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Aliases for VRK2 Gene

Aliases for VRK2 Gene

  • Vaccinia Related Kinase 2 2 3 5
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 61
  • Vaccinia-Related Kinase 2 4

External Ids for VRK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for VRK2 Gene

  • GC02P058402
  • GC02P058092
  • GC02P058248
  • GC02P058185

Summaries for VRK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for VRK2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the vaccinia-related kinase (VRK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein acts as an effector of signaling pathways that regulate apoptosis and tumor cell growth. Variants in this gene have been associated with schizophrenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that differ in their subcellular localization and biological activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GeneCards Summary for VRK2 Gene

VRK2 (Vaccinia Related Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with VRK2 include Vaccinia and Schizophrenia. Among its related pathways are Mitotic Prophase and Mitotic Metaphase and Anaphase. GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein serine/threonine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is VRK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VRK2 Gene

  • Serine/threonine kinase that regulates several signal transduction pathways. Isoform 1 modulates the stress response to hypoxia and cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) and this is dependent on its interaction with MAPK8IP1, which assembles mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complexes. Inhibition of signal transmission mediated by the assembly of MAPK8IP1-MAPK complexes reduces JNK phosphorylation and JUN-dependent transcription. Phosphorylates Thr-18 of p53/TP53, histone H3, and may also phosphorylate MAPK8IP1. Phosphorylates BANF1 and disrupts its ability to bind DNA and reduces its binding to LEM domain-containing proteins. Downregulates the transactivation of transcription induced by ERBB2, HRAS, BRAF, and MEK1. Blocks the phosphorylation of ERK in response to ERBB2 and HRAS. Can also phosphorylate the following substrates that are commonly used to establish in vitro kinase activity: casein, MBP and histone H2B, but it is not sure that this is physiologically relevant.

  • Isoform 2 phosphorylates Thr-18 of p53/TP53, as well as histone H3. Reduces p53/TP53 ubiquitination by MDM2, promotes p53/TP53 acetylation by EP300 and thereby increases p53/TP53 stability and activity.

Gene Wiki entry for VRK2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for VRK2 Gene

Genomics for VRK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for VRK2 Gene

Enhancers for VRK2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH02F058107 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 23.2 +200.8 200836 3.0 GTF2F1 TBP PKNOX1 JUN SIN3A CEBPG BRCA1 POLR2A FOS MAFK VRK2 FANCL GC02P058072 ENSG00000273063
GH02F058112 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 23.5 +205.5 205528 2.0 GTF3C2 CTCF POLR3A SPI1 VRK2 EIF3FP3 GC02P058072 ENSG00000273063
GH02F057890 2.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 11.4 -16.8 -16823 0.9 RAD51 USF2 CEBPB JUNB MLLT1 VRK2 LOC105377632
GH02F058044 1.1 ENCODE 15.6 +139.1 139072 4.5 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX WRNIP1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 VRK2 FANCL LOC105374726 GC02M057920
GH02F057907 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 11.7 +1.0 1010 2.5 SRF TBP STAT1 MTA2 RELA POLR2A STAT2 NFYB SPI1 VRK2 GC02M057920
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around VRK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for VRK2 Gene

Chromosome:
2
Start:
57,907,651 bp from pter
End:
58,159,920 bp from pter
Size:
252,270 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for VRK2 Gene

Genes around VRK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
VRK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for VRK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for VRK2 Gene

Proteins for VRK2 Gene

  • Protein details for VRK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q86Y07-VRK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2
    Protein Accession:
    Q86Y07
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DKL0
    • D6W5D4
    • D6W5D6
    • Q49AK9
    • Q53EU9
    • Q53S39
    • Q53S77
    • Q53TU1
    • Q86Y08
    • Q86Y09
    • Q86Y10
    • Q86Y11
    • Q86Y12
    • Q8IXI5
    • Q99987

    Protein attributes for VRK2 Gene

    Size:
    508 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    58141 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Isoform 1 interacts with MAP3K7, MAP2K7, MAP2K1 and KSR1. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 interact with RAN and MAPK8IP1. Isoform 1 interacts with Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1; this interaction is involved in protecting cells from apoptosis.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=CAD54446.2; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Aberrant splicing.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for VRK2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for VRK2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for VRK2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for VRK2 Gene

Q86Y07:
  • EYVHGDIKA
  • HENEYVHG

Post-translational modifications for VRK2 Gene

Domains & Families for VRK2 Gene

Gene Families for VRK2 Gene

Protein Domains for VRK2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for VRK2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q86Y07

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

VRK2_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase family. VRK subfamily.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase family. VRK subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with VRK2: view

Function for VRK2 Gene

Molecular function for VRK2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
vaccinia-related kinase 2,widely expressed
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
RAN inhibits its autophosphorylation and its ability to phosphorylate histone H3.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Serine/threonine kinase that regulates several signal transduction pathways. Isoform 1 modulates the stress response to hypoxia and cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) and this is dependent on its interaction with MAPK8IP1, which assembles mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complexes. Inhibition of signal transmission mediated by the assembly of MAPK8IP1-MAPK complexes reduces JNK phosphorylation and JUN-dependent transcription. Phosphorylates Thr-18 of p53/TP53, histone H3, and may also phosphorylate MAPK8IP1. Phosphorylates BANF1 and disrupts its ability to bind DNA and reduces its binding to LEM domain-containing proteins. Downregulates the transactivation of transcription induced by ERBB2, HRAS, BRAF, and MEK1. Blocks the phosphorylation of ERK in response to ERBB2 and HRAS. Can also phosphorylate the following substrates that are commonly used to establish in vitro kinase activity: casein, MBP and histone H2B, but it is not sure that this is physiologically relevant.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isoform 2 phosphorylates Thr-18 of p53/TP53, as well as histone H3. Reduces p53/TP53 ubiquitination by MDM2, promotes p53/TP53 acetylation by EP300 and thereby increases p53/TP53 stability and activity.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for VRK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for VRK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA,TAS 14645249
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16963744
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VRK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with VRK2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for VRK2

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for VRK2

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for VRK2 Gene

Localization for VRK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VRK2 Gene

Isoform 1: Cytoplasm. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Single-pass type IV membrane protein. Mitochondrion membrane; Single-pass type IV membrane protein.
Isoform 2: Cytoplasm. Nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for VRK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
peroxisome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for VRK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA,IDA 16704422
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 16704422
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA 22572157
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane IEA,IDA 18286207
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VRK2: view

Pathways & Interactions for VRK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with VRK2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for VRK2 Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for VRK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation TAS 9344656
GO:0008360 regulation of cell shape IBA --
GO:0016032 viral process IEA --
GO:0016310 phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0018105 peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VRK2: view

Drugs & Compounds for VRK2 Gene

(1) Drugs for VRK2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0

(1) Additional Compounds for VRK2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with VRK2: view

Transcripts for VRK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for VRK2 Gene

Vaccinia related kinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for VRK2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for VRK2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for VRK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
VRK2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
VRK2

Expression for VRK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for VRK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for VRK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast (45.7) and Lung (15.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for VRK2 Gene



NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of VRK2 Gene:

VRK2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for VRK2 Gene:

Hs.744058

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for VRK2 Gene:

Q86Y07-VRK2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are expressed in various tumor cell lines. Expression of isoform 1 inversely correlates with ERBB2 in breast carcinomas (at protein level). Widely expressed. Highly expressed in fetal liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas, heart, peripheral blood leukocytes and testis.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with VRK2: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Protein tissue co-expression partners for VRK2 Gene

Orthologs for VRK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for VRK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia VRK2 34 35
  • 99.87 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia VRK2 34 35
  • 88.24 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia VRK2 34 35
  • 85.28 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Vrk2 34
  • 83.41 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Vrk2 34 16 35
  • 78.6 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia VRK2 35
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia VRK2 35
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves VRK2 34 35
  • 65.14 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia VRK2 35
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia vrk2 34
  • 56.55 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia vrk2-prov 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii vrk2 34 35
  • 63.48 (n)
zgc56483 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta BcDNA:LD09009 36
  • 41 (a)
ball 35
  • 28 (a)
ManyToMany
CG8878 35
  • 14 (a)
ManyToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F28B12.3 36
  • 30 (a)
vrk-1 35
  • 22 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.6830 35
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for VRK2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for VRK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for VRK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for VRK2 (if available)

Paralogs for VRK2 Gene

Paralogs for VRK2 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for VRK2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with VRK2: view

Variants for VRK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for VRK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs759217526 Pathogenic 58,159,793(+) TAAGG(-/TAAT)TAATT nc-transcript-variant, reference, utr-variant-3-prime, frameshift-variant
rs140088149 Likely benign 58,161,579(+) ACTTG(A/T)TCAGG nc-transcript-variant, downstream-variant-500B, reference, missense, utr-variant-3-prime
rs149803148 Likely benign 58,159,778(+) TCCTT(C/G)CAGAC nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense, utr-variant-3-prime
rs864622189 Likely benign 58,163,516(-) CTAGG(G/T)AATAA nc-transcript-variant, reference, synonymous-codon, utr-variant-3-prime
rs375526911 Uncertain significance 58,162,885(+) TAGCA(C/T)GAGCT intron-variant, reference, missense, utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for VRK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv999591 CNV loss 25217958
nsv954236 CNV insertion 24416366
nsv834159 CNV gain 17160897
nsv582097 CNV loss 21841781
nsv582096 CNV loss 21841781
nsv582086 CNV gain 21841781
nsv527551 CNV loss 19592680
nsv525988 CNV gain 19592680
nsv475869 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv458041 CNV loss 19166990
nsv457985 CNV gain 19166990
nsv1134865 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1133273 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
nsv1125689 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
nsv1109253 CNV deletion 24896259
esv3892537 CNV loss 25118596
esv3590954 CNV gain 21293372
esv3590953 CNV loss 21293372
esv3590951 CNV loss 21293372
esv3590950 CNV loss 21293372
esv3583839 CNV loss 25503493
esv2674793 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2660402 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2596143 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2230992 CNV deletion 18987734
esv21948 CNV loss 19812545
esv1774125 CNV insertion 17803354

Variation tolerance for VRK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 79.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 10.86; 91.80% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for VRK2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
VRK2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VRK2 Gene

Disorders for VRK2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for VRK2 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
vaccinia
schizophrenia
  • schizophrenia 12
chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome
  • 2p15-p16.1 microdeletion syndrome
benign familial infantile epilepsy
  • benign familial infantile convulsion
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search VRK2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for VRK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
VRK2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
VRK2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
VRK2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with VRK2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for VRK2 Gene

Publications for VRK2 Gene

  1. Modulation of interleukin-1 transcriptional response by the interaction between VRK2 and the JIP1 scaffold protein. (PMID: 18286207) Blanco S. … Lazo P.A. (PLoS ONE 2008) 3 4 22 64
  2. Proteomics identification of nuclear Ran GTPase as an inhibitor of human VRK1 and VRK2 (vaccinia-related kinase) activities. (PMID: 18617507) Sanz-Garcia M. … Lazo P.A. (Mol. Cell. Proteomics 2008) 3 4 22 64
  3. Vaccinia-related kinase 2 modulates the stress response to hypoxia mediated by TAK1. (PMID: 17709393) Blanco S. … Lazo P.A. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2007) 3 4 22 64
  4. The subcellular localization of vaccinia-related kinase-2 (VRK2) isoforms determines their different effect on p53 stability in tumour cell lines. (PMID: 16704422) Blanco S. … Lazo P.A. (FEBS J. 2006) 3 4 22 64
  5. Human cellular protein VRK2 interacts specifically with Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1, a homologue of Bcl-2, and enhances cell survival. (PMID: 16963744) Li L.Y. … Chen J.Y. (J. Gen. Virol. 2006) 3 4 22 64

Products for VRK2 Gene

Sources for VRK2 Gene

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