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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

WARS Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 69
GCID: GC14M100800

Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase


(Previous symbol: IFI53)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase1 2 3     GAMMA-22
IFI531 2 3     trpRS2
Interferon-Induced Protein 532 3     Tryptophan TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic2
IFP532 3     Tryptophan--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic2
hWRS2 3     TrpRS3
EC 6.1.1.23 8     WRS3
cytoplasmic1     EC 6.1.18
Tryptophan TRNA Ligase 11     

External Ids:    HGNC: 127291   Entrez Gene: 74532   Ensembl: ENSG000001401057   OMIM: 1910505   UniProtKB: P233813   

Export aliases for WARS gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC14M098311 GC14M094615 GC14M098790 GC14M099869 GC14M080981


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for WARS Gene:
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their
central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are
thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Two forms of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase
exist, a cytoplasmic form, named WARS, and a mitochondrial form, named WARS2. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WARS)
catalyzes the aminoacylation of tRNA(trp) with tryptophan and is induced by interferon. Tryptophanyl-tRNA
synthetase belongs to the class I tRNA synthetase family. Four transcript variants encoding two different
isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for WARS Gene: 
WARS (tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with WARS include reflex epilepsy, and tinea favosa, and among its related super-pathways are Cytosolic tRNA aminoacylation and Generic Transcription Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity and ATP binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SYWC_HUMAN, P23381
Function: Isoform 1, isoform 2 and T1-TrpRS have aminoacylation activity while T2-TrpRS lacks it. Isoform 2,
T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS possess angiostatic activity whereas isoform 1 lacks it. T2-TrpRS inhibits fluid shear
stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. Regulates ERK, Akt, and eNOS activation pathways that are
associated with angiogenesis, cytoskeletal reorganization and shear stress-responsive gene expression

Gene Wiki entry for WARS Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000014.8  NT_026437.12  NC_018925.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the WARS gene promoter:
         NF-kappaB1   NF-kappaB   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): WARS promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for WARS

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat WARS


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 14q32.31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  14q32.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 14q32.2

WARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
WARS gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 14         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC14M100800:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
100,800,125 bp from pter      End:
100,843,142 bp from pter
Size:
43,018 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SYWC_HUMAN, P23381 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic  
Size: 471 amino acids; 53165 Da
Subunit: Homodimer. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 interact with an oxidized form of GAPDH. GAPDH stimulates the
aminoacylation activity of isoform 2
Subcellular location: Cytoplasm
Sequence caution: Sequence=BAF83830.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;
6/11 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for WARS (see all 11):
1O5T (3D)        1R6T (3D)        1R6U (3D)        1ULH (3D)        2AKE (3D)        2AZX (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A6NGN1 A6NID3 P78535 Q502Y0 Q53XB6 Q9UDI5 Q9UDL3
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P23381-1   P23381-2   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for WARS: NX_P23381

Explore proteomics data for WARS at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: Proteolytic cleavage generates 2 forms; T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P23381

  • 4/10 DME Specific Peptides for WARS (P23381) (see all 10)
     FFPALQG  VKEFMTPR  LYTGRGPS  KMSASDPNS 

    WARS Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    WARS Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_004175.2  NP_776049.1  NP_998810.1  NP_998811.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000376620   ENSP00000351481   ENSP00000347495   ENSP00000339485   ENSP00000451460  
     ENSP00000451887   ENSP00000451891   ENSP00000451490   ENSP00000451251   ENSP00000450500  
     ENSP00000451599   ENSP00000452519   ENSP00000451544   ENSP00000450427   ENSP00000451349  
     ENSP00000450934   ENSP00000451469   ENSP00000451402   ENSP00000451679   ENSP00000452550  
     ENSP00000451906   ENSP00000451716   ENSP00000450563   ENSP00000451922   ENSP00000451894  
     ENSP00000451027   ENSP00000450978   ENSP00000451953   ENSP00000451777   ENSP00000451377  
     ENSP00000450623   ENSP00000452379   ENSP00000452358  
    Reactome Protein details: P23381
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for WARS: 
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    Novus Biologicals WARS Proteins
    Novus Biologicals WARS Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for WARS
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for WARS 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for WARS
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for WARS 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005737cytoplasm TAS16130169
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    WARS for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    WARS Antibody Products: 
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    Novus Biologicals WARS Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for WARS
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for WARS 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for WARS
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for WARS 

    Assay Products for WARS: 
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    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for WARS 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for WARS


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    aaRS1: Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases / Class I

    5/6 InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR001412 aa-tRNA-synth_I_CS
     IPR000738 WHEP-TRS
     IPR014729 Rossmann-like_a/b/a_fold
     IPR002306 Trp-tRNA-ligase
     IPR009068 S15_NS1_RNA-bd

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P23381

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P23381

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000738 WHEP-TRS domain
    IPB002305 Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SYWC_HUMAN, P23381
    Similarity: Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family
    Similarity: Contains 1 WHEP-TRS domain


    WARS for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: SYWC_HUMAN, P23381
    Function: Isoform 1, isoform 2 and T1-TrpRS have aminoacylation activity while T2-TrpRS lacks it. Isoform 2,
    T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS possess angiostatic activity whereas isoform 1 lacks it. T2-TrpRS inhibits fluid shear
    stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. Regulates ERK, Akt, and eNOS activation pathways that are
    associated with angiogenesis, cytoskeletal reorganization and shear stress-responsive gene expression
    Catalytic activity: ATP + L-tryptophan + tRNA(Trp) = AMP + diphosphate + L-tryptophyl-tRNA(Trp)
    Induction: By IFNG/IFN-gamma

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 6.1.1.21 2 EC 6.1.12

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000166nucleotide binding ----
    GO:0004812aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity ----
    GO:0004830tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity TAS--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI15628863
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
         
    WARS for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for WARS:
     Decreased Wnt reporter activit 

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for WARS 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for WARS

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for WARS 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for WARS 

    miRNA
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    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat WARS
    6 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate WARS:
    hsa-miR-4324 hsa-miR-125a-5p hsa-miR-670 hsa-miR-125b hsa-miR-516b hsa-miR-4319
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidWARS 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
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    Gene Editing
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    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of WARS

    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 4): WARS (NM_004184)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for WARS
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for WARS
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat WARS
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                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of WARS 

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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for WARS


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for WARS About                                                                                                See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1tRNA Aminoacylation
    tRNA Aminoacylation0.57
    Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis0.54
    Cytosolic tRNA aminoacylation0.57
    2Generic Transcription Pathway
    Gene Expression0.47
    3Tryptophan metabolism
    Tryptophan metabolism0.46

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 BioSystems Pathway for WARS
        Tryptophan metabolism


    3        Reactome Pathways for WARS
        Cytosolic tRNA aminoacylation
    tRNA Aminoacylation
    Gene Expression


    1         Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for WARS):
        Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis


    WARS for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for WARS

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/58 Interacting proteins for WARS (P233812, 3 ENSP000003474954) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 58)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CDK2AP2O759562, 3, ENSP000003014884MINT-63228 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000301488
    DCAF13Q9NV062, 3, ENSP000002975794MINT-8277113 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000297579
    MDH2P409262, 3, ENSP000003270704MINT-63720 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000327070
    DNMT3BQ9UBC32, 3, ENSP000003285474MINT-8277102 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000328547
    EEF1A1P681043, ENSP000003300544I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000330054
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/7 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001525angiogenesis IEA--
    GO:0006412translation TAS1761529
    GO:0006418tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS--
    GO:0006436tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation NAS8496617
    GO:0008285negative regulation of cell proliferation TAS1761529

    WARS for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    WARS for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for WARS (SYWC)

    5 HMDB Compounds for WARS    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Adenosine monophosphate5'-AMP (see all 28)61-19-8--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    L-Tryptophan(-)-tryptophan (see all 53)73-22-3--
    Phosphoric acidacide phosphorique (FRENCH) (see all 20)7664-38-2--
    Pyrophosphate(4-)Diphosphoric acid ion (see all 10)14000-31-8--

    3 DrugBank Compounds for WARS    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    L-Tryptophan(-)-Tryptophan (see all 14)73-22-3targetinhibitor16724112 17150540 17661345 17114500 17428498
    enzymesubstrate inhibitor16724112 17150540 17661345 17114500 17428498 16724112 17150540 17661345 17114500 17428498
    Tryptophanyl-5'amp-- --target--17139284 17016423
    L-Tryptophanamide-- --target--10592235

    10/11 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for WARS gene (see all 11)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    trna(trp) 90.2 19 11834741 (6), 7743129 (1), 11600701 (1), 8646895 (1) (see all 5)
    aminoacyl-trna 87 5 8643392 (1), 19900940 (1), 12438642 (1)
    indoleamine 77.6 9 1398953 (2), 7665918 (1), 9731757 (1), 15961579 (1) (see all 8)
    trna 72.7 36 17726052 (3), 7743129 (2), 16798914 (2), 14660560 (1) (see all 15)
    anticodon 71 2 15130561 (1), 17386262 (1)
    kynurenine 60.2 1 15961579 (1)
    tryptamine 43.6 4 10376788 (1), 17114825 (1)
    atp 34.6 19 12473451 (7), 7729548 (1), 7743129 (1), 16888724 (1) (see all 5)
    phosphatidylinositol 0 2 12644569 (1), 17661345 (1)
    alanine 0 2 7729548 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about WARS / SYWC

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for WARS gene (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_004184.3  NM_173701.1  NM_213645.1  NM_213646.1  

    Unigene Cluster for WARS:

    Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase
    Hs.497599  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_004184
    18/43 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 43):
    ENST00000392882(uc001yhh.1 uc001yhi.1 uc001yhg.2) ENST00000358655(uc001yhk.1)
    ENST00000355338(uc001yhl.1) ENST00000344102 ENST00000557135 ENST00000556645
    ENST00000554950 ENST00000557614 ENST00000554601 ENST00000553395 ENST00000556504
    ENST00000554084 ENST00000557722 ENST00000557297 ENST00000556435 ENST00000553808(uc010twz.1)
    ENST00000554331 ENST00000555063

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    6 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate WARS:
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    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidWARS 3' UTR sequence
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK025487.1 AK056100.1 AK124668.1 AK130698.1 AK291141.1 AK300255.1 BC017489.1 BC095453.1 
    BX248006.1 M61715.1 M77804.1 X59892.1 X62570.1 

    24/81 DOTS entries (see all 81):

    DT.97856550  DT.97782840  DT.454214  DT.102838655  DT.95281872  DT.95304824  DT.100708291  DT.100708270 
    DT.100708249  DT.100708253  DT.100708272  DT.100645536  DT.92461503  DT.450366  DT.100708294  DT.100801587 
    DT.120758993  DT.95184645  DT.100000216  DT.100708251  DT.100708265  DT.120758969  DT.100850845  DT.95304968 

    24/1051 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 1051):

    CR611480 BU192127 T06738 NM_213645 CB529791 BQ050677 AI284327 CA413129 
    BQ232328 BE784477 CA445610 BM511925 BG231757 AI359636 BM799401 BP345956 
    BX356733 BX422407 AA026283 CR602143 BF795451 AW575735 AA454583 CD359684 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5/20 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for WARS (see all 20)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e · 2f ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^
    SP1:                                                                                -                 -                                                         
    SP2:                                                                                -     -     -     -                                                         
    SP3:                    -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                                         
    SP4:                                                                                -     -     -     -                                                     -   
    SP5:                    -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -           -                                                         

    ExUns: 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b · 12c ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b
    SP1:              -                                                         
    SP2:              -                                                         
    SP3:              -                                                         
    SP4:  -           -                                                         
    SP5:                                                                        


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for WARS

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    WARS expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      WARS embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGCAGGCCTG
    WARS Expression
    About this image


    WARS expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/14 selected tissues (see all 14) fully expand
     
     Blood (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             monocytes   
     
     Neural Crest (Gastrulation Derivatives)
             skeleton/cranium   
     
     Gut Tube (Gastrointestinal Tract)
             Definitive endoderm-like cells ( A scalable, suspension protocol for derivation of...
     
     Bone (Gastrulation Derivatives)
             skeleton/cranium   
     
     Mesoderm (Gastrulation Derivatives)
             skeleton/axial skeleton   

    See WARS Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for WARS

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.497599
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Array including WARS: 
              Amino Acid Metabolism I in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for WARS gene from 10/29 species (see all 29)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Wars1 , 5 tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase1, 5 87.05(n)1
    90.23(a)1
      12 (59.66 cM)5
    223751  NM_011710.31  NP_035840.31 
     1088600305 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves WARS1 tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase 73.52(n)
    78.59(a)
      423458  XM_421368.2  XP_421368.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia WARS6
    Uncharacterized protein
    81(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343270.1(908498-922488)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia wars-prov2 tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase 78.84(n)    BC046713.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc732742 hypothetical protein MGC73274 78.06(n)   393745  BC049526.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Aats-trp1 , 3 tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation
    tryptophan-tRNA more3
    Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase1
    62(a)3
    62.18(n)1
    62.59(a)1
      85D73
    453991  NM_080087.21  NP_524826.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea wrs-13
    wars-11
    tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase3
    Protein WARS-11
    64(a)3
    60.34(n)1
    62.28(a)1
      V(18858644-18861787)3
    1802311  NM_075282.31  NP_507683.21 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes WRS1(YOL097C)4
    WRS11
    Cytoplasmic tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, aminoacylates more4
    Wrs1p1
    57.56(n)1
    55.93(a)1
      15(137825-136527)4
    8540561, 4  NP_014544.11, 4 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons AT3G046001 tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase 61.04(n)
    60.61(a)
      819617  NM_001084635.1  NP_001078104.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.88802 Rice mRNA for rabbit eukaryotic release factor (T171 more 73.91(n)    AK102417.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for WARS (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for WARS (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for WARS gene
    18/33 SIMAP similar genes for WARS using alignment to 27 protein entries:     SYWC_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    ERBB2    GCDH    APOPT1    FAM175A    LYRM4    AURA2
    NF2    FAM3A    CRCP    PKN1    ZNF546    CATSPERG
    NPLOC4    ZNF564    ZNF585B    ASB11    FKBP3    LOC100506792

    WARS for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for WARS
    PGOHUM00000261835


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/1060 SNPs in WARS are shown (see all 1060)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 14 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0364664
    A breast cancer sample4--see VAR_0364662 E D mis40--------
    rs1839544921,2
    --81790530(+) CCCTAA/TGGCCT 4 -- ds50010--------
    rs111605811,2
    C,F,A,H--81790667(+) CCCGAC/GCTGGC 4 -- ds50017Minor allele frequency- G:0.36NA WA EA 368
    rs37423831,2
    F--81790872(+) GCACAA/CCACCA 4 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- C:0.01EA 1502
    rs1877536791,2
    --81790969(+) CTCTGC/TTCCCT 4 -- ds50010--------
    rs1147273861,2
    F--81790974(+) CTCCCT/ACCTCA 4 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.01WA 118
    rs37423841,2
    C,F,A,H--81790986(+) ACCTCC/TCAGAC 4 -- ds500123Minor allele frequency- T:0.15EA NS NA WA CSA 3722
    rs1923241651,2
    --81791081(+) AGATAC/TATCAA 4 -- ut310--------
    rs1838260281,2
    --81791219(+) CCACCC/TGTCCA 4 -- ut310--------
    rs454747971,2
    C,F--81791463(+) GAAAGT/CTTCAC 4 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- C:0.02NA 120

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for WARS (100800125 - 100843142 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for WARS:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv34023CNV Loss18971310
    nsv832875CNV Loss17160897

    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 191050    OMIM disorders: --

    20/32 diseases for WARS (see all 32):    About MalaCards
    reflex epilepsy    tinea favosa    phlebotomus fever    chancroid
    dysentery    scabies    gonorrhea    bladder transitional cell carcinoma
    glanders    trachoma    smallpox    typhus
    transitional cell carcinoma    graves' disease    kaposi's sarcoma    colon adenocarcinoma
    inflammatory bowel disease    myocardial infarction    endotheliitis    myeloma

    10 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for WARS:
    Typhus     Kaposi's sarcoma     Plague     Tinea favosa
    Smallpox     Malaria     Gonorrhea     Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
    Yaws     Trachoma

    WARS for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    5 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for WARS gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    autoimmune response 34.9 1 19363598 (1)
    autoimmune diseases 0 2 9785582 (1), 1795698 (1)
    necrosis 0 1 15075355 (1)
    inflammation 0 2 15627054 (1)
    tumors 0 7 19900940 (5), 15075355 (1), 10197441 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): WARS
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: WARS (11 documents)

    Export disorders for WARS gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for WARS gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 161):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with WARS)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Human interferon gamma potently induces the synthesis of a 55-kDa protein (gamma 2) highly homologous to rabbit peptide chain release factor and bovine tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PubMed id 1763065)1, 2, 3, 9 Fleckner J.... Justesen J. (1991)
    2. Molecular cloning and characterization of an interferon induced human cDNA with sequence homology to a mammalian peptide chain release factor. (PubMed id 1537332)1, 2, 3 Buwitt U.... Boettger E.C. (1992)
    3. Oxidative stress-responsive intracellular regulation specific for the angiostatic form of human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PubMed id 15628863)1, 2, 9 Wakasugi K....Morishima I. (2005)
    4. The human gene encoding tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase: interferon- response elements and exon-intron organization. (PubMed id 7685728)1, 2, 9 Frolova L.Y.... Kisselev L.L. (1993)
    5. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the structural gene encoding for human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PubMed id 1765274)1, 2, 9 Frolova L.Y....Kisselev L.L. (1991)
    6. Biologically active fragment of a human tRNA synthetase inhibits fluid shear stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. (PubMed id 14630953)1, 2, 9 Tzima E....Schimmel P. (2003)
    7. A human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase as a regulator of angiogenesis. (PubMed id 11773626)1, 2, 9 Wakasugi K.... Schimmel P. (2002)
    8. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase gene polymorphisms and risk of incident myocardial infarction. (PubMed id 15939065)1, 4, 9 Zee R.Y....Ridker P.M. (2005)
    9. Gamma interferon potently induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase expression in human keratinocytes. (PubMed id 8496617)1, 2, 9 Reano A....Schmitt D. (1993)
    10. Interferon induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase expression in human fibroblasts. (PubMed id 1761529)1, 2, 9 Rubin B.Y.... Tate W.P. (1991)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 7453 HGNC: 12729 AceView: WARS Ensembl:ENSG00000140105 euGenes: HUgn7453
    ECgene: WARS Kegg: 7453 H-InvDB: WARS

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for WARS Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for WARS gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving WARS

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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