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Aliases for WARS2 Gene

Aliases for WARS2 Gene

  • Tryptophanyl TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial 2 3 5
  • EC 4 63
  • (Mt)TrpRS 3 4
  • TrpRS 3 4
  • Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Tryptophan TRNA Ligase 2, Mitochondrial 3
  • Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase 4
  • Tryptophan TRNA Ligase 2 2
  • Tryptophan-TRNA Ligase 3
  • Mitochondrial 2
  • EC 6.1.1 63

External Ids for WARS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for WARS2 Gene

  • GC01M120022
  • GC01M118413
  • GC01M118720
  • GC01M118920
  • GC01M119286
  • GC01M119573
  • GC01M117432

Summaries for WARS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for WARS2 Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Two forms of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase exist, a cytoplasmic form, named WARS, and a mitochondrial form, named WARS2. This gene encodes the mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for WARS2 Gene

WARS2 (Tryptophanyl TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and tRNA Aminoacylation. GO annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity.

Gene Wiki entry for WARS2 Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for WARS2 Gene

Genomics for WARS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for WARS2 Gene

Enhancers for WARS2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around WARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for WARS2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around WARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for WARS2 Gene

119,031,216 bp from pter
119,140,788 bp from pter
109,573 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for WARS2 Gene

Genes around WARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
WARS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for WARS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for WARS2 Gene

Proteins for WARS2 Gene

  • Protein details for WARS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1ALR1
    • B2R9D4
    • Q53FT4
    • Q5VUD2
    • Q86TQ0

    Protein attributes for WARS2 Gene

    360 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    40147 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for WARS2 Gene


neXtProt entry for WARS2 Gene

Proteomics data for WARS2 Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for WARS2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for WARS2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for WARS2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for WARS2

Domains & Families for WARS2 Gene

Gene Families for WARS2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with WARS2: view

Function for WARS2 Gene

Molecular function for WARS2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase 2,mitochondrial
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-tryptophan + tRNA(Trp) = AMP + diphosphate + L-tryptophyl-tRNA(Trp).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for WARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for WARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS2: view

Phenotypes for WARS2 Gene

MGI mutant phenotypes for WARS2:
inferred from 1 alleles
GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for WARS2:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with WARS2: view

Animal Models for WARS2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for WARS2:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for WARS2 Gene

Localization for WARS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WARS2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for WARS2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for WARS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for WARS2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for WARS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with WARS2: view

Pathways by source for WARS2 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for WARS2 Gene

Interacting Proteins for WARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for WARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006436 tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for WARS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for WARS2 Gene

(5) Drugs for WARS2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Tryptophan Approved Nutra Positive, Allosteric regulator, Target, Enzyme, inhibitor, substrate 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(4) Additional Compounds for WARS2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
phosphoric acid
  • Acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
  • Acido fosforico [Italian]
  • Acidum phosphoricum
  • Diphosphate tetrasodium
  • Fosforzuuroplossingen [Dutch]
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with WARS2: view

Transcripts for WARS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for WARS2 Gene

Tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for WARS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b
SP1: -
SP2: - - -

Relevant External Links for WARS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for WARS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for WARS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for WARS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (11.2), Salivary gland (6.6), and Islet of Langerhans (6.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for WARS2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for WARS2 Gene Hs.523506

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with WARS2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for WARS2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for WARS2 Gene

Orthologs for WARS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for WARS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia WARS2 35
  • 88.43 (n)
  • 89.44 (a)
WARS2 36
  • 89 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia WARS2 35
  • 85.09 (n)
  • 86.94 (a)
WARS2 36
  • 87 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Wars2 35
  • 85.37 (n)
  • 86.39 (a)
Wars2 16
Wars2 36
  • 86 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia WARS2 35
  • 99.44 (n)
  • 100 (a)
WARS2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Wars2 35
  • 84.63 (n)
  • 84.17 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia WARS2 36
  • 75 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia WARS2 36
  • 70 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves WARS2 35
  • 67.72 (n)
  • 67.46 (a)
WARS2 36
  • 67 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia WARS2 36
  • 69 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.6744 35
wars2 35
  • 65.45 (n)
  • 67.78 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.6583 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii wars2 35
  • 61.63 (n)
  • 63.66 (a)
wufb77g08 35
wars2 36
  • 60 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG7441 37
  • 52 (a)
CG7441 35
  • 55.14 (n)
  • 52.78 (a)
CG7441 36
  • 27 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP011744 35
  • 55.2 (n)
  • 49.1 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea wrs-2 37
  • 42 (a)
prx-10 35
  • 48.65 (n)
  • 44.06 (a)
prx-10 36
  • 39 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACR089C 35
  • 50.88 (n)
  • 44.58 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E21825g 35
  • 51.95 (n)
  • 45.37 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes MSW1 35
  • 48.93 (n)
  • 43.73 (a)
MSW1 36
  • 38 (a)
MSW1 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons OVA4 35
  • 49.95 (n)
  • 40.92 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0743400 35
  • 48.31 (n)
  • 41.16 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes msw1 35
  • 47.63 (n)
  • 41.67 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.6568 36
  • 42 (a)
Species with no ortholog for WARS2:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for WARS2 Gene

Gene Tree for WARS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for WARS2 (if available)

Paralogs for WARS2 Gene Pseudogenes for WARS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with WARS2: view

No data available for Paralogs for WARS2 Gene

Variants for WARS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for WARS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs3790549 - 119,033,195(+) GCCAG(C/G)CGGGT reference, missense, utr-variant-3-prime
rs11552864 - 119,076,550(-) ACCTG(A/G)GCAAT intron-variant, reference, missense, utr-variant-5-prime
rs17023101 - 119,032,915(+) CCTAT(A/G)GAAAA reference, missense, utr-variant-3-prime
rs8928 -- 119,031,451(-) ACGCC(C/G)CATCC utr-variant-3-prime
rs12086 -- 119,031,237(+) ACCTT(C/T)AGTTT utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for WARS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv524681 CNV Gain 19592680
dgv16n21 CNV Loss 19592680
esv2475310 CNV Deletion 19546169
nsv521813 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv831192 CNV Gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for WARS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 65.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.88; 74.19% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for WARS2 Gene

Disorders for WARS2 Gene

Relevant External Links for WARS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for WARS2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for WARS2 Gene

Publications for WARS2 Gene

  1. Identification and characterization of human mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 10828066) Jorgensen R. … Justesen J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Assignment of the human mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WARS2) to 1p13.3-->p13.1 by radiation hybrid mapping. (PMID: 10072595) Martinez-Dominguez M.T. … Hansen L.L. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1998) 2 3 23
  3. Tryptamine induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase-mediated neurodegeneration with neurofibrillary tangles in human cell and mouse models. (PMID: 17114825) Paley E.L. … Brownell A.L. (Neuromolecular Med. 2007) 25 26
  4. Crystal structure of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with adenosine-5' tetraphosphate: evidence for distributed use of catalytic binding energy in amino acid activation by class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (PMID: 17428498) Retailleau P. … Carter C.W. (J. Mol. Biol. 2007) 25 26
  5. Dual targeting of a single tRNA(Trp) requires two different tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases in Trypanosoma brucei. (PMID: 16636268) CharriA"re F. … Schneider A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2006) 25 26

Products for WARS2 Gene

Sources for WARS2 Gene