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WARS Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 70
GCID: GC14M100800

Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase


(Previous symbol: IFI53)
  See WARS-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase1 2 3     GAMMA-22
IFI531 2 3     trpRS2
Interferon-Induced Protein 532 3     Tryptophan TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic2
IFP532 3     Tryptophan--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic2
hWRS2 3     TrpRS3
EC 6.1.1.23 8     WRS3
cytoplasmic1     EC 6.1.18
Tryptophan TRNA Ligase 11     

External Ids:    HGNC: 127291   Entrez Gene: 74532   Ensembl: ENSG000001401057   OMIM: 1910505   UniProtKB: P233813   

Export aliases for WARS gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC14M098311 GC14M094615 GC14M098790 GC14M099869 GC14M080981


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for WARS Gene:
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their
central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are
thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Two forms of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase
exist, a cytoplasmic form, named WARS, and a mitochondrial form, named WARS2. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WARS)
catalyzes the aminoacylation of tRNA(trp) with tryptophan and is induced by interferon. Tryptophanyl-tRNA
synthetase belongs to the class I tRNA synthetase family. Four transcript variants encoding two different
isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for WARS Gene:
WARS (tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with WARS include tinea favosa, and yaws. GO annotations related to this gene include tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SYWC_HUMAN, P23381
Function: Isoform 1, isoform 2 and T1-TrpRS have aminoacylation activity while T2-TrpRS lacks it. Isoform 2,
T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS possess angiostatic activity whereas isoform 1 lacks it. T2-TrpRS inhibits fluid shear
stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. Regulates ERK, Akt, and eNOS activation pathways that are
associated with angiogenesis, cytoskeletal reorganization and shear stress-responsive gene expression

Gene Wiki entry for WARS Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000014.8  NT_026437.13  NC_018925.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the WARS gene promoter:
         NF-kappaB1   NF-kappaB   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): WARS promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for WARS

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat WARS


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 14q32.31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  14q32.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 14q32.2

WARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
WARS gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 14         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC14M100800:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
100,800,125 bp from pter      End:
100,843,142 bp from pter
Size:
43,018 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SYWC_HUMAN, P23381 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic  
Size: 471 amino acids; 53165 Da
Subunit: Homodimer. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 interact with an oxidized form of GAPDH. GAPDH stimulates the
aminoacylation activity of isoform 2
Sequence caution: Sequence=BAF83830.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for WARS (see all 11):
1O5T (3D)        1R6T (3D)        1R6U (3D)        1ULH (3D)        2AKE (3D)        2AZX (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A6NGN1 A6NID3 P78535 Q502Y0 Q53XB6 Q9UDI5 Q9UDL3
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P23381-1   P23381-2   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for WARS: NX_P23381

Explore proteomics data for WARS at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Proteolytic cleavage generates 2 forms; T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys102, Lys154
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for WARS (P23381) (see all 10)
     FFPALQG  VKEFMTPR  LYTGRGPS  KMSASDPNS 


    See WARS Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_004175.2  NP_776049.1  NP_998810.1  NP_998811.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000376620   ENSP00000351481   ENSP00000347495   ENSP00000339485   ENSP00000451460  
     ENSP00000451887   ENSP00000451891   ENSP00000451490   ENSP00000451251   ENSP00000450500  
     ENSP00000451599   ENSP00000452519   ENSP00000451544   ENSP00000450427   ENSP00000451349  
     ENSP00000450934   ENSP00000451469   ENSP00000451402   ENSP00000451679   ENSP00000452550  
     ENSP00000451906   ENSP00000451716   ENSP00000450563   ENSP00000451922   ENSP00000451894  
     ENSP00000451027   ENSP00000450978   ENSP00000451953   ENSP00000451777   ENSP00000451377  
     ENSP00000450623   ENSP00000452379   ENSP00000452358  
    Reactome Protein details: P23381

    WARS Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Proteins for WARS
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for WARS
    OriGene MassSpec for WARS
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for WARS
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for WARS
    Novus Biologicals WARS Proteins
    Novus Biologicals WARS Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for WARS
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for WARS
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for WARS
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for WARS

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for WARS 

    WARS Antibody Products:

    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
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    Novus Biologicals WARS Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for WARS
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for WARS
    ThermoFisher Antibody for WARS
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for WARS

    WARS Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    GenScript Custom Assay Services for WARS
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for WARS
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for WARS
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for WARS 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    aaRS1: Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases / Class I

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR000738 WHEP-TRS
     IPR009068 S15_NS1_RNA-bd
     IPR002305 aa-tRNA-synth_Ic
     IPR001412 aa-tRNA-synth_I_CS
     IPR014729 Rossmann-like_a/b/a_fold

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P23381

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P23381

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000738 WHEP-TRS domain
    IPB002305 Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SYWC_HUMAN, P23381
    Similarity: Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family
    Similarity: Contains 1 WHEP-TRS domain


    Find genes that share domains with WARS           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: SYWC_HUMAN, P23381
    Function: Isoform 1, isoform 2 and T1-TrpRS have aminoacylation activity while T2-TrpRS lacks it. Isoform 2,
    T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS possess angiostatic activity whereas isoform 1 lacks it. T2-TrpRS inhibits fluid shear
    stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. Regulates ERK, Akt, and eNOS activation pathways that are
    associated with angiogenesis, cytoskeletal reorganization and shear stress-responsive gene expression
    Catalytic activity: ATP + L-tryptophan + tRNA(Trp) = AMP + diphosphate + L-tryptophyl-tRNA(Trp)
    Induction: By IFNG/IFN-gamma

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 6.1.1.21 2 EC 6.1.12

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000166nucleotide binding ----
    GO:0004812aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity ----
    GO:0004830tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity TAS--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI15628863
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with WARS           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for WARS:
     Decreased Wnt reporter activit 

         1 MGI phenotypic allele for Wars (no phenotypes)

    Find genes that share phenotypes with WARS           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for WARS
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for WARS

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for WARS
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for WARS

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target WARS:
    hsa-mir-320a (MIRT044483), hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT030141), hsa-mir-92b-3p (MIRT040542), hsa-mir-16-5p (MIRT031943)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat WARS using miScript Target Protectors
    6 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate WARS:
    hsa-miR-4324 hsa-miR-125a-5p hsa-miR-670 hsa-miR-125b hsa-miR-516b hsa-miR-4319
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidWARS 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for WARS
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat WARS

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for WARS

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for WARS (see all 23)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for WARS
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 4): WARS (NM_004184)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for WARS
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for WARS
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat WARS

    Cell Line
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    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for WARS
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for WARS 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for WARS

    Flow Cytometry
    Products:
       

     
    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12164) for WARS 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    SYWC_HUMAN, P23381: Cytoplasm
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytosol4
    cytoskeleton2
    nucleus2
    extracellular1
    mitochondrion1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005737cytoplasm TAS16130169
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0070062extracellular vesicular exosome IDA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with WARS           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for WARS About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1tRNA Aminoacylation
    tRNA Aminoacylation0.57
    Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis0.52
    Cytosolic tRNA aminoacylation0.57
    2Tryptophan metabolism
    Tryptophan metabolism0.46
    3Gene Expression
    Gene Expression0.40


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with WARS           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 BioSystems Pathway for WARS
        Tryptophan metabolism


    1 Reactome Pathway for WARS
        Cytosolic tRNA aminoacylation


    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for WARS):
        Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including WARS: 
              Amino Acid Metabolism I in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for WARS

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for WARS (P233812, 3 ENSP000003474954) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 76)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CDK2AP2O759562, 3, ENSP000003014884MINT-63228 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000301488
    DCAF13Q9NV062, 3, ENSP000002975794MINT-8277113 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000297579
    MDH2P409262, 3, ENSP000003270704MINT-63720 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000327070
    DNMT3BQ9UBC32, 3, ENSP000003285474MINT-8277102 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000328547
    EEF1A1P681043, ENSP000003300544I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000330054
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001525angiogenesis IEA--
    GO:0006412translation TAS1761529
    GO:0006418tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS--
    GO:0006436tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation NAS8496617
    GO:0008285negative regulation of cell proliferation TAS1761529

    Find genes that share ontologies with WARS           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for WARS (SYWC)

    5 HMDB Compounds for WARS    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Adenosine monophosphate5'-AMP (see all 28)61-19-8--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    L-Tryptophan(-)-tryptophan (see all 53)73-22-3--
    Phosphoric acidacide phosphorique (FRENCH) (see all 20)7664-38-2--
    Pyrophosphate(4-)Diphosphoric acid ion (see all 10)14000-31-8--

    3 DrugBank Compounds for WARS    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    L-Tryptophan(-)-Tryptophan (see all 14)73-22-3targetinhibitor16724112 17150540 17661345 17114500 17428498
    enzymesubstrate inhibitor16724112 17150540 17661345 17114500 17428498 16724112 17150540 17661345 17114500 17428498
    Tryptophanyl-5'amp-- --target--17139284 17016423
    L-Tryptophanamide-- --target--10592235

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for WARS gene (see all 11)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    trna(trp) 90.2 19 11834741 (6), 7743129 (1), 11600701 (1), 8646895 (1) (see all 5)
    aminoacyl-trna 87 5 8643392 (1), 19900940 (1), 12438642 (1)
    indoleamine 77.6 9 1398953 (2), 7665918 (1), 9731757 (1), 15961579 (1) (see all 8)
    trna 72.7 36 17726052 (3), 7743129 (2), 16798914 (2), 14660560 (1) (see all 15)
    anticodon 71 2 15130561 (1), 17386262 (1)
    kynurenine 60.2 1 15961579 (1)
    tryptamine 43.6 4 10376788 (1), 17114825 (1)
    atp 34.6 19 12473451 (7), 7729548 (1), 7743129 (1), 16888724 (1) (see all 5)
    phosphatidylinositol 0 2 12644569 (1), 17661345 (1)
    alanine 0 2 7729548 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with WARS           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for WARS gene (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_004184.3  NM_173701.1  NM_213645.1  NM_213646.1  

    Unigene Cluster for WARS:

    Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase
    Hs.497599  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_004184
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 43):
    ENST00000392882(uc001yhh.1 uc001yhi.1 uc001yhg.2) ENST00000358655(uc001yhk.1)
    ENST00000355338(uc001yhl.1) ENST00000344102 ENST00000557135 ENST00000556645
    ENST00000554950 ENST00000557614 ENST00000554601 ENST00000553395 ENST00000556504
    ENST00000554084 ENST00000557722 ENST00000557297 ENST00000556435 ENST00000553808(uc010twz.1)
    ENST00000554331 ENST00000555063
    miRNA
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    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat WARS using miScript Target Protectors
    6 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate WARS:
    hsa-miR-4324 hsa-miR-125a-5p hsa-miR-670 hsa-miR-125b hsa-miR-516b hsa-miR-4319
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidWARS 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat WARS
    Clone
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for WARS
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 4): WARS (NM_004184)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for WARS
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat WARS
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for WARS
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for WARS
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat WARS
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat WARS
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat WARS
    Flow Cytometry
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    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12164) for WARS 

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK025487.1 AK056100.1 AK124668.1 AK130698.1 AK291141.1 AK300255.1 BC017489.1 BC095453.1 
    BX248006.1 M61715.1 M77804.1 X59892.1 X62570.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 81):

    DT.97856550  DT.97782840  DT.454214  DT.102838655  DT.95281872  DT.95304824  DT.100708291  DT.100708270 
    DT.100708249  DT.100708253  DT.100708272  DT.100645536  DT.92461503  DT.450366  DT.100708294  DT.100801587 
    DT.120758993  DT.95184645  DT.100000216  DT.100708251  DT.100708265  DT.120758969  DT.100850845  DT.95304968 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 1051):

    BM799401 AU138720 AU104219 CR593130 BM478723 CR592745 BX248006 CR626779 
    BM972255 BM980579 BX427368 BQ669140 BE302276 AA932179 BX422407 BE904654 
    AW241691 CF146149 AA374885 BM973143 CB529791 BM465700 BE784477 CR623966 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for WARS (see all 20)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e · 2f ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^
    SP1:                                                                                -                 -                                                         
    SP2:                                                                                -     -     -     -                                                         
    SP3:                    -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                                         
    SP4:                                                                                -     -     -     -                                                     -   
    SP5:                    -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -           -                                                         

    ExUns: 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b · 12c ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b
    SP1:              -                                                         
    SP2:              -                                                         
    SP3:              -                                                         
    SP4:  -           -                                                         
    SP5:                                                                        


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for WARS

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    WARS expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGCAGGCCTG
    WARS Expression
    About this image


    WARS expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     
     Pancreas (Endocrine System)
             Islets of Langerhans
    WARS Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    WARS Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.497599
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including WARS: 
              Amino Acid Metabolism I in human mouse rat

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for WARS

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for WARS gene from Selected species (see all 29)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Wars1 , 5 tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase1, 5 87.05(n)1
    90.23(a)1
      12 (59.66 cM)5
    223751  NM_011710.31  NP_035840.31 
     1088600305 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves WARS1 tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase 73.52(n)
    78.59(a)
      423458  XM_004936315.1  XP_004936372.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia WARS6
    tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase
    81(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343270.1(908498-922488)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia wars-prov2 tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase 78.84(n)    BC046713.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc732742 hypothetical protein MGC73274 78.06(n)   393745  BC049526.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Aats-trp1 , 3 tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation
    tryptophan-tRNA more3
    Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase1
    62(a)3
    62.18(n)1
    62.59(a)1
      85D73
    453991  NM_080087.21  NP_524826.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea wrs-13
    wars-11
    tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase3
    wars-11
    64(a)3
    60.34(n)1
    62.28(a)1
      V(18858644-18861787)3
    1802311  NM_075282.41  NP_507683.21 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes WRS1(YOL097C)4
    WRS11
    Cytoplasmic tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, aminoacylates more4
    WRS11
    57.47(n)1
    55.93(a)1
      15(137825-136527)4
    8540561, 4  NP_014544.11, 4 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons AT3G046001 AT3G04600 60.8(n)
    60.2(a)
      819617  NM_202490.2  NP_974219.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.88802 Rice mRNA for rabbit eukaryotic release factor (T171 more 73.91(n)    AK102417.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for WARS (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for WARS (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for WARS gene
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for WARS using alignment to 27 protein entries:     SYWC_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    ERBB2    GCDH    APOPT1    FAM175A    LYRM4    AURA2
    NF2    FAM3A    CRCP    PKN1    ZNF546    CATSPERG
    NPLOC4    ZNF564    ZNF585B    ASB11    FKBP3    NRAMP1

    Find genes that share paralogs with WARS           About GenesLikeMe


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for WARS
    PGOHUM00000261835


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

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    Selected SNPs for WARS (see all 1060)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 14 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0364664
    A breast cancer sample4--see VAR_0364662 E D mis40--------
    rs1839544921,2
    --81790530(+) CCCTAA/TGGCCT 4 -- ds50010--------
    rs111605811,2
    C,F,A,H--81790667(+) CCCGAC/GCTGGC 4 -- ds50017Minor allele frequency- G:0.36NA WA EA 368
    rs37423831,2
    F--81790872(+) GCACAA/CCACCA 4 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- C:0.01EA 1502
    rs1877536791,2
    --81790969(+) CTCTGC/TTCCCT 4 -- ds50010--------
    rs1147273861,2
    F--81790974(+) CTCCCT/ACCTCA 4 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.01WA 118
    rs37423841,2
    C,F,A,H--81790986(+) ACCTCC/TCAGAC 4 -- ds500123Minor allele frequency- T:0.15EA NS NA WA CSA 3722
    rs1923241651,2
    --81791081(+) AGATAC/TATCAA 4 -- ut310--------
    rs1838260281,2
    --81791219(+) CCACCC/TGTCCA 4 -- ut310--------
    rs454747971,2
    C,F--81791463(+) GAAAGT/CTTCAC 4 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- C:0.02NA 120

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for WARS (100800125 - 100843142 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for WARS:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv34023CNV Loss18971310
    nsv832875CNV Loss17160897

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing WARS
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for WARS

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 191050    OMIM disorders: --

    4 diseases for WARS:    
    About MalaCards
    tinea favosa    yaws    gonorrhea    trachoma

    10 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for WARS:
    Typhus     Kaposi's sarcoma     Plague     Tinea favosa
    Smallpox     Malaria     Gonorrhea     Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
    Yaws     Trachoma

    Find genes that share disorders with WARS           About GenesLikeMe

    5 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for WARS gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    autoimmune response 34.9 1 19363598 (1)
    autoimmune diseases 0 2 9785582 (1), 1795698 (1)
    necrosis 0 1 15075355 (1)
    inflammation 0 2 15627054 (1)
    tumors 0 7 19900940 (5), 15075355 (1), 10197441 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): WARS
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: WARS (11 documents)

    Export disorders for WARS gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for WARS gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 163):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with WARS)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Human interferon gamma potently induces the synthesis of a 55-kDa protein (gamma 2) highly homologous to rabbit peptide chain release factor and bovine tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PubMed id 1763065)1, 2, 3, 9 Fleckner J.... Justesen J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991)
    2. Molecular cloning and characterization of an interferon induced human cDNA with sequence homology to a mammalian peptide chain release factor. (PubMed id 1537332)1, 2, 3 Buwitt U.... Boettger E.C. (EMBO J. 1992)
    3. Oxidative stress-responsive intracellular regulation specific for the angiostatic form of human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PubMed id 15628863)1, 2, 9 Wakasugi K.... Morishima I. (Biochemistry 2005)
    4. The human gene encoding tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase: interferon- response elements and exon-intron organization. (PubMed id 7685728)1, 2, 9 Frolova L.Y.... Kisselev L.L. (Gene 1993)
    5. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the structural gene encoding for human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PubMed id 1765274)1, 2, 9 Frolova L.Y....Kisselev L.L. (Gene 1991)
    6. Biologically active fragment of a human tRNA synthetase inhibits fluid shear stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. (PubMed id 14630953)1, 2, 9 Tzima E....Schimmel P. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003)
    7. A human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase as a regulator of angiogenesis. (PubMed id 11773626)1, 2, 9 Wakasugi K.... Schimmel P. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    8. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase gene polymorphisms and risk of incident myocardial infarction. (PubMed id 15939065)1, 4, 9 Zee R.Y....Ridker P.M. (Atherosclerosis 2005)
    9. Gamma interferon potently induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase expression in human keratinocytes. (PubMed id 8496617)1, 2, 9 Reano A....Schmitt D. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 1993)
    10. Interferon induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase expression in human fibroblasts. (PubMed id 1761529)1, 2, 9 Rubin B.Y.... Tate W.P. (J. Biol. Chem. 1991)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 7453 HGNC: 12729 AceView: WARS Ensembl:ENSG00000140105 euGenes: HUgn7453
    ECgene: WARS Kegg: 7453 H-InvDB: WARS

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for WARS Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for WARS gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving WARS

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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