
  • 85.14 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves YARS2 35
  • 70.62 (n)
  • 68.43 (a)
YARS2 36
  • 59 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia YARS2 36
  • 64 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.14420 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.8179 35
yars2 35
  • 64.8 (n)
  • 65.32 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii wufi41d10 35
yars2 35
  • 61.38 (n)
  • 60.68 (a)
yars2 36
  • 60 (a)
yars2 36
  • 60 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta TTRNA1 35
  • 53.8 (n)
  • 51.29 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG16912 35
  • 53.54 (n)
  • 48.67 (a)
CG16912 36
  • 46 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea yars-1 35
  • 47.26 (n)
  • 38.9 (a)
yars-1 36
  • 33 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ABR192W 35
  • 47.68 (n)
  • 39.9 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes MSY1 35
  • 46.36 (n)
  • 35.58 (a)
MSY1 36
  • 32 (a)
MSY1 38
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E24267g 35
  • 48.86 (n)
  • 40.53 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons emb2768 35
  • 48.88 (n)
  • 39.43 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0500900 35
  • 49.87 (n)
  • 40.87 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU03030 35
  • 51.39 (n)
  • 42.41 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPCC576.06c 35
  • 46.05 (n)
  • 38.14 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 42 (a)
Species with no ortholog for YARS2:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for YARS2 Gene

Gene Tree for YARS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for YARS2 (if available)

Paralogs for YARS2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for YARS2 Gene

Variants for YARS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for YARS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs877129 -- 32,756,306(-) CTCCG(A/C)GAACT upstream-variant-2KB
rs1454932 -- 32,756,912(-) GGTCT(A/G)AAGGT upstream-variant-2KB
rs2124150 -- 32,748,631(-) TCCCT(A/G)TAGTA intron-variant
rs2124151 -- 32,748,473(-) GATTT(C/T)TTTTT intron-variant
rs3762106 -- 32,746,523(+) CAATT(C/G)CTTTT downstream-variant-500B, intron-variant

Relevant External Links for YARS2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for YARS2 Gene

Disorders for YARS2 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for YARS2 Gene (610957)


  • Myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia 2 (MLASA2) [MIM:613561]: A rare oxidative phosphorylation disorder specific to skeletal muscle and bone marrow. Affected individuals manifest sideroblastic anemia, progressive lethargy, muscle weakness, and exercise intolerance associated with persistent lactic acidemia. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20598274, ECO:0000269 PubMed:22504945}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for YARS2 Gene

Relevant External Links for YARS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with YARS2: view

Publications for YARS2 Gene

  1. Toward the full set of human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: characterization of AspRS and TyrRS. (PMID: 15779907) Bonnefond L. … Sissler M. (Biochemistry 2005) 2 3 4
  2. Human mitochondrial TyrRS disobeys the tyrosine identity rules. (PMID: 15840810) Bonnefond L. … Rudinger-Thirion J. (RNA 2005) 2 3
  3. Crystal structure of human mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase reveals common and idiosyncratic features. (PMID: 17997975) Bonnefond L. … Rudinger-Thirion J. (Structure 2007) 3 23
  4. Identification of novel human genes evolutionarily conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans by comparative proteomics. (PMID: 10810093) Lai C.-H. … Lin W.-C. (Genome Res. 2000) 3 4
  5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4

Products for YARS2 Gene

Sources for YARS2 Gene

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