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Aliases for TXNRD2 Gene

Aliases for TXNRD2 Gene

  • Thioredoxin Reductase 2 2 3 5
  • Selenoprotein Z 2 3 4
  • Thioredoxin Reductase Beta 2 3
  • Thioredoxin Reductase TR3 3 4
  • EC 1.8.1.9 4 63
  • TR-BETA 3 4
  • TRXR2 3 4
  • SELZ 3 4
  • Thioredoxin Reductase 3 3
  • KIAA1652 4
  • EC 1.8.1 63
  • TR3 3
  • TR 3

External Ids for TXNRD2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TXNRD2 Gene

  • GC22M016803
  • GC22M018237
  • GC22M003482

Summaries for TXNRD2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TXNRD2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the class I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. The encoded protein is a selenocysteine-containing flavoenzyme that maintains thioredoxins in a reduced state, thereby playing a key role in regulating the cellular redox environment. Mammals have three related thioredoxin reductases. This gene encodes a mitochondrial form important for scavenging of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

GeneCards Summary for TXNRD2 Gene

TXNRD2 (Thioredoxin Reductase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TXNRD2 include Thyroid Hormone Resistance and Familial Glucocorticoid Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Glucose / Energy Metabolism and Selenocompound metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and NADP binding. An important paralog of this gene is TXNRD3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNRD2 Gene

  • Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. Implicated in the defenses against oxidative stress. May play a role in redox-regulated cell signaling.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TXNRD2 Gene

Genomics for TXNRD2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TXNRD2 Gene

Enhancers for TXNRD2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TXNRD2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TXNRD2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around TXNRD2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TXNRD2 Gene

Chromosome:
22
Start:
19,875,517 bp from pter
End:
19,941,992 bp from pter
Size:
66,476 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for TXNRD2 Gene

Genes around TXNRD2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TXNRD2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TXNRD2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TXNRD2 Gene

Proteins for TXNRD2 Gene

  • Protein details for TXNRD2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9NNW7-TRXR2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Thioredoxin reductase 2, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Q9NNW7
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O95840
    • Q96IJ2
    • Q9H2Z5
    • Q9NZV3
    • Q9NZV4
    • Q9P2Y0
    • Q9P2Y1
    • Q9UQU8

    Protein attributes for TXNRD2 Gene

    Size:
    524 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    56507 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    Miscellaneous:
    • The active site is a redox-active disulfide bond. The selenocysteine residue is essential for enzymatic activity (By similarity).
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAD25167.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAG47635.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=523; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TXNRD2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TXNRD2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for TXNRD2 Gene

Proteomics data for TXNRD2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TXNRD2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for TXNRD2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TXNRD2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9NNW7

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

TRXR2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TXNRD2: view

No data available for Gene Families for TXNRD2 Gene

Function for TXNRD2 Gene

Molecular function for TXNRD2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thioredoxin reductase 2,localized in the mitochondria,expressed in prostate,testis,liver
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Thioredoxin + NADP(+) = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. Implicated in the defenses against oxidative stress. May play a role in redox-regulated cell signaling.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TXNRD2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TXNRD2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 20413580
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNRD2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TXNRD2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for TXNRD2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for TXNRD2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TXNRD2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for TXNRD2

CRISPR Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TXNRD2 Gene

Localization for TXNRD2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNRD2 Gene

Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for TXNRD2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TXNRD2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 2
peroxisome 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TXNRD2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005623 cell IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNRD2: view

Pathways & Interactions for TXNRD2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TXNRD2: view

Pathways by source for TXNRD2 Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for TXNRD2 Gene
2 KEGG pathways for TXNRD2 Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for TXNRD2 Gene
1 Qiagen pathway for TXNRD2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TXNRD2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0098869 cellular oxidant detoxification IEA,TAS 9923614
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNRD2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TXNRD2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TXNRD2 Gene

(31) Drugs for TXNRD2 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
FAD Approved Pharma 0
Selenocysteine Experimental Pharma 0
motexafin gadolinium Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Target 38
Selenium Pharma 168
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Pharma 0

(27) Additional Compounds for TXNRD2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
nadph
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
53-57-6
selenite
  • Selenite (SeO32-)
  • Selenite ion (SeO32-)
  • Selenite ion(2-)
  • Selenite(2-)
14124-67-5
3-Deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulosonic acid
  • 2-KDN
  • 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononate
  • 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid
  • 2-Oxo-3-deoxy-D-glycero-galactononulosonate
  • 2-Oxo-3-deoxy-D-glycero-galactononulosonic acid
22594-61-2
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
Hydrogen selenide
  • Dihydrogen monoselenide
  • Dihydrogen selenide
  • Hydrogen selenide
  • Selane
  • Selenium dihydride
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TXNRD2: view

Transcripts for TXNRD2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TXNRD2 Gene

Thioredoxin reductase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXNRD2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b · 16c
SP1: - - - -
SP2:
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: -
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:

Relevant External Links for TXNRD2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TXNRD2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TXNRD2

Expression for TXNRD2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TXNRD2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TXNRD2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (9.2), Lymph node (7.1), and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (6.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TXNRD2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TXNRD2 Gene Hs.443430

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TXNRD2 Gene

Q9NNW7-TRXR2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in the prostate, ovary, liver, testis, uterus, colon and small intestine. Intermediate levels in brain, skeletal muscle, heart and spleen. Low levels in placenta, pancreas, thymus and peripheral blood leukocytes. According to PubMed:10608886, high levels in kidney, whereas according to PubMed:9923614, levels are low.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TXNRD2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TXNRD2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for TXNRD2 Gene

Orthologs for TXNRD2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for TXNRD2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TXNRD2 35
  • 83.33 (n)
  • 84.5 (a)
TXNRD2 36
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TXNRD2 35
  • 86.13 (n)
  • 88.52 (a)
TXNRD2 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Txnrd2 35
  • 82.79 (n)
  • 84.13 (a)
Txnrd2 16
Txnrd2 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TXNRD2 35
  • 99.31 (n)
  • 99.17 (a)
TXNRD2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Txnrd2 35
  • 82.06 (n)
  • 82.82 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TXNRD2 36
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TXNRD2 36
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TXNRD2 35
  • 70.22 (n)
  • 75.2 (a)
TXNRD2 36
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia txnrd2 35
  • 68.24 (n)
  • 71.81 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia txnrd2-prov 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii txnrd2 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
TXNRD2 (1 of 2) 36
  • 67 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Trxr-1 37
  • 49 (a)
Trxr-2 37
  • 55 (a)
Trxr-1 35
  • 60.07 (n)
  • 56.67 (a)
Trxr-1 36
  • 46 (a)
OneToMany
Trxr-2 36
  • 53 (a)
OneToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta TRXR 35
  • 62.73 (n)
  • 59.83 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C06G3.7 37
  • 48 (a)
ZK637.10 37
  • 48 (a)
trxr-2 35
  • 51.4 (n)
  • 49.46 (a)
trxr-2 36
  • 47 (a)
ManyToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GLR1 36
  • 34 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for TXNRD2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TXNRD2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TXNRD2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TXNRD2 (if available)

Paralogs for TXNRD2 Gene

Paralogs for TXNRD2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TXNRD2: view

Variants for TXNRD2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TXNRD2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_051777 -
rs5748469 - 19,919,576(+) CACGG(A/C)CACCT reference, missense
rs5992495 - 19,895,461(+) GGTGC(G/T)GTCCT reference, missense
rs1139793 - 19,880,695(+) TCGCT(A/G)TGGGT reference, missense
rs1878 -- 19,912,295(+) AAACC(A/G)AAAGG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TXNRD2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv435744 CNV Deletion 17901297
nsv914263 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv914279 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv828938 CNV Gain 20364138
nsv828939 CNV Loss 20364138
nsv834129 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv914288 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv4844n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv914296 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv4846n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv834130 CNV Loss 17160897
dgv4847n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv914304 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv515664 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv469641 CNV Loss 16826518
dgv72n68 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv3559 CNV Insertion 18451855
esv1088050 CNV Deletion 17803354
esv2723990 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv914306 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv513585 CNV Insertion 21212237
esv991750 CNV Insertion 20482838
esv1459761 CNV Insertion 17803354
esv2670386 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv914307 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv4848n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for TXNRD2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 70.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 13.05; 95.05% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TXNRD2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
TXNRD2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNRD2 Gene

Disorders for TXNRD2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(12) MalaCards diseases for TXNRD2 Gene - From: Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
thyroid hormone resistance
  • thyroid hormone resistance syndrome
familial glucocorticoid deficiency
  • acth resistance
generalized resistance to thyroid hormone
  • thyroid hormone resistance syndrome
kashin-beck disease
primary angle-closure glaucoma
  • primary angle closure glaucoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Relevant External Links for TXNRD2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
TXNRD2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
TXNRD2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
TXNRD2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TXNRD2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TXNRD2 Gene

Publications for TXNRD2 Gene

  1. Human mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase: cDNA cloning, expression and genomic organization. (PMID: 10215850) Miranda-Vizuete A. … Spyrou G. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1999) 2 3 4 67
  2. Genetic variants in selenoprotein genes increase risk of colorectal cancer. (PMID: 20378690) MAcplan C. … Hesketh J.E. (Carcinogenesis 2010) 3 23
  3. Modulation of thioredoxin reductase-2 expression in EAhy926 cells: implications for endothelial selenoprotein hierarchy. (PMID: 19595745) Crane M.S. … Beckett G.J. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2009) 3 23
  4. [Association of genetic polymorphisms in selenoprotein GPX1 and TXNRD2 with genetic susceptibility of gastric cancer]. (PMID: 19035188) Wang J. … Xiao Y. (Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2008) 3 23
  5. Induction of apoptosis by the overexpression of an alternative splicing variant of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase. (PMID: 16298692) Chang E.Y. … Kim J.R. (Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2005) 3 23

Products for TXNRD2 Gene

Sources for TXNRD2 Gene

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