Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for YARS Gene

Aliases for YARS Gene

  • Tyrosyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • Tyrosine TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 2 3
  • EC 4 61
  • TYRRS 3 4
  • Tyrosyl-TRNA Synthetase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Tyrosine--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Tyrosyl--TRNA Ligase 3
  • EC 6.1.1 61
  • CMTDIC 3
  • YRS 3
  • YTS 3

External Ids for YARS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for YARS Gene

  • GC01M033060
  • GC01M032195
  • GC01M032667
  • GC01M032909
  • GC01M033013
  • GC01M033240
  • GC01M031356

Summaries for YARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for YARS Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class I tRNA synthetase family. Cytokine activities have also been observed for the human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, after it is split into two parts, an N-terminal fragment that harbors the catalytic site and a C-terminal fragment found only in the mammalian enzyme. The N-terminal fragment is an interleukin-8-like cytokine, whereas the released C-terminal fragment is an EMAP II-like cytokine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for YARS Gene

YARS (Tyrosyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with YARS include Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Dominant Intermediate C and Intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy. Among its related pathways are Tyrosine metabolism and tRNA Aminoacylation. GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and signal transducer activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YARS Gene

  • Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) in a two-step reaction: tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Tyr).

Gene Wiki entry for YARS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for YARS Gene

Genomics for YARS Gene

Regulatory Elements for YARS Gene

Enhancers for YARS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH01F032788 0.7 ENCODE 12.3 +28.7 28732 1.3 TBP PKNOX1 SIN3A ZNF48 YY1 ZNF121 ZNF335 GLIS2 ZNF366 FOS FNDC5 S100PBP YARS SYNC KIAA1522
GH01F032779 0.7 ENCODE 11.8 +37.4 37370 1.6 GTF2F1 TAF1 JUN MAX ZIC2 GATA3 POLR2A CHD2 PAF1 HLF S100PBP FNDC5 SYNC KIAA1522 YARS ENSG00000224409 RBBP4 ZBTB8OS LOC105378629
GH01F032771 0.7 ENCODE 11.7 +44.0 44036 5.1 HDGF SIN3A ARID4B ZNF48 ZNF2 ZNF766 GLIS2 ZNF143 ZNF548 PAF1 KPNA6 FNDC5 EIF3I KIAA1522 ENSG00000224409 SYNC YARS S100PBP RBBP4 ZBTB8OS
GH01F032861 0.8 Ensembl 11.2 -43.6 -43649 0.8 BHLHE40 CEBPB PRDM10 CEBPG YARS S100PBP AK2 AZIN2 SYNC FNDC5
GH01F032763 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 11 +52.1 52099 4.3 KLF1 KLF17 ZIC2 ZFHX2 POLR2A PATZ1 PRDM10 MAFK MAZ USF2 FNDC5 S100PBP KIAA1522 ENSG00000224066 ENSG00000224409 SYNC YARS IQCC DCDC2B
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around YARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for YARS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000281256 853 3001 CREB3L1 MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3

Genomic Location for YARS Gene

32,775,237 bp from pter
32,818,153 bp from pter
42,917 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for YARS Gene

Genes around YARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
YARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for YARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for YARS Gene

Proteins for YARS Gene

  • Protein details for YARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tyrosine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KWK4
    • D3DPQ4
    • O43276
    • Q53EN1

    Protein attributes for YARS Gene

    528 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    59143 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    • Sequence=AAB39406.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=354; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for YARS Gene

neXtProt entry for YARS Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for YARS Gene


Post-translational modifications for YARS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 119, Lys 147, Lys 206, and Lys 513
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for YARS Gene

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for YARS Gene

Gene Families for YARS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for YARS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 tRNA-binding domain.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Contains 1 tRNA-binding domain.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with YARS: view

Function for YARS Gene

Molecular function for YARS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-tyrosine + tRNA(Tyr) = AMP + diphosphate + L-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) in a two-step reaction: tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Tyr).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for YARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for YARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000049 tRNA binding IEA --
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003723 RNA binding IEA --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004831 tyrosine-tRNA ligase activity IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YARS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with YARS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for YARS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for YARS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for YARS:
  • Yars tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi

Animal Model Products

miRNA for YARS Gene

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for YARS Gene

Localization for YARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YARS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for YARS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for YARS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 5
extracellular 4
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for YARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS 10102815
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YARS: view

Pathways & Interactions for YARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with YARS: view

Pathways by source for YARS Gene

1 KEGG pathway for YARS Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for YARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for YARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation IEA,TAS --
GO:0006437 tyrosyl-tRNA aminoacylation IEA --
GO:0006438 valyl-tRNA aminoacylation IBA --
GO:0006915 apoptotic process TAS 10102815
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YARS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for YARS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for YARS Gene

(13) Drugs for YARS Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Tyrosine Approved Nutra Target 0
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
4-(2,2,2-TRIFLUOROETHYL)-L-PHENYLALANINE Experimental Pharma Target 0

(7) Additional Compounds for YARS Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with YARS: view

Transcripts for YARS Gene

mRNA/cDNA for YARS Gene

(4) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(8) Additional mRNA sequences :
(1) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(10) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for YARS Gene

Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for YARS Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: -
SP5: - -

Relevant External Links for YARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for YARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for YARS Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for YARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (10.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for YARS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for YARS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of YARS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for YARS Gene:

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with YARS: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for YARS Gene

Orthologs for YARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for YARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia YARS 34 35
  • 99.68 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia YARS 34 35
  • 92.11 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia YARS 35
  • 92 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia YARS 34 35
  • 91.35 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Yars 34 16 35
  • 89.52 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Yars 34
  • 89.27 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia YARS 35
  • 83 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves YARS 34 35
  • 78.12 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia YARS 35
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia yars 34
  • 73.42 (n)
Str.4835 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii yars 34 35
  • 73.93 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4561 36
  • 67 (a)
Aats-tyr 34 35
  • 65.61 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003003 34
  • 61.9 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y105E8A.19 36 35
  • 68 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AAL148W 34
  • 60.62 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TYS1 34 35 37
  • 59.84 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F15389g 34
  • 57.7 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0303900 34
  • 53.73 (n)
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.4638 34
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.1744 35
  • 66 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes yrs1 34
  • 57.32 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU07755 34
  • 54.24 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.10401 34
Species where no ortholog for YARS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for YARS Gene

Gene Tree for YARS (if available)
Gene Tree for YARS (if available)

Paralogs for YARS Gene

No data available for Paralogs for YARS Gene

Variants for YARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for YARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs121908833 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, dominant, intermediate type, C (CMTDIC) [MIM:608323], Pathogenic 32,810,994(-) ACTGG(A/G)GAACG intron-variant, reference, missense, utr-variant-5-prime
rs121908834 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, dominant, intermediate type, C (CMTDIC) [MIM:608323], Pathogenic 32,797,768(-) TTGCA(A/G)AGAAG reference, missense, utr-variant-5-prime
rs786200893 Pathogenic 32,806,523(-) GGTGG(-/TAAAGCAGGTGG)AGCAC cds-indel
rs786205442 Likely pathogenic 32,786,971(-) TCCTT(A/C)ATCAA reference, missense
rs138749370 Likely benign 32,811,052(+) CCCAG(A/G)ACCTC intron-variant, reference, synonymous-codon, utr-variant-5-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for YARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3585677 CNV loss 21293372
esv3585678 CNV loss 21293372
nsv322 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv509158 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv519188 CNV loss 19592680

Variation tolerance for YARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 17.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.84; 34.58% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for YARS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YARS Gene

Disorders for YARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for YARS Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
charcot-marie-tooth disease, dominant intermediate c
  • charcot-marie-tooth disease dominant intermediate c
intermediate charcot-marie-tooth neuropathy
maxillonasal dysplasia, binder type
  • binder syndrome
gastric leiomyosarcoma
  • leiomyosarcoma of stomach
dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria
  • reticulate acropigmentation of dohi
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search YARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, dominant, intermediate type, C (CMTDIC) [MIM:608323]: A form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a disorder of the peripheral nervous system, characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy, initially of the peroneal muscles and later of the distal muscles of the arms. The dominant intermediate type C is characterized by clinical and pathologic features intermediate between demyelinating and axonal peripheral neuropathies, and motor median nerve conduction velocities ranging from 25 to 45 m/sec. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16429158}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for YARS

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with YARS: view

No data available for Genatlas for YARS Gene

Publications for YARS Gene

  1. Human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase shares amino acid sequence homology with a putative cytokine. (PMID: 9162081) Kleeman T.A. … First E.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1997) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Crystal structures that suggest late development of genetic code components for differentiating aromatic side chains. (PMID: 14671330) Yang X.-L. … Ribas de Pouplana L. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003) 3 4 22 64
  3. Crystal structure of a human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase cytokine. (PMID: 12427973) Yang X.-L. … Schimmel P. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002) 3 4 22 64
  4. Evidence that two present-day components needed for the genetic code appeared after nucleated cells separated from eubacteria. (PMID: 8552597) Ribas de Pouplana L. … Schimmel P. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1996) 2 3 4 64
  5. Mutational separation of aminoacylation and cytokine activities of human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 19477417) Kapoor M. … Yang X.L. (Chem. Biol. 2009) 3 22 64

Products for YARS Gene

Sources for YARS Gene

Loading form....