Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for VRK2 Gene

Aliases for VRK2 Gene

  • Vaccinia Related Kinase 2 2 3
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 64
  • Vaccinia-Related Kinase 2 4

External Ids for VRK2 Gene

Summaries for VRK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for VRK2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the vaccinia-related kinase (VRK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein acts as an effector of signaling pathways that regulate apoptosis and tumor cell growth. Variants in this gene have been associated with schizophrenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that differ in their subcellular localization and biological activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GeneCards Summary for VRK2 Gene

VRK2 (Vaccinia Related Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with VRK2 include vaccinia and schizophrenia. Among its related pathways are Cell Cycle, Mitotic and Cell Cycle, Mitotic. GO annotations related to this gene include protein serine/threonine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CSNK1G2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VRK2 Gene

  • Serine/threonine kinase that regulates several signal transduction pathways. Isoform 1 modulates the stress response to hypoxia and cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) and this is dependent on its interaction with MAPK8IP1, which assembles mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complexes. Inhibition of signal transmission mediated by the assembly of MAPK8IP1-MAPK complexes reduces JNK phosphorylation and JUN-dependent transcription. Phosphorylates Thr-18 of p53/TP53, histone H3, and may also phosphorylate MAPK8IP1. Phosphorylates BANF1 and disrupts its ability to bind DNA and reduces its binding to LEM domain-containing proteins. Downregulates the transactivation of transcription induced by ERBB2, HRAS, BRAF, and MEK1. Blocks the phosphorylation of ERK in response to ERBB2 and HRAS. Can also phosphorylate the following substrates that are commonly used to establish in vitro kinase activity: casein, MBP and histone H2B, but it is not sure that this is physiologically relevant

  • Isoform 2 phosphorylates Thr-18 of p53/TP53, as well as histone H3. Reduces p53/TP53 ubiquitination by MDM2, promotes p53/TP53 acetylation by EP300 and thereby increases p53/TP53 stability and activity

Gene Wiki entry for VRK2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for VRK2 Gene

Genomics for VRK2 Gene

Genomic Location for VRK2 Gene

Start:
57,907,651 bp from pter
End:
58,159,920 bp from pter
Size:
252,270 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for VRK2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for VRK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for VRK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for VRK2 Gene

Proteins for VRK2 Gene

  • Protein details for VRK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q86Y07-VRK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2
    Protein Accession:
    Q86Y07
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DKL0
    • D6W5D4
    • D6W5D6
    • Q49AK9
    • Q53EU9
    • Q53S39
    • Q53S77
    • Q53TU1
    • Q86Y08
    • Q86Y09
    • Q86Y10
    • Q86Y11
    • Q86Y12
    • Q8IXI5
    • Q99987

    Protein attributes for VRK2 Gene

    Size:
    508 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    58141 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Isoform 1 interacts with MAP3K7, MAP2K7, MAP2K1 and KSR1. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 interact with RAN and MAPK8IP1. Isoform 1 interacts with Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1; this interaction is involved in protecting cells from apoptosis.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=CAD54446.2; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Aberrant splicing.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for VRK2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for VRK2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for VRK2 Gene

Proteomics data for VRK2 Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for VRK2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for VRK2 Gene

Domains for VRK2 Gene

Gene Families for VRK2 Gene

Protein Domains for VRK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

VRK2_HUMAN
Domain:
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.:
    • Q86Y07
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase family. VRK subfamily.:
    • Q86Y07
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with VRK2: view

Function for VRK2 Gene

Molecular function for VRK2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: vaccinia-related kinase 2,widely expressed
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: RAN inhibits its autophosphorylation and its ability to phosphorylate histone H3.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Serine/threonine kinase that regulates several signal transduction pathways. Isoform 1 modulates the stress response to hypoxia and cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) and this is dependent on its interaction with MAPK8IP1, which assembles mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complexes. Inhibition of signal transmission mediated by the assembly of MAPK8IP1-MAPK complexes reduces JNK phosphorylation and JUN-dependent transcription. Phosphorylates Thr-18 of p53/TP53, histone H3, and may also phosphorylate MAPK8IP1. Phosphorylates BANF1 and disrupts its ability to bind DNA and reduces its binding to LEM domain-containing proteins. Downregulates the transactivation of transcription induced by ERBB2, HRAS, BRAF, and MEK1. Blocks the phosphorylation of ERK in response to ERBB2 and HRAS. Can also phosphorylate the following substrates that are commonly used to establish in vitro kinase activity: casein, MBP and histone H2B, but it is not sure that this is physiologically relevant
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Isoform 2 phosphorylates Thr-18 of p53/TP53, as well as histone H3. Reduces p53/TP53 ubiquitination by MDM2, promotes p53/TP53 acetylation by EP300 and thereby increases p53/TP53 stability and activity

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for VRK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for VRK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA 14645249
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16963744
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016772 transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VRK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with VRK2: view

No data available for Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for VRK2 Gene

Localization for VRK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VRK2 Gene

Isoform 1: Cytoplasm. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Single-pass type IV membrane protein. Mitochondrion membrane; Single-pass type IV membrane protein.
Isoform 2: Cytoplasm. Nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for VRK2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for VRK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 3
extracellular 1
golgi apparatus 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for VRK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 16704422
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 16704422
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane IDA 18286207
GO:0016020 membrane --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VRK2: view

Pathways for VRK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with VRK2: view

Pathways by source for VRK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for VRK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation TAS 9344656
GO:0006897 endocytosis IBA --
GO:0008152 metabolic process --
GO:0008360 regulation of cell shape IBA --
GO:0016032 viral process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VRK2: view

Compounds for VRK2 Gene

(2) HMDB Compounds for VRK2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
56-65-5
ADP
  • adenosindiphosphorsaeure
58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with VRK2: view

Transcripts for VRK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for VRK2 Gene

Vaccinia related kinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for VRK2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for VRK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
VRK2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
VRK2

Expression for VRK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for VRK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for VRK2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for VRK2 Gene Hs.744058

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for VRK2 Gene

Q86Y07-VRK2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are expressed in various tumor cell lines. Expression of isoform 1 inversely correlates with ERBB2 in breast carcinomas (at protein level). Widely expressed. Highly expressed in fetal liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas, heart, peripheral blood leukocytes and testis.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with VRK2: view

Orthologs for VRK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for VRK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia VRK2 36
  • 99.87 (n)
  • 99.61 (a)
VRK2 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia VRK2 36
  • 88.24 (n)
  • 83.5 (a)
VRK2 37
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia VRK2 36
  • 85.28 (n)
  • 78.53 (a)
VRK2 37
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Vrk2 36
  • 78.6 (n)
  • 70.18 (a)
Vrk2 16
Vrk2 37
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia VRK2 37
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia VRK2 37
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Vrk2 36
  • 83.41 (n)
  • 82.38 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves VRK2 36
  • 65.14 (n)
  • 57.17 (a)
VRK2 37
  • 49 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia VRK2 37
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia vrk2-prov 36
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia vrk2 36
  • 56.55 (n)
  • 47.77 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii vrk2 36
  • 63.48 (n)
  • 62.9 (a)
vrk2 37
  • 41 (a)
OneToOne
zgc56483 36
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta ball 37
  • 28 (a)
ManyToMany
CG8878 37
  • 14 (a)
ManyToMany
BcDNA:LD09009 38
  • 41 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea vrk-1 37
  • 22 (a)
OneToMany
F28B12.3 38
  • 30 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.6830 37
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for VRK2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for VRK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for VRK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for VRK2 (if available)

Paralogs for VRK2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for VRK2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with VRK2: view

Variants for VRK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for VRK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs716758 -- 58,138,215(-) ACTAC(G/T)ATTTT intron-variant
rs728574 -- 58,029,970(+) ATTTA(A/G)ATTAA intron-variant
rs820604 -- 58,092,962(-) atgaa(A/G)ctgga intron-variant
rs820605 -- 58,092,954(-) ggaaa(C/T)catca intron-variant
rs820606 -- 58,092,941(-) ctcag(G/T)aaact intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for VRK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv457985 CNV Gain 19166990
nsv834159 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv525988 CNV Gain 19592680
dgv4156n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv527551 CNV Loss 19592680
esv1774125 CNV Insertion 17803354

Relevant External Links for VRK2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
VRK2

Disorders for VRK2 Gene

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for VRK2 Gene

Relevant External Links for VRK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
VRK2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
VRK2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with VRK2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VRK2 Gene

Publications for VRK2 Gene

  1. Characterization of three paralogous members of the Mammalian vaccinia related kinase family. (PMID: 14645249) Nichols R.J. … Traktman P. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 4 23
  2. The subcellular localization of vaccinia-related kinase-2 (VRK2) isoforms determines their different effect on p53 stability in tumour cell lines. (PMID: 16704422) Blanco S. … Lazo P.A. (FEBS J. 2006) 3 4 23
  3. Human cellular protein VRK2 interacts specifically with Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1, a homologue of Bcl-2, and enhances cell survival. (PMID: 16963744) Li L.Y. … Chen J.Y. (J. Gen. Virol. 2006) 3 4 23
  4. Vaccinia-related kinase 2 modulates the stress response to hypoxia mediated by TAK1. (PMID: 17709393) Blanco S. … Lazo P.A. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2007) 3 4 23
  5. Modulation of interleukin-1 transcriptional response by the interaction between VRK2 and the JIP1 scaffold protein. (PMID: 18286207) Blanco S. … Lazo P.A. (PLoS ONE 2008) 3 4 23

Products for VRK2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for VRK2

Sources for VRK2 Gene

Back to Top

Content