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Aliases for TYMS Gene

Aliases for TYMS Gene

  • Thymidylate Synthetase 2 3 5
  • EC 4 61
  • TSase 3 4
  • TS 3 4
  • Thymidylate Synthase 3
  • HST422 3
  • TMS 3

External Ids for TYMS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TYMS Gene

  • TS

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TYMS Gene

  • GC18U990034
  • GC18P000645
  • GC18P000647

Summaries for TYMS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TYMS Gene

  • Thymidylate synthase catalyzes the methylation of deoxyuridylate to deoxythymidylate using 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (methylene-THF) as a cofactor. This function maintains the dTMP (thymidine-5-prime monophosphate) pool critical for DNA replication and repair. The enzyme has been of interest as a target for cancer chemotherapeutic agents. It is considered to be the primary site of action for 5-fluorouracil, 5-fluoro-2-prime-deoxyuridine, and some folate analogs. Expression of this gene and that of a naturally occuring antisense transcript rTSalpha (GeneID:55556) vary inversely when cell-growth progresses from late-log to plateau phase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TYMS Gene

TYMS (Thymidylate Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TYMS include Rectal Neoplasm and Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma. Among its related pathways are E2F mediated regulation of DNA replication and superpathway of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and mRNA binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYMS Gene

  • Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.

Tocris Summary for TYMS Gene

Gene Wiki entry for TYMS Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" Summary for TYMS Gene

No data available for fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TYMS Gene

Genomics for TYMS Gene

Regulatory Elements for TYMS Gene

Enhancers for TYMS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH18F000679 1.1 FANTOM5 ENCODE 25.1 +25.8 25753 7.9 SOX13 PKNOX1 TEAD4 ZNF384 ZIC2 YY1 ZFHX2 RERE POLR2A NR2F6 ENOSF1 TYMS TYMSOS CLUL1 RNU1-109P ENSG00000265490 GC18M000704 PIR56960
GH18F000708 1.4 FANTOM5 ENCODE 11.1 +53.4 53424 4.7 PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 ZNF766 CBX5 ZNF143 ZNF263 ENOSF1 TYMSOS TYMS RNU1-109P YES1 ENSG00000265490
GH18F000698 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 12.8 +44.6 44635 6.6 PKNOX1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF48 ZNF2 FOS SP3 REST ENOSF1 ENSG00000264339 TYMS TYMSOS ENSG00000264635 RNU1-109P THOC1 ENSG00000265490 PIR56960 GC18M000704
GH18F000656 1.1 ENCODE 9.6 +0.3 328 3.6 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 RN7SKP146 LINC01925 ENSG00000265671 LOC105371953 SLC25A3P3 LOC105371950 IL9RP4 ENSG00000266602 ENSG00000263396 ENOSF1
GH18F000806 1.5 FANTOM5 ENCODE 6.4 +153.4 153435 8.3 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 THOC1 ENOSF1 ENSG00000273355 YES1 TYMS GC18P000814 RNU1-109P GC18M000797
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TYMS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TYMS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Location for TYMS Gene

657,604 bp from pter
673,578 bp from pter
15,975 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TYMS Gene

Genes around TYMS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TYMS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TYMS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TYMS Gene

Proteins for TYMS Gene

  • Protein details for TYMS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thymidylate synthase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q8WYK3
    • Q8WYK4

    Protein attributes for TYMS Gene

    313 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    35716 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TYMS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TYMS Gene


neXtProt entry for TYMS Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for TYMS Gene


Post-translational modifications for TYMS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 77, Lys 107, Lys 169, Lys 292, and Lys 308
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TYMS Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TYMS (TYMS)

Domains & Families for TYMS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TYMS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the thymidylate synthase family.
  • Belongs to the thymidylate synthase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TYMS: view

No data available for Gene Families for TYMS Gene

Function for TYMS Gene

Molecular function for TYMS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thymidylate synthetase,pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + dUMP = dihydrofolate + dTMP.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TYMS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TYMS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003729 mRNA binding IEA --
GO:0004799 thymidylate synthase activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0005542 folic acid binding IC 15093541
GO:0008144 drug binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TYMS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TYMS: view

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TYMS Gene

Localization for TYMS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYMS Gene

Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion. Mitochondrion matrix. Mitochondrion inner membrane.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TYMS gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TYMS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA,IDA 21876188
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005730 nucleolus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 21876188
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA 21876188
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TYMS: view

Pathways & Interactions for TYMS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TYMS: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P04818-TYSY_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Pyrimidine metabolism; dTTP biosynthesis.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TYMS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000082 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0000083 regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0006139 nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006206 pyrimidine nucleobase metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006231 dTMP biosynthetic process IEA,IDA 15093541
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TYMS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TYMS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TYMS Gene

(96) Drugs for TYMS Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Pemetrexed Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker, Target TS, DHFR,GARFT and AICARFT inhibitor, DHFR and Thymidylate synthase inhibitor, Anti-Folates 617
Raltitrexed Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Target 30
Capecitabine Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker, Target RNA processing inhibitor and thymidylate synthase inhibitor, F-pyrimidines 1296
Fluorouracil Approved Pharma inhibitor, Target, Enzyme, other/unknown, substrate RNA processing inhibitor and thymidylate synthase inhibitor 1791
Methotrexate Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate Folate antagonist,inhibits DFHR 1518

(67) Additional Compounds for TYMS Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (6R)-5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate
  • 5,10-Methenyltetrahydropteroylglutamate
  • 5,10-Methylene-6-Hydrofolate
  • 5,10-Methylene-6-Hydrofolic acid
  • 5,10-Methylene-THF
  • 2'-Deoxy-5'-uridylate
  • 2'-Deoxy-5'-uridylic acid
  • 2'-Deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate
  • 2'-Deoxyuridine 5'-phosphate
  • 2'-Deoxyuridylate
PD 404182

(5) Tocris Compounds for TYMS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AT 56 L-PGDS inhibitor 162640-98-4
Borrelidin Antiangiogenic; inhibits threonyl-tRNA synthetase 7184-60-3
HQL 79 Human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS) inhibitor 162641-16-9
PD 404182 High affinity inhibitor of KDO 8-P synthase; also DDAH1 inhibitor 72596-74-8
Triacsin C Inhibitor of acyl-CoA synthetase 76896-80-5

(10) ApexBio Compounds for TYMS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Doxifluridine 3094-09-5
Leucovorin Calcium Derivative of folic acid 6035-45-6
N1,N12-Diethylspermine tetrahydrochloride 113812-15-0
Nolatrexed (AG-337) Non-classical thymidylate synthase inhibitor 152946-68-4
Pemetrexed TS, DHFR,GARFT and AICARFT inhibitor 150399-23-8
Pemetrexed disodium hemipenta hydrate 357166-30-4
Raltitrexed 112887-68-0
Risedronate Sodium FPP synthase inhibitor 115436-72-1
Triacsin C 76896-80-5
Triflurdine (Viroptic) Anti-herpesvirus antiviral drug 70-00-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TYMS: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for TYMS Gene

Unigene Clusters for TYMS Gene

Thymidylate synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TYMS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TYMS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TYMS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for TYMS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TYMS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (28.6), Fetal Liver (9.7), Lymph node (9.1), and Platelet (8.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TYMS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TYMS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TYMS Gene:

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TYMS: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TYMS Gene

Orthologs for TYMS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TYMS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TYMS 34 35
  • 99.25 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TYMS 34
  • 89.56 (n)
TS 35
  • 79 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TYMS 34 35
  • 88.39 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tyms 34 16 35
  • 87.19 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tyms 34
  • 86.1 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 84 (a)
-- 35
  • 76 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TYMS 35
  • 82 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TYMS 34 35
  • 79.43 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TYMS 35
  • 83 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tyms 34
  • 74.17 (n)
Str.1772 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.17306 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tyms 34 35
  • 74.41 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.9644 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ts 36 34 35
  • 64.4 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010457 34
  • 62.44 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y110A7A.4 36 34 35
  • 62.91 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CDC21 34 35 37
  • 60.8 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR219C 34
  • 60.68 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A07843g 34
  • 59.62 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons THY-2 34
  • 61.54 (n)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.483 34
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.9056 34
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.7395 34
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.8307 34
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.29395 34
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.482 34
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11299 35
  • 69 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU10053 34
  • 61.27 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPAC15E1.04 34
  • 57.89 (n)
Species where no ortholog for TYMS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for TYMS Gene

Gene Tree for TYMS (if available)
Gene Tree for TYMS (if available)

Paralogs for TYMS Gene Pseudogenes for TYMS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TYMS: view

No data available for Paralogs for TYMS Gene

Variants for TYMS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TYMS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 18 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1001761 -- 662,103(-) AAATC(C/T)TAAGC intron-variant
rs1004474 -- 660,383(+) TCTCC(A/G)TAGAC intron-variant
rs1051527 -- 668,376(-) TAACT(C/G)AAGTG intron-variant
rs1059384 -- 673,995(-) GCAAC(A/G)TGTTG intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1059393 -- 672,836(-) CATTA(C/T)TTTGC intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TYMS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv954107 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv833577 CNV gain+loss 17160897
nsv576242 CNV gain 21841781
nsv576239 CNV gain 21841781
nsv576236 CNV gain 21841781
nsv576228 CNV loss 21841781
nsv528169 CNV loss 19592680
nsv482935 CNV loss 15286789
nsv1146664 CNV insertion 26484159
nsv1060188 CNV gain 25217958
esv9315 CNV loss 19470904
esv4728 CNV loss 18987735
esv3893055 CNV gain 25118596
esv3641503 CNV gain 21293372
esv3641497 CNV gain 21293372
esv3641496 CNV loss 21293372
esv3353997 CNV duplication 20981092
esv2716655 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2716654 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2716653 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2716652 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2521731 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2023053 CNV deletion 18987734
esv1982616 CNV deletion 18987734
dgv967e212 CNV loss 25503493
dgv5810n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv3307n100 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for TYMS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 31.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.23; 5.19% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TYMS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYMS Gene

Disorders for TYMS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(22) MalaCards diseases for TYMS Gene - From: Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
rectal neoplasm
  • neoplasm of rectum
malignant pleural mesothelioma
  • malignant mesothelioma of pleura
adult acute lymphocytic leukemia
  • adult acute lymphoid leukemia
gastrointestinal carcinoma
dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency
  • 5-fluorouracil toxicity
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TYMS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for TYMS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TYMS: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TYMS Gene

Publications for TYMS Gene

  1. EGF61A>G polymorphism as predictive marker of clinical outcome to first-line capecitabine and oxaliplatin in metastatic colorectal cancer. (PMID: 19850635) Spindler K.L. … Jakobsen A. (Ann. Oncol. 2010) 3 22 46 64
  2. Correlation between thymidylate synthase gene variants, RNA and protein levels in primary colorectal adenocarcinomas. (PMID: 20515563) Kristensen M.H. … Mejer J. (J. Int. Med. Res. 2010) 3 22 46 64
  3. Folate intake along with genetic polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase in patients with advanced gastric cancer. (PMID: 20447923) Shitara K. … Matsuo K. (Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2010) 3 22 46 64
  4. Immunohistochemical characterization of pyrimidine synthetic enzymes, thymidine kinase-1 and thymidylate synthase, in various types of cancer. (PMID: 20372850) Shintani M. … Kamoshida S. (Oncol. Rep. 2010) 3 22 25 64
  5. Epidermal growth factor receptor intron 1 CA dinucleotide repeat polymorphism and survival of advanced gastric cancer patients treated with cetuximab plus modified FOLFOX6. (PMID: 20047592) Han S.W. … Kim T.Y. (Cancer Sci. 2010) 3 22 46 64

Products for TYMS Gene

Sources for TYMS Gene

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