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Aliases for WARS Gene

Aliases for WARS Gene

  • Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • Tryptophan TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 2 3
  • Interferon-Induced Protein 53 3 4
  • EC 6.1.1.2 4 61
  • TrpRS 3 4
  • IFI53 3 4
  • IFP53 3 4
  • HWRS 3 4
  • Tryptophan--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • EC 6.1.1 61
  • GAMMA-2 3
  • WRS 4

External Ids for WARS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for WARS Gene

  • IFI53

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for WARS Gene

  • GC14M098311
  • GC14M094615
  • GC14M098790
  • GC14M099869
  • GC14M100800
  • GC14M080981

Summaries for WARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for WARS Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Two forms of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase exist, a cytoplasmic form, named WARS, and a mitochondrial form, named WARS2. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WARS) catalyzes the aminoacylation of tRNA(trp) with tryptophan and is induced by interferon. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class I tRNA synthetase family. Four transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for WARS Gene

WARS (Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with WARS include Reflex Epilepsy and Pyriform Sinus Cancer. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Amino Acid metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WARS Gene

  • Isoform 1, isoform 2 and T1-TrpRS have aminoacylation activity while T2-TrpRS lacks it. Isoform 2, T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS possess angiostatic activity whereas isoform 1 lacks it. T2-TrpRS inhibits fluid shear stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. Regulates ERK, Akt, and eNOS activation pathways that are associated with angiogenesis, cytoskeletal reorganization and shear stress-responsive gene expression.

Gene Wiki entry for WARS Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for WARS Gene

Genomics for WARS Gene

Regulatory Elements for WARS Gene

Enhancers for WARS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH14G100339 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 36.6 +35.2 35240 3.9 CBX3 CBX5 ZNF143 FOS RELB IKZF2 USF2 GATAD2B ZEB2 NR2F2 WARS WDR25 SLC25A29 ENSG00000258521 GC14M100323
GH14G100405 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 28.4 -31.6 -31587 5.8 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX CREB3L1 ARID4B DMAP1 SLC30A9 FOS ZNF263 SP3 WARS WDR25 SLC25A47 LOC105370664 HMGN1P25
GH14G100371 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 33.9 +1.9 1901 6.5 MLX CREB3L1 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF143 ZNF548 ZNF263 SP3 NFYC ZNF610 WARS WDR25 SLC25A29 YY1 GC14P100383
GH14G100416 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 26.3 -40.6 -40623 2.2 TBP HDGF PKNOX1 SIN3A RAD21 RFX5 ZNF143 RCOR1 FOS CREM WARS WDR25 BEGAIN MIR493 MIR431 MIR433 MIR337 MIR127 MIR136 RTL1
GH14G100284 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 16.7 +91.5 91528 2.5 HDGF FOXA2 ARNT CREB3L1 MLX AGO1 ZFP64 SIN3A ARID4B DMAP1 WARS WDR25 SLC25A47 PIR46113 GC14P100279
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around WARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for WARS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000276095 1205 2801 MLX CREB3L1 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3 NFYC TBX21

Genomic Location for WARS Gene

Chromosome:
14
Start:
100,333,788 bp from pter
End:
100,376,805 bp from pter
Size:
43,018 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for WARS Gene

Genes around WARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
WARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for WARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for WARS Gene

Proteins for WARS Gene

  • Protein details for WARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P23381-SYWC_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    P23381
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NGN1
    • A6NID3
    • P78535
    • Q502Y0
    • Q53XB6
    • Q9UDI5
    • Q9UDL3

    Protein attributes for WARS Gene

    Size:
    471 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    53165 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 interact with an oxidized form of GAPDH. GAPDH stimulates the aminoacylation activity of isoform 2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for WARS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for WARS Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for WARS Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for WARS Gene

P23381:
  • KMSASDPNS
  • NVVKIQKHVTFNQVKGIFGFTDSDCIGKISFPA
  • VLQPLIAEHQARRK
  • LYTGRGPS
  • VDVSFMYLTFFLEDDD
  • FLRRGIFFSHRD
  • VKEFMTPR
  • LIPCAIDQDPYFR
  • FFPALQG
  • SGAMLTGELK

Post-translational modifications for WARS Gene

  • Proteolytic cleavage generates 2 forms; T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS.
  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=2102 and Lys154
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for WARS Gene

Gene Families for WARS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for WARS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P23381

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

SYWC_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with WARS: view

Function for WARS Gene

Molecular function for WARS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-tryptophan + tRNA(Trp) = AMP + diphosphate + L-tryptophyl-tRNA(Trp).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isoform 1, isoform 2 and T1-TrpRS have aminoacylation activity while T2-TrpRS lacks it. Isoform 2, T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS possess angiostatic activity whereas isoform 1 lacks it. T2-TrpRS inhibits fluid shear stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. Regulates ERK, Akt, and eNOS activation pathways that are associated with angiogenesis, cytoskeletal reorganization and shear stress-responsive gene expression.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By IFNG/IFN-gamma.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for WARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for WARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004830 tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15628863
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016874 ligase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with WARS: view

Animal Models for WARS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for WARS:
  • Wars tm1b(EUCOMM)Hmgu

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for WARS Gene

Localization for WARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WARS Gene

Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for WARS gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
peroxisome 3
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for WARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,TAS 16130169
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA,TAS --
GO:0043234 protein complex IMP 22504299
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 20458337
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS: view

Pathways & Interactions for WARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with WARS: view

Pathways by source for WARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for WARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IEA --
GO:0001933 negative regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA 22504299
GO:0006412 translation TAS,IEA 1761529
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS,IEA --
GO:0006436 tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation IEA,NAS 8496617
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for WARS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for WARS Gene

(10) Drugs for WARS Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Tryptophan Approved, Withdrawn Nutra Positive, Allosteric regulator, Target, Enzyme, inhibitor, substrate 0
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
L-Tryptophanamide Experimental Pharma Target 0

(8) Additional Compounds for WARS Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
pyrophosphate
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi
14000-31-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with WARS: view

Transcripts for WARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for WARS Gene

Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for WARS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e · 2f ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^
SP1: - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7:
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - - - - -
SP12: - - -
SP13: - - - - -
SP14: - - -
SP15: - -
SP16: - - - - -
SP17: - - - - - - -
SP18: - - - - - - - -
SP19: -
SP20: - -

ExUns: 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b · 12c ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3: -
SP4: - -
SP5:
SP6: -
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:
SP15:
SP16:
SP17:
SP18:
SP19:
SP20:

Relevant External Links for WARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
WARS
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
WARS

Expression for WARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for WARS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for WARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Spleen (12.9) and Lymph node (9.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for WARS Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for WARS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of WARS Gene:

WARS

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for WARS Gene:

Hs.497599

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for WARS Gene

  • Blood(4.9)
  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Skin(4.8)
  • Lung(4.6)
  • Spleen(4)
  • Intestine(3.9)
  • Kidney(3.7)
  • Liver(3.6)
  • Pancreas(3.3)
  • Stomach(3.1)
  • Heart(2.8)
  • Muscle(2.4)
  • Thyroid gland(2.2)
  • Bone marrow(2.1)
  • Lymph node(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with WARS: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for WARS Gene

Orthologs for WARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for WARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia WARS 34 35
  • 99.58 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia WARS 34 35
  • 89.95 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia WARS 34 35
  • 88.01 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Wars 34 16 35
  • 87.05 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Wars 34
  • 86.2 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia WARS 35
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia WARS 35
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves WARS 34 35
  • 73.52 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia WARS 35
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia wars 34
  • 73.68 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia wars-prov 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii wars 34
  • 73.41 (n)
WARS 35
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
zgc73274 34
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003315 34
  • 64.33 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-trp 34 35 36
  • 62.18 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea wrs-1 36
  • 64 (a)
wars-1 34 35
  • 60.34 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0B07733g 34
  • 58.31 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR117W 34
  • 58.31 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes WRS1 34 35 37
  • 57.47 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT3G04600 34
  • 60.8 (n)
soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.2127 34
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.11361 34
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os12g0540900 34
  • 61.65 (n)
Os.8880 34
barley
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.6902 34
wheat
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.3075 34
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06722 34
  • 61.15 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes wrs1 34
  • 58.74 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.14059 34
Species where no ortholog for WARS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for WARS Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for WARS (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for WARS (if available)

Paralogs for WARS Gene

No data available for Paralogs for WARS Gene

Variants for WARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for WARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 14 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_036466 A breast cancer sample
rs1000178470 -- 100,355,648(+) ACTAC(C/G)TTTTC intron-variant
rs1000182914 -- 100,363,325(+) TAAGA(A/C)AAGCA intron-variant
rs1000339950 -- 100,336,810(+) CTGAT(A/G)ACTAA intron-variant
rs1000397546 -- 100,342,424(+) CGTGT(C/T)GGTGA reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for WARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv34023 CNV loss 18971310
esv3635506 CNV gain 21293372
nsv832875 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for WARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 60.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.26; 40.61% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for WARS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
WARS
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
WARS

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WARS Gene

Disorders for WARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(13) MalaCards diseases for WARS Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
reflex epilepsy
  • epilepsy, sensory-induced
pyriform sinus cancer
  • malignant neoplasm of pyriform fossa
algoneurodystrophy
  • algoneurodystrophy nos
trench fever
  • his-werner disease
epidermolysis bullosa, junctional, herlitz type
  • junctional epidermolysis bullosa herlitz type
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search WARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for WARS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
WARS
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
WARS
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
WARS
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with WARS: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for WARS Gene

Publications for WARS Gene

  1. Human interferon gamma potently induces the synthesis of a 55-kDa protein (gamma 2) highly homologous to rabbit peptide chain release factor and bovine tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 1763065) Fleckner J. … Justesen J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Two conformations of a crystalline human tRNA synthetase-tRNA complex: implications for protein synthesis. (PMID: 16724112) Yang X.L. … Schimmel P. (EMBO J. 2006) 3 22 25 64
  3. Oxidative stress-responsive intracellular regulation specific for the angiostatic form of human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 15628863) Wakasugi K. … Morishima I. (Biochemistry 2005) 3 4 22 64
  4. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase gene polymorphisms and risk of incident myocardial infarction. (PMID: 15939065) Zee R.Y. … Ridker P.M. (Atherosclerosis 2005) 3 22 46 64
  5. Crystal structure of human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase catalytic fragment: insights into substrate recognition, tRNA binding, and angiogenesis activity. (PMID: 14660560) Yu Y. … Ding J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 4 22 64

Products for WARS Gene

Sources for WARS Gene

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