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Aliases for VARS Gene

Aliases for VARS Gene

  • Valyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4
  • VARS2 3 4 6
  • G7A 3 4 6
  • Valyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 2 3
  • Protein G7a 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • ValRS 3 4
  • VARS1 3 6
  • Valine TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Valine TRNA Ligase 1 2
  • Valine--TRNA Ligase 3
  • Cytoplasmic 2
  • EC 6.1.1 63

External Ids for VARS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for VARS Gene

  • VARS2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for VARS Gene

  • GC06M031855
  • GC06M031745
  • GC06M031531

Summaries for VARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for VARS Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family and is located in the class III region of the major histocompatibility complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for VARS Gene

VARS (Valyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with VARS include scotoma. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and tRNA Aminoacylation. GO annotations related to this gene include aminoacyl-tRNA editing activity and valine-tRNA ligase activity. An important paralog of this gene is VARS2.

Gene Wiki entry for VARS Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for VARS Gene

Genomics for VARS Gene

Regulatory Elements for VARS Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for VARS Gene

31,777,518 bp from pter
31,795,953 bp from pter
18,436 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for VARS Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for VARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

Proteins for VARS Gene

  • Protein details for VARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Valine--tRNA ligase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0V1N1
    • B4DZ61
    • Q5JQ90
    • Q96E77
    • Q9UQM2

    Protein attributes for VARS Gene

    1264 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    140476 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms high-molecular-mass aggregates with elongation factor 1
    • Sequence=CAA41990.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=620, 640; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for VARS Gene


neXtProt entry for VARS Gene

Proteomics data for VARS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for VARS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys320, Lys418, Lys952, Lys966, and Lys1262
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for VARS Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

Domains for VARS Gene

Gene Families for VARS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with VARS: view

Function for VARS Gene

Molecular function for VARS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-valine + tRNA(Val) = AMP + diphosphate + L-valyl-tRNA(Val)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Can be regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for VARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for VARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding --
GO:0002161 aminoacyl-tRNA editing activity IEA --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity --
GO:0004832 valine-tRNA ligase activity IDA 8428657
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VARS: view

Phenotypes for VARS Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for VARS:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with VARS: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for VARS

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for VARS Gene

Localization for VARS Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for VARS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for VARS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
chloroplast 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for VARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VARS: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VARS Gene

Pathways for VARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with VARS: view

Pathways by source for VARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for VARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006438 valyl-tRNA aminoacylation IBA --
GO:0006450 regulation of translational fidelity IEA --
GO:0010467 gene expression TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VARS: view

Drugs for VARS Gene

(1) Drugbank Compounds for VARS Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • (2S)-2-Amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
72-18-4 Target, Enzyme substrate approved, nutraceutical

(5) HMDB Compounds for VARS Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine monophosphate
  • 5'-Adenosine monophosphate
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(Tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
  • (2S)-2-Amino-3-methylbutanoate
Phosphoric acid
  • Acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion

(9) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for VARS Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
aminoacyl-trna 83.8 1
trna 66 13
valine 55.3 2
threonine 43.5 4
isoleucine 38.1 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with VARS: view

Transcripts for VARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for VARS Gene

Valyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for VARS

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for VARS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for VARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for VARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for VARS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for VARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (8.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for VARS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for VARS Gene Hs.520026

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with VARS: view

Expression partners for VARS Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for VARS Gene

Orthologs for VARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for VARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia VARS 35
  • 90.33 (n)
  • 95.25 (a)
  • 95 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia VARS 35
  • 89.77 (n)
  • 94.38 (a)
  • 94 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Vars 35
  • 87.23 (n)
  • 92.64 (a)
Vars 16
Vars 36
  • 93 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia VARS 35
  • 99.53 (n)
  • 99.53 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Vars 35
  • 87.55 (n)
  • 93.43 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 86 (a)
-- 36
  • 63 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia VARS 36
  • 79 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 62 (a)
-- 36
  • 70 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.11856 35
vars 35
  • 63.38 (n)
  • 66.86 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii vars 35
  • 64.74 (n)
  • 66.83 (a)
vars2 35
vars 36
  • 66 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010420 35
  • 59.37 (n)
  • 60.42 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-val 35
  • 61.25 (n)
  • 60.08 (a)
Aats-val 36
  • 59 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea vars-2 35
  • 55.07 (n)
  • 53.78 (a)
vars-2 36
  • 53 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AAR034W 35
  • 55.03 (n)
  • 50.83 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0D14971g 35
  • 53.2 (n)
  • 51.86 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes VAS1 35
  • 52.65 (n)
  • 50.49 (a)
VAS1 36
  • 47 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TWN2 35
  • 54.03 (n)
  • 49.84 (a)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.16767 35
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.3064 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0694900 35
  • 54.02 (n)
  • 52.25 (a)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.2835 35
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.3304 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU01965 35
  • 56.16 (n)
  • 48.61 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes vrs1 35
  • 53.62 (n)
  • 54.38 (a)
Species with no ortholog for VARS:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for VARS Gene

Gene Tree for VARS (if available)
Gene Tree for VARS (if available)

Paralogs for VARS Gene

Paralogs for VARS Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for VARS Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with VARS: view

Variants for VARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for VARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs11531 - 31,782,732(-) TGCCT(C/T)CGCCT reference, missense
rs534892 -- 31,796,165(-) TTTTT(C/G)ATACA upstream-variant-2KB
rs707923 -- 31,786,275(-) ttttt(G/T)tttgt intron-variant
rs707924 -- 31,783,950(-) ggcac(A/G)gtggc intron-variant
rs707925 -- 31,783,693(-) cagag(C/G)gagac intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for VARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv6582n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv6583n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv884431 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv6584n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv884434 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv6585n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv884438 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv884441 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv884442 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv6586n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv6587n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for VARS Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VARS Gene

Disorders for VARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database.

Search for VARS Gene in MalaCards »

(1) Disease for VARS Gene

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for VARS Gene

(2) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for VARS Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
cleft palate 36.9 1
shock 9.56 1

Relevant External Links for VARS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with VARS: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for VARS Gene

Publications for VARS Gene

  1. Evidence that gene G7a in the human major histocompatibility complex encodes valyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 1898367) Hsieh H.-L. … Campbell R.D. (Biochem. J. 1991) 3 4 23
  2. Two human valyl-tRNA synthetase-encoding cDNA sequences deposited in GenBank display extensive differences. (PMID: 8666263) Motorin Y. (Gene 1996) 3 23
  3. Reconstitution in vitro of the valyl-tRNA synthetase-elongation factor (EF) 1 beta gamma delta complex. Essential roles of the NH2-terminal extension of valyl-tRNA synthetase and of the EF-1 delta subunit in complex formation. (PMID: 8294461) Bec G. … Waller J.P. (J. Biol. Chem. 1994) 3 23
  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the valyl-tRNA synthetase/elongation factor-1H complex and localization of the delta subunit. (PMID: 16229838) Jiang S. … Norcum M.T. (FEBS Lett. 2005) 3 23
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4

Products for VARS Gene

Sources for VARS Gene

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