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Aliases for VARS Gene

Aliases for VARS Gene

  • Valyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • Valine TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 2 3
  • Valyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 2 3
  • Protein G7a 3 4
  • EC 4 61
  • ValRS 3 4
  • VARS2 3 4
  • G7A 3 4
  • Valine--TRNA Ligase 3
  • EC 6.1.1 61
  • VARS1 3

External Ids for VARS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for VARS Gene

  • VARS2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for VARS Gene

  • GC06M031855
  • GC06M031745
  • GC06M031531
  • GC06M031780
  • GC06M031782
  • GC06M031785

Summaries for VARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for VARS Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family and is located in the class III region of the major histocompatibility complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for VARS Gene

VARS (Valyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with VARS include Diabetic Cataract and Scotoma. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Gene Expression. GO annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and aminoacyl-tRNA editing activity. An important paralog of this gene is VARS2.

Gene Wiki entry for VARS Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for VARS Gene

Genomics for VARS Gene

Regulatory Elements for VARS Gene

Enhancers for VARS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association

Enhancers around VARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for VARS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Location for VARS Gene

31,777,518 bp from pter
31,795,953 bp from pter
18,436 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for VARS Gene

Genes around VARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
VARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for VARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

Proteins for VARS Gene

  • Protein details for VARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Valine--tRNA ligase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0V1N1
    • B4DZ61
    • Q5JQ90
    • Q96E77
    • Q9UQM2

    Protein attributes for VARS Gene

    1264 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    140476 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms high-molecular-mass aggregates with elongation factor 1.
    • Sequence=CAA41990.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=620, 640; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for VARS Gene


neXtProt entry for VARS Gene

Post-translational modifications for VARS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 320, Lys 418, Lys 952, Lys 966, and Lys 1262
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for VARS Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for VARS Gene

Gene Families for VARS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with VARS: view

Function for VARS Gene

Molecular function for VARS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-valine + tRNA(Val) = AMP + diphosphate + L-valyl-tRNA(Val).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Can be regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for VARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for VARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002161 aminoacyl-tRNA editing activity IEA --
GO:0004832 valine-tRNA ligase activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 24965446
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VARS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with VARS: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for VARS

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for VARS Gene

Localization for VARS Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for VARS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for VARS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 3
golgi apparatus 1
nucleus 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for VARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VARS: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VARS Gene

Pathways & Interactions for VARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with VARS: view

Pathways by source for VARS Gene

1 KEGG pathway for VARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for VARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006438 valyl-tRNA aminoacylation IBA --
GO:0006450 regulation of translational fidelity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VARS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for VARS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for VARS Gene

(9) Drugs for VARS Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Valine Approved Nutra Target, Enzyme, substrate 0
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0

(5) Additional Compounds for VARS Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with VARS: view

Transcripts for VARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for VARS Gene

Valyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for VARS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for VARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for VARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for VARS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for VARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (8.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for VARS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for VARS Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of VARS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for VARS Gene:

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with VARS: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for VARS Gene

Orthologs for VARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for VARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia VARS 34
  • 90.33 (n)
  • 95.25 (a)
  • 95 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia VARS 34
  • 89.77 (n)
  • 94.38 (a)
  • 94 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Vars 34
  • 87.23 (n)
  • 92.64 (a)
Vars 16
Vars 35
  • 93 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia VARS 34
  • 99.53 (n)
  • 99.53 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Vars 34
  • 87.55 (n)
  • 93.43 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 86 (a)
-- 35
  • 63 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia VARS 35
  • 79 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 62 (a)
-- 35
  • 70 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.11856 34
vars 34
  • 63.38 (n)
  • 66.86 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii vars 34
  • 64.74 (n)
  • 66.83 (a)
vars2 34
vars 35
  • 66 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010420 34
  • 59.37 (n)
  • 60.42 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-val 34
  • 61.25 (n)
  • 60.08 (a)
Aats-val 35
  • 59 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea vars-2 34
  • 55.07 (n)
  • 53.78 (a)
vars-2 35
  • 53 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AAR034W 34
  • 55.03 (n)
  • 50.83 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0D14971g 34
  • 53.2 (n)
  • 51.86 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes VAS1 34
  • 52.65 (n)
  • 50.49 (a)
VAS1 35
  • 47 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TWN2 34
  • 54.03 (n)
  • 49.84 (a)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.16767 34
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.3064 34
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0694900 34
  • 54.02 (n)
  • 52.25 (a)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.2835 34
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.3304 34
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU01965 34
  • 56.16 (n)
  • 48.61 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes vrs1 34
  • 53.62 (n)
  • 54.38 (a)
Species where no ortholog for VARS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for VARS Gene

Gene Tree for VARS (if available)
Gene Tree for VARS (if available)

Paralogs for VARS Gene

Paralogs for VARS Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for VARS Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with VARS: view

Variants for VARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for VARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs2607015 - 31,795,066(+) GAAAG(C/G)GAGTC nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs35196751 - 31,792,877(+) CCGGC(A/C/G)GGCAG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs11531 - 31,782,732(-) TGCCT(C/T)CGCCT nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs1076827 - 31,780,056(+) CGGCC(A/G)GGAAG downstream-variant-500B, reference, missense
rs2753960 - 31,795,067(-) GGACT(A/C)CCTTT nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for VARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv10403n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv10404n54 CNV loss 21841781
esv3370799 CNV duplication 20981092
nsv1073969 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1112900 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1126749 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv601943 CNV loss 21841781
nsv601944 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for VARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 27.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 16.30; 97.66% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for VARS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VARS Gene

Disorders for VARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for VARS Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
diabetic cataract
  • cataract - diabetic
  • blind spot area scotoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search VARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for VARS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with VARS: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for VARS Gene

Publications for VARS Gene

  1. Evidence that gene G7a in the human major histocompatibility complex encodes valyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 1898367) Hsieh H.-L. … Campbell R.D. (Biochem. J. 1991) 3 4 22 65
  2. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey S.D. … Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010) 3 46 65
  3. High-density SNP screening of the major histocompatibility complex in systemic lupus erythematosus demonstrates strong evidence for independent susceptibility regions. (PMID: 19851445) Barcellos L.F. … Criswell L.A. (PLoS Genet. 2009) 3 46 65
  4. Toward the full set of human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: characterization of AspRS and TyrRS. (PMID: 15779907) Bonnefond L. … Sissler M. (Biochemistry 2005) 2 3 65
  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the valyl-tRNA synthetase/elongation factor-1H complex and localization of the delta subunit. (PMID: 16229838) Jiang S. … Norcum M.T. (FEBS Lett. 2005) 3 22 65

Products for VARS Gene

Sources for VARS Gene

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