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Aliases for WARS Gene

Aliases for WARS Gene

  • Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase 4 2 3
  • Interferon-Induced Protein 53 3 4
  • EC 6.1.1.2 4 63
  • TrpRS 3 4
  • IFI53 3 4
  • IFP53 3 4
  • HWRS 3 4
  • Tryptophan TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Tryptophan--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Tryptophan TRNA Ligase 1 2
  • Cytoplasmic 2
  • EC 6.1.1 63
  • GAMMA-2 3
  • WRS 4

External Ids for WARS Gene

Previous Symbols for WARS Gene

  • IFI53

Summaries for WARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for WARS Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Two forms of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase exist, a cytoplasmic form, named WARS, and a mitochondrial form, named WARS2. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WARS) catalyzes the aminoacylation of tRNA(trp) with tryptophan and is induced by interferon. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class I tRNA synthetase family. Four transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for WARS Gene

WARS (Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with WARS include tinea favosa and yaws. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and tRNA Aminoacylation. GO annotations related to this gene include tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WARS Gene

  • Isoform 1, isoform 2 and T1-TrpRS have aminoacylation activity while T2-TrpRS lacks it. Isoform 2, T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS possess angiostatic activity whereas isoform 1 lacks it. T2-TrpRS inhibits fluid shear stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. Regulates ERK, Akt, and eNOS activation pathways that are associated with angiogenesis, cytoskeletal reorganization and shear stress-responsive gene expression.

Gene Wiki entry for WARS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for WARS Gene

Genomics for WARS Gene

Genomic Location for WARS Gene

Start:
100,333,788 bp from pter
End:
100,376,805 bp from pter
Size:
43,018 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for WARS Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for WARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for WARS Gene

Regulatory Elements for WARS Gene

Proteins for WARS Gene

  • Protein details for WARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P23381-SYWC_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    P23381
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NGN1
    • A6NID3
    • P78535
    • Q502Y0
    • Q53XB6
    • Q9UDI5
    • Q9UDL3

    Protein attributes for WARS Gene

    Size:
    471 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    53165 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 interact with an oxidized form of GAPDH. GAPDH stimulates the aminoacylation activity of isoform 2

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for WARS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for WARS Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for WARS Gene

Proteomics data for WARS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for WARS Gene

  • Proteolytic cleavage generates 2 forms; T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys102 and Lys154

Domains for WARS Gene

Gene Families for WARS Gene

HGNC:
  • aaRS1 :Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases / Class I

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for WARS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P23381

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

SYWC_HUMAN
Domain:
  • Contains 1 WHEP-TRS domain.:
    • P23381
Family:
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.:
    • P23381
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with WARS: view

Function for WARS Gene

Molecular function for WARS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: ATP + L-tryptophan + tRNA(Trp) = AMP + diphosphate + L-tryptophyl-tRNA(Trp)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Isoform 1, isoform 2 and T1-TrpRS have aminoacylation activity while T2-TrpRS lacks it. Isoform 2, T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS possess angiostatic activity whereas isoform 1 lacks it. T2-TrpRS inhibits fluid shear stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. Regulates ERK, Akt, and eNOS activation pathways that are associated with angiogenesis, cytoskeletal reorganization and shear stress-responsive gene expression.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: By IFNG/IFN-gamma.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for WARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for WARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity --
GO:0004830 tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15628863
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS: view

Phenotypes for WARS Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for WARS:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with WARS: view

miRNA for WARS Gene

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for WARS Gene

Localization for WARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WARS Gene

Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for WARS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for WARS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 2
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for WARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005737 cytoplasm TAS 16130169
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 20458337
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS: view

Pathways for WARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with WARS: view

Pathways by source for WARS Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for WARS Gene
1 KEGG pathway for WARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for WARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IEA --
GO:0006412 translation TAS 1761529
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006436 tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation NAS 8496617
GO:0008152 metabolic process --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS: view

Compounds for WARS Gene

(5) HMDB Compounds for WARS Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine monophosphate
  • 5'-AMP
61-19-8
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
56-65-5
L-Tryptophan
  • (-)-tryptophan
73-22-3
Phosphoric acid
  • acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
7664-38-2
Pyrophosphate
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
14000-31-8

(4) Drugbank Compounds for WARS Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
L-Tryptophan
  • (-)-Tryptophan
73-22-3 target inhibitor
L-Tryptophan
  • (-)-Tryptophan
73-22-3 enzyme substrate inhibitor
L-Tryptophanamide
target
Tryptophanyl-5'amp
target

(11) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for WARS Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
trna(trp) 90.2 10
aminoacyl-trna 87 3
indoleamine 77.6 9
trna 72.7 19
anticodon 71 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with WARS: view

Transcripts for WARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for WARS Gene

Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for WARS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e · 2f ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^
SP1: - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7:
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - - - - -
SP12: - - -
SP13: - - - - -
SP14: - - -
SP15: - -
SP16: - - - - -
SP17: - - - - - - -
SP18: - - - - - - - -
SP19: -
SP20: - -

ExUns: 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b · 12c ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3: -
SP4: - -
SP5:
SP6: -
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:
SP15:
SP16:
SP17:
SP18:
SP19:
SP20:

Relevant External Links for WARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
WARS
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
WARS

Expression for WARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for WARS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for WARS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for WARS Gene Hs.497599

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with WARS: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for WARS Gene

Orthologs for WARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for WARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia WARS 35
  • 99.58 (n)
  • 100 (a)
WARS 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia WARS 35
  • 88.01 (n)
  • 93.19 (a)
WARS 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia WARS 35
  • 89.95 (n)
  • 93.63 (a)
WARS 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Wars 35
  • 87.05 (n)
  • 90.23 (a)
Wars 16
Wars 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia WARS 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia WARS 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Wars 35
  • 86.2 (n)
  • 88.96 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves WARS 35
  • 73.52 (n)
  • 78.59 (a)
WARS 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia WARS 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia wars-prov 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia wars 35
  • 73.68 (n)
  • 78.96 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii wars 35
  • 73.41 (n)
  • 75.87 (a)
WARS 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
zgc73274 35
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003315 35
  • 64.33 (n)
  • 68.17 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-trp 35
  • 62.18 (n)
  • 62.59 (a)
Aats-trp 36
  • 60 (a)
OneToOne
Aats-trp 37
  • 62 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea wars-1 35
  • 60.34 (n)
  • 62.28 (a)
wars-1 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
wrs-1 37
  • 64 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR117W 35
  • 58.31 (n)
  • 55.5 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes WRS1 35
  • 57.47 (n)
  • 55.93 (a)
WRS1 36
  • 51 (a)
OneToOne
WRS1 38
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0B07733g 35
  • 58.31 (n)
  • 57.96 (a)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.11361 35
soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.2127 35
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT3G04600 35
  • 60.8 (n)
  • 60.2 (a)
barley
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.6902 35
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.8880 35
Os12g0540900 35
  • 61.65 (n)
  • 63.38 (a)
wheat
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.3075 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06722 35
  • 61.15 (n)
  • 61.83 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes wrs1 35
  • 58.74 (n)
  • 60.72 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.14059 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for WARS:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for WARS Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for WARS (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for WARS (if available)

Paralogs for WARS Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for WARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with WARS: view

No data available for Paralogs for WARS Gene

Variants for WARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for WARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 14 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1373 -- 100,342,173(-) GGTAA(A/T)ATTTT intron-variant
rs7906 -- 100,333,877(-) TCAGG(C/G)AAGTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs9453 -- 100,342,508(-) CCCTG(C/T)TGCAC reference, synonymous-codon
rs13885 -- 100,334,724(-) TACTG(G/T)TTCTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs724391 -- 100,366,054(-) GTGAC(A/G)CTCCC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for WARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832875 CNV Loss 17160897
esv34023 CNV Loss 18971310

Relevant External Links for WARS Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
WARS
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
WARS

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WARS Gene

Disorders for WARS Gene

(5) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for WARS Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
autoimmune response 34.9 1
autoimmune diseases 0 2
necrosis 0 1
inflammation 0 1
tumors 0 7

Relevant External Links for WARS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
WARS
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
WARS
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with WARS: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WARS Gene

Publications for WARS Gene

  1. Human interferon gamma potently induces the synthesis of a 55-kDa protein (gamma 2) highly homologous to rabbit peptide chain release factor and bovine tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 1763065) Fleckner J. … Justesen J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991) 2 3 4 23
  2. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the structural gene encoding for human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 1765274) Frolova L.Y. … Kisselev L.L. (Gene 1991) 3 4 23
  3. The human gene encoding tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase: interferon- response elements and exon-intron organization. (PMID: 7685728) Frolova L.Y. … Kisselev L.L. (Gene 1993) 3 4 23
  4. Gamma interferon potently induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase expression in human keratinocytes. (PMID: 8496617) Reano A. … Schmitt D. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 1993) 3 4 23
  5. A human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase as a regulator of angiogenesis. (PMID: 11773626) Wakasugi K. … Schimmel P. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002) 3 4 23

Products for WARS Gene

Sources for WARS Gene

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