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TYW1B Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 36
GCID: GC07M072023

TRNA-YW Synthesizing Protein 1 Homolog B (S. Cerevisiae)

(Previous name: tRNA-yW synthesizing protein 1 homolog B (non-protein coding))
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
TRNA-YW Synthesizing Protein 1 Homolog B (S. Cerevisiae)1 2     TRNA Wybutosine-Synthesizing Protein 1 Homolog B2 3
TRNA-YW Synthesizing Protein 1 Homolog B (Non-Protein Coding)1 2     Non-Protein Coding RNA 691
Long Intergenic Non-Protein Coding RNA 691 2     LINC000692
Radical S-Adenosyl Methionine And Flavodoxin Domains 11 2     NCRNA000692
Radical S-Adenosyl Methionine And Flavodoxin Domain-Containing Protein 22 3     S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine-Dependent TRNA 4-Demethylwyosine Synthase2
RSAFD22 3     EC 4.1.3.443

External Ids:    HGNC: 339081   Entrez Gene: 4412502   Ensembl: ENSG000002541847   UniProtKB: Q6NUM63   

Export aliases for TYW1B gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC07M071680 GC07M071683 GC07M071686 GC07M068192


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TYW1B Gene:
Wybutosine (yW) is a hypermodified guanosine found in phenylalanine tRNA adjacent to the anticodon that stabilizes
codon-anticodon interactions in the ribosome. In yeast, the homolog of this gene is essential for the synthesis
of wybutosine (yW). The human genome contains two closely related genes that putatively function in wybutosine
synthesis. The open reading frame of this locus is disrupted in some individuals. Thus, this locus appears to be
an evolving pseudogene, but may still be functional in some members of the population. Multiple transcript
variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009)

GeneCards Summary for TYW1B Gene:
TYW1B (tRNA-yW synthesizing protein 1 homolog B (S. cerevisiae)) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include 4 iron, 4 sulfur cluster binding and iron ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is TYW1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TYW1B_HUMAN, Q6NUM6
Function: Probable component of the wybutosine biosynthesis pathway. Wybutosine is a hyper modified guanosine with
a tricyclic base found at the 3'-position adjacent to the anticodon of eukaryotic phenylalanine tRNA. Catalyzes
the condensation of N-methylguanine with 2 carbon atoms from pyruvate to form the tricyclic 4-demethylwyosine, an
intermediate in wybutosine biosynthesis (By similarity)




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000007.13  NC_018918.2  NT_007933.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TYW1B gene promoter:
         SRF   Elk-1   SRF (504 AA)   RREB-1   FOXO3   Evi-1   RORalpha1   STAT3   NF-Y   CBF(2)   
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
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Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TYW1B


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 7q11.23   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  7q11.23   HGNC cytogenetic band: 7q11.23

TYW1B Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TYW1B gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 7         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC07M072023:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
72,023,729 bp from pter      End:
72,298,813 bp from pter
Size:
275,085 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

1 alternative location:
Chr7-,CRA_TCAG 71,372,314-71,631,635     

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TYW1B_HUMAN, Q6NUM6 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent tRNA 4-demethylwyosine synthase  
Size: 668 amino acids; 76946 Da
Cofactor: Binds 1 4Fe-4S cluster. The cluster is coordinated with 3 cysteines and an exchangeable
S-adenosyl-L-methionine (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: A6NG09 Q3KQX2

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TYW1B: NX_Q6NUM6

Explore proteomics data for TYW1B at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See TYW1B Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001138912.1  NP_001138913.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000477053   ENSP00000476766   ENSP00000477404  

    TYW1B Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR013785 Aldolase_TIM
     IPR001094 Flavdoxin
     IPR008254 Flavodoxin/NO_synth
     IPR007197 rSAM
     IPR013917 tRNA_wybutosine-synth

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q6NUM6

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q6NUM6

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001094 Flavodoxin signature
    IPB008254 Flavodoxin/nitric oxide synthase
    IPB013917 Wyosine base formation


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TYW1B_HUMAN, Q6NUM6
    Similarity: Belongs to the TYW1 family
    Similarity: Contains 1 flavodoxin-like domain


    Find genes that share domains with TYW1B           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TYW1B_HUMAN, Q6NUM6
    Function: Probable component of the wybutosine biosynthesis pathway. Wybutosine is a hyper modified guanosine with
    a tricyclic base found at the 3'-position adjacent to the anticodon of eukaryotic phenylalanine tRNA. Catalyzes
    the condensation of N-methylguanine with 2 carbon atoms from pyruvate to form the tricyclic 4-demethylwyosine, an
    intermediate in wybutosine biosynthesis (By similarity)
    Catalytic activity: N(1)-methylguanine(37) in tRNA(Phe) + pyruvate + S-adenosyl-L-methionine =
    4-demethylwyosine(37) in tRNA(Phe) + L-methionine + 5'-deoxyadenosine + CO(2) + H(2)O

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 4.1.3.441

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003824catalytic activity ----
    GO:0005506iron ion binding IEA--
    GO:0010181FMN binding IEA--
    GO:0016491oxidoreductase activity IEA--
    GO:0016829lyase activity IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with TYW1B           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytosol3
    mitochondrion1
    peroxisome1

    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TYW1B_HUMAN, Q6NUM6
    Pathway: tRNA modification; wybutosine-tRNA(Phe) biosynthesis

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for TYW1B
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TYW1B

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0008033tRNA processing IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with TYW1B           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
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    Browse Tocris compounds for TYW1B

    2 HMDB Compounds for TYW1B    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Flavin MononucleotideFMN (see all 19)146-17-8--
    S-Adenosylmethionine(3S)-5'-[(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)methylsulfonio]-5'-deoxyadenosine (see all 16)29908-03-0--



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TYW1B gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001145440.1  NM_001145441.1  

    Unigene Cluster for TYW1B:

    TRNA-yW synthesizing protein 1 homolog B (S. cerevisiae)
    Hs.488614  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001145440
    5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000438125(uc011keh.1) ENST00000435769(uc011kej.2) ENST00000437915(uc011kek.1)
    ENST00000343721(uc011kei.2) ENST00000438904
    miRNA
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    hsa-miR-549 hsa-miR-2355-3p hsa-miR-1264
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TYW1B

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK294319.1 AK294401.1 AK301471.1 AK303225.1 AK309556.1 AK310913.1 BC068520.1 BC106019.1 

    9 DOTS entries:

    DT.92435437  DT.100696287  DT.121057989  DT.91847904  DT.100740702  DT.121058209  DT.121057955  DT.316409 
    DT.99933881 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 43):

    F24917 CB155939 AA928462 AI276524 BF438068 AW207193 AI417198 BF438216 
    AA938459 BX360726 AI128247 BG284505 AI984113 BC068520 AI979177 BF438126 
    BM924629 CB163624 AI147587 AA878117 BG699940 AI039740 BX334333 BI764278 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    TYW1B expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    TYW1B Expression
    About this image

    TYW1B Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TYW1B Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.488614
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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for TYW1B gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves --
    Uncharacterized protein
    25(a)
    1 → many
    19(845475-915879) ENSGALG00000001110
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii tyw16
    tRNA-yW synthesizing protein 1 homolog (S. cerevis...
    23(a)
    1 → many
    15(15758175-15891615) ENSDARG00000062987
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes TYW16
    Iron-sulfer protein required for synthesis of Wybu...
    8(a)
    1 → many
    XVI(159909-162341) YPL207W
            Species with no ortholog for TYW1B

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TYW1B (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TYW1B (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TYW1B gene
    TYW12  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for TYW1B using alignment to 3 protein entries:     TYW1B_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    TYW1

    Find genes that share paralogs with TYW1B           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TYW1B (see all 6049)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 7 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs567383721,2
    C--68312815(+) TTTTT-/T/TT  
            
    GAGAT
    2 -- int12NA 4
    rs666982341,2
    C--68450583(-) TTTTC-/CTTT  
            
    TTTTT
    2 -- int12Minor allele frequency- CTTT:0.25NA 4
    rs347791951,2
    C--71551303(-) GTCTC-/A/AA  
            
    AAAAA
    2 -- int12NA 4
    rs668069551,2
    C--71554075(+) ATTTT-/ATTTTATTTT/ATTTTATTTTA
    TTTTATTTTATTTTATTTTATTTT
    TTGAG
    2 -- int11NA 2
    rs358366071,2
    C--71566637(-) TTCGATT/-TTTTT 2 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50NA 2
    rs583017241,2
    C--71577566(+) AAAAA-/AAAAA 
     
    /AAAAAA
    TTAAC
    2 -- int11NA 2
    rs113002251,2
    C--71581995(+) AAAAA-/A/AA  
            
    GTAGC
    2 -- int10--------
    rs69701531,2
    C,F,A,H--72038595(+) tagtgT/Gctcat 1 -- int110Minor allele frequency- G:0.33NS NA WA CSA EA 603
    rs559061121,2
    C--72047061(+) TTTTT-/TTAATAT 2 -- int11Minor allele frequency- TT:0.00NA 2
    rs584954591,2
    C--72059327(+) AAAAA-/ACTGTA 2 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.25NA 4

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TYW1B (72023729 - 72273729 bp, first 250kb of TYW1B)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for TYW1B (see all 44):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2734659CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2734658CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2604938CNV Deletion19546169
    esv2202407CNV Deletion18987734
    esv2666930CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv5789CNV Insertion18451855
    nsv436901CNV Insertion17901297
    esv2582277CNV Loss19546169
    esv33871CNV Loss17666407
    nsv365909CNV Loss16902084

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    Find genes that share disorders with TYW1B           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TYW1B
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TYW1B (1 document)

    Export disorders for TYW1B gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TYW1B gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 13):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TYW1B)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010)
    2. Biological, clinical and population relevance of 95 loci for blood lipids. (PubMed id 20686565)1, 4 Teslovich T.M....Kathiresan S. (Nature 2010)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    4. Methods for quantification of in vivo changes in protein ubiquitination following proteasome and deubiquitinase inhibition. (PubMed id 22505724)1 Udeshi N.D....Carr S.A. (amp 2012)
    5. Systematic and quantitative assessment of the ubiquitin-modified proteome. (PubMed id 21906983)1 Kim W....Gygi S.P. (Mol. Cell 2011)
    6. A proteome-wide, quantitative survey of in vivo ubiquitylation sites reveals widespread regulatory roles. (PubMed id 21890473)1 Wagner S.A....Choudhary C. (amp 2011)
    7. A genome-wide genotyping study in patients with ischaemic stroke: initial analysis and data release. (PubMed id 17434096)4 MatarA-n M....Meschia J.F. (Lancet Neurol 2007)
    8. Genome-wide genotyping in Parkinson's disease and neurologically normal controls: first stage analysis and public release of data. (PubMed id 17052657)4 Fung H.C....Singleton A. (Lancet Neurol 2006)
    9. Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes. (PubMed id 16344560)1 Kimura K.... Sugano S. (Genome Res. 2006)
    10. Ribonucleome analysis identified enzyme genes responsible for wybutosine synthesis. (PubMed id 17150819)1 Noma A. and Suzuki T. (Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf) 2006)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 441250 HGNC: 33908 AceView: LOC441250 Ensembl:ENSG00000254184 euGenes: HUgn441250
    ECgene: TYW1B H-InvDB: TYW1B

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TYW1B Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TYW1B gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TYW1B

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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