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Aliases for WARS2 Gene

Aliases for WARS2 Gene

  • Tryptophanyl TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial 2 3 5
  • Tryptophan TRNA Ligase 2, Mitochondrial 2 3
  • EC 4 58
  • (Mt)TrpRS 3 4
  • TrpRS 3 4
  • Tryptophan--TRNA Ligase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase 4
  • EC 6.1.1 58

External Ids for WARS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for WARS2 Gene

  • GC01M120022
  • GC01M118413
  • GC01M118720
  • GC01M118920
  • GC01M119286
  • GC01M119573
  • GC01M117432

Summaries for WARS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for WARS2 Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Two forms of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase exist, a cytoplasmic form, named WARS, and a mitochondrial form, named WARS2. This gene encodes the mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for WARS2 Gene

WARS2 (Tryptophanyl TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with WARS2 include Autosomal Recessive Non-Syndromic Intellectual Disability and Long Qt Syndrome 1. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Gene Expression. GO annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity.

Gene Wiki entry for WARS2 Gene

Additional gene information for WARS2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for WARS2 Gene

Genomics for WARS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for WARS2 Gene

Enhancers for WARS2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH01H119008 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 36.5 +131.9 131935 1.6 CTCF ZNF654 TRIM22 ZNF384 REST RAD21 ZNF366 MBD1 SMC3 CTBP2 WARS2 LOC101929147 LOC105378933 GC01M119018
GH01H118958 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 19.2 +180.3 180284 3.8 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ATF1 MLX ARID4B DMAP1 YY1 ELK1 ATF7 RUNX3 WARS2 LOC105378933 LOC101929147 GC01M118978 PIR34052
GH01H119000 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 24.6 +139.3 139256 2.5 SUZ12 CEBPG FOSL1 EGR1 FOSL2 FOS ZNF584 EZH2 ZNF639 MCM3 WARS2 LOC105378933 GC01M119018
GH01H119782 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 17.9 -644.9 -644883 6.9 PKNOX1 FOXA2 RAD21 RFX5 RARA YY1 ZNF766 ZNF366 FOS CEBPB PHGDH WARS2 REG4 HMGCS2 ADAM30 LOC101929147
GH01H118981 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 14.2 +154.5 154542 9 BRD4 ZNF197 L3MBTL2 SUZ12 NRF1 MAX ZNF589 POLR2A ZNF512 ZKSCAN8 WARS2 LOC105378933 LOC101929147 TBX15 GC01P118982
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around WARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for WARS2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Locations for WARS2 Gene

Genomic Locations for WARS2 Gene
109,573 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for WARS2 Gene

Genes around WARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
WARS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for WARS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for WARS2 Gene

Proteins for WARS2 Gene

  • Protein details for WARS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1ALR1
    • B2R9D4
    • Q53FT4
    • Q5VUD2
    • Q86TQ0

    Protein attributes for WARS2 Gene

    360 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    40147 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for WARS2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for WARS2 Gene


neXtProt entry for WARS2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for WARS2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for WARS2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for WARS2 Gene

Gene Families for WARS2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with WARS2: view

Function for WARS2 Gene

Molecular function for WARS2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase 2,mitochondrial
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-tryptophan + tRNA(Trp) = AMP + diphosphate + L-tryptophyl-tRNA(Trp).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for WARS2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for WARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for WARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004830 tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity TAS --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016874 ligase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with WARS2: view

Animal Models for WARS2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for WARS2:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for WARS2 Gene

Localization for WARS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WARS2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for WARS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
plasma membrane 4
nucleus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Mitochondria (3)
  • Plasma membrane (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for WARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS2: view

Pathways & Interactions for WARS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with WARS2: view

Pathways by source for WARS2 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for WARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for WARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001570 vasculogenesis IEA --
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006436 tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for WARS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for WARS2 Gene

(4) Drugs for WARS2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Tryptophan Approved, Withdrawn Nutra Positive, Allosteric regulator, Target, Enzyme, inhibitor, substrate 0
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
ATP Nutra Agonist 0

(4) Additional Compounds for WARS2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with WARS2: view

Transcripts for WARS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for WARS2 Gene

Tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for WARS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b
SP1: -
SP2: - - -

Relevant External Links for WARS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for WARS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for WARS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for WARS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (11.2), Salivary gland (6.6), and Islet of Langerhans (6.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for WARS2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for WARS2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of WARS2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for WARS2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for WARS2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for WARS2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.5)
  • Kidney(4.3)
  • Pancreas(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with WARS2: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for WARS2 Gene

Orthologs for WARS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for WARS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia WARS2 33 34
  • 99.44 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia WARS2 33 34
  • 88.43 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Wars2 33 16 34
  • 85.37 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia WARS2 33 34
  • 85.09 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Wars2 33
  • 84.63 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia WARS2 34
  • 75 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia WARS2 34
  • 70 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves WARS2 33 34
  • 67.72 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia WARS2 34
  • 69 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia wars2 33
  • 65.45 (n)
Str.6744 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.6583 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii wars2 33 34
  • 61.63 (n)
wufb77g08 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP011744 33
  • 55.2 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG7441 35 33 34
  • 55.14 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea prx-10 33 34
  • 48.65 (n)
wrs-2 35
  • 42 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E21825g 33
  • 51.95 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACR089C 33
  • 50.88 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes MSW1 33 34 36
  • 48.93 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons OVA4 33
  • 49.95 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0743400 33
  • 48.31 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes msw1 33
  • 47.63 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.6568 34
  • 42 (a)
Species where no ortholog for WARS2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for WARS2 Gene

Gene Tree for WARS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for WARS2 (if available)

Paralogs for WARS2 Gene Pseudogenes for WARS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with WARS2: view

No data available for Paralogs for WARS2 Gene

Variants for WARS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for WARS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs139194636 Likely pathogenic 119,033,203(+) GGTCA(C/T)AGGTG reference, missense, utr-variant-3-prime
rs757600616 Likely pathogenic 119,033,279(+) TATTC(A/G)GACGG reference, utr-variant-3-prime, stop-gained
rs1000015781 -- 119,078,278(+) ATAAA(A/G)AATTA intron-variant
rs1000048886 -- 119,121,451(+) TTGTA(A/G)AAATG intron-variant
rs1000146457 -- 119,125,614(+) CTCCA(C/G)TGAAC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for WARS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv997707 CNV gain 25217958
nsv946174 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv946173 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv831192 CNV gain 17160897
nsv524681 CNV gain 19592680
nsv521813 CNV loss 19592680
esv2475310 CNV deletion 19546169
dgv16n21 CNV loss 19592680

Variation tolerance for WARS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 65.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.88; 74.19% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for WARS2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WARS2 Gene

Disorders for WARS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for WARS2 Gene - From: Orphanet and DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability
  • autosomal recessive mental retardation
long qt syndrome 1
  • long qt syndrome 1, acquired
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search WARS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for WARS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with WARS2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for WARS2 Gene

Publications for WARS2 Gene

  1. Identification and characterization of human mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 10828066) Jorgensen R … Justesen J (The Journal of biological chemistry 2000) 2 3 4 22 60
  2. Assignment of the human mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WARS2) to 1p13.3-->p13.1 by radiation hybrid mapping. (PMID: 10072595) Martinez-Dominguez MT … Hansen LL (Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1998) 2 3 22 60
  3. Mutations of the aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetases SARS and WARS2 are implicated in the etiology of autosomal recessive intellectual disability. (PMID: 28236339) Musante L … Kuss AW (Human mutation 2017) 3 4 60
  4. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 45 60
  5. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PMID: 16710414) Gregory SG … Prigmore E (Nature 2006) 3 4 60

Products for WARS2 Gene

Sources for WARS2 Gene

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