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Aliases for TXNRD2 Gene

Aliases for TXNRD2 Gene

  • Thioredoxin Reductase 2 2 3
  • Selenoprotein Z 2 3 4
  • TRXR2 3 4 6
  • SELZ 3 4 6
  • Thioredoxin Reductase Beta 2 3
  • Thioredoxin Reductase TR3 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • TR-BETA 3 4
  • Thioredoxin Reductase 2, Mitochondrial 3
  • Thioredoxin Reductase 3 3
  • KIAA1652 4
  • EC 1.8.1 63
  • TR3 3
  • TR 3

External Ids for TXNRD2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TXNRD2 Gene

  • GC22M016803
  • GC22M018237
  • GC22M003482

Summaries for TXNRD2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TXNRD2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the class I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. The encoded protein is a selenocysteine-containing flavoenzyme that maintains thioredoxins in a reduced state, thereby playing a key role in regulating the cellular redox environment. Mammals have three related thioredoxin reductases. This gene encodes a mitochondrial form important for scavenging of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

GeneCards Summary for TXNRD2 Gene

TXNRD2 (Thioredoxin Reductase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TXNRD2 include thyroid hormone resistance and generalized resistance to thyroid hormone. Among its related pathways are PAK Pathway and Glucose / Energy Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include flavin adenine dinucleotide binding and thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TXNRD3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNRD2 Gene

  • Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. Implicated in the defenses against oxidative stress. May play a role in redox-regulated cell signaling

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TXNRD2 Gene

Genomics for TXNRD2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TXNRD2 Gene

Genomic Location for TXNRD2 Gene

19,875,517 bp from pter
19,941,992 bp from pter
66,476 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TXNRD2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TXNRD2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TXNRD2 Gene

Proteins for TXNRD2 Gene

  • Protein details for TXNRD2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thioredoxin reductase 2, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O95840
    • Q96IJ2
    • Q9H2Z5
    • Q9NZV3
    • Q9NZV4
    • Q9P2Y0
    • Q9P2Y1
    • Q9UQU8

    Protein attributes for TXNRD2 Gene

    524 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    56507 Da
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    • The active site is a redox-active disulfide bond. The selenocysteine residue is essential for enzymatic activity (By similarity).
    • Sequence=AAD25167.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAG47635.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=523; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TXNRD2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TXNRD2 Gene


neXtProt entry for TXNRD2 Gene

Proteomics data for TXNRD2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TXNRD2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TXNRD2 (TXNRD2)

Domains for TXNRD2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TXNRD2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TXNRD2: view

No data available for Gene Families for TXNRD2 Gene

Function for TXNRD2 Gene

Molecular function for TXNRD2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thioredoxin reductase 2,localized in the mitochondria,expressed in prostate,testis,liver
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Thioredoxin + NADP(+) = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. Implicated in the defenses against oxidative stress. May play a role in redox-regulated cell signaling

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TXNRD2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TXNRD2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004791 thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity ISS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 20413580
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity --
GO:0016668 oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, NAD(P) as acceptor --
GO:0050660 flavin adenine dinucleotide binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNRD2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TXNRD2: view

Animal Models for TXNRD2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TXNRD2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for TXNRD2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target TXNRD2

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TXNRD2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TXNRD2 Gene

Localization for TXNRD2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNRD2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TXNRD2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TXNRD2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 3
peroxisome 2
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TXNRD2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 10215850
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNRD2: view

Pathways for TXNRD2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TXNRD2: view

Pathways by source for TXNRD2 Gene

1 Qiagen pathway for TXNRD2 Gene
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for TXNRD2 Gene
2 KEGG pathways for TXNRD2 Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for TXNRD2 Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TXNRD2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000302 response to reactive oxygen species TAS --
GO:0000305 response to oxygen radical TAS 10455115
GO:0007507 heart development --
GO:0008033 tRNA processing --
GO:0030097 hemopoiesis --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNRD2: view

Drugs for TXNRD2 Gene

(1) Drugbank Compounds for TXNRD2 Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
motexafin gadolinium
158385 Target investigational

(12) HMDB Compounds for TXNRD2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
3-Deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulosonic acid
  • 2-KDN
  • 1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
Hydrogen selenide
  • Dihydrogen monoselenide

(48) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TXNRD2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
prt-h 93.2 10
selenocysteine 73.5 12
triiodothyronine 73.4 21
trypanothione 65 6
thyroxine 63.9 3

(1) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for TXNRD2 Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Clinical Annotation
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TXNRD2: view

Transcripts for TXNRD2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TXNRD2 Gene

Thioredoxin reductase 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TXNRD2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXNRD2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b · 16c
SP1: - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: -

Relevant External Links for TXNRD2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TXNRD2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TXNRD2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for TXNRD2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (9.2), Lymph node (7.1), and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (6.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TXNRD2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TXNRD2 Gene Hs.443430

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TXNRD2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in the prostate, ovary, liver, testis, uterus, colon and small intestine. Intermediate levels in brain, skeletal muscle, heart and spleen. Low levels in placenta, pancreas, thymus and peripheral blood leukocytes. According to PubMed:10608886, high levels in kidney, whereas according to PubMed:9923614, levels are low.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with TXNRD2: view

Expression partners for TXNRD2 Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for TXNRD2 Gene

Orthologs for TXNRD2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for TXNRD2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TXNRD2 35
  • 83.33 (n)
  • 84.5 (a)
  • 79 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TXNRD2 35
  • 86.13 (n)
  • 88.52 (a)
  • 82 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Txnrd2 35
  • 82.79 (n)
  • 84.13 (a)
Txnrd2 16
Txnrd2 36
  • 84 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TXNRD2 35
  • 99.31 (n)
  • 99.17 (a)
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Txnrd2 35
  • 82.06 (n)
  • 82.82 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TXNRD2 36
  • 65 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TXNRD2 36
  • 67 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TXNRD2 35
  • 70.22 (n)
  • 75.2 (a)
  • 69 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia txnrd2 35
  • 68.24 (n)
  • 71.81 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia txnrd2-prov 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii txnrd2 36
  • 70 (a)
TXNRD2 (1 of 2) 36
  • 67 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Trxr-1 37
  • 49 (a)
Trxr-2 37
  • 55 (a)
Trxr-1 35
  • 60.07 (n)
  • 56.67 (a)
Trxr-1 36
  • 46 (a)
Trxr-2 36
  • 53 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta TRXR 35
  • 62.73 (n)
  • 59.83 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C06G3.7 37
  • 48 (a)
ZK637.10 37
  • 48 (a)
trxr-2 35
  • 51.4 (n)
  • 49.46 (a)
trxr-2 36
  • 47 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GLR1 36
  • 34 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TXNRD2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TXNRD2 Gene

Gene Tree for TXNRD2 (if available)
Gene Tree for TXNRD2 (if available)

Paralogs for TXNRD2 Gene

Paralogs for TXNRD2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TXNRD2: view

Variants for TXNRD2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TXNRD2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs34140079 -- 19,905,891(+) TGGAC(A/G)CCCAT intron-variant
rs34120716 -- 19,923,866(+) TTTTT(-/T)CAAAT intron-variant
rs34030285 -- 19,878,354(+) CCACA(-/G)GGGAT intron-variant
rs34004093 -- 19,923,239(+) AAACT(A/G)TTTTT intron-variant
rs33997573 -- 19,881,428(+) CATCT(C/T)ATTAA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TXNRD2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv435744 CNV Deletion 17901297
nsv914263 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv914279 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv828938 CNV Gain 20364138
nsv828939 CNV Loss 20364138
nsv834129 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv914288 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv4844n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv914296 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv4846n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv834130 CNV Loss 17160897
dgv4847n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv914304 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv515664 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv469641 CNV Loss 16826518
dgv72n68 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv3559 CNV Insertion 18451855
esv1088050 CNV Deletion 17803354
esv2723990 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv914306 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv513585 CNV Insertion 21212237
esv991750 CNV Insertion 20482838
esv1459761 CNV Insertion 17803354
esv2670386 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv914307 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv4848n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for TXNRD2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNRD2 Gene

Disorders for TXNRD2 Gene

(4) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for TXNRD2 Gene

(30) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TXNRD2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
thyroid hormone resistance 93.7 12
goiter 70.1 2
hypothyroidism 57.3 1
pituitary tumors 51.8 2
short stature 49.1 1

Relevant External Links for TXNRD2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TXNRD2: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TXNRD2 Gene

Publications for TXNRD2 Gene

  1. Heterogeneity within animal thioredoxin reductases: evidence for alternative first exon splicing. (PMID: 11060283) Sun Q.-A. … Gladyshev V.N. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 4 23
  2. Redox regulation of cell signaling by selenocysteine in mammalian thioredoxin reductases. (PMID: 10455115) Sun Q.-A. … Gladyshev V.N. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999) 3 4 23
  3. [Association of genetic polymorphisms in selenoprotein GPX1 and TXNRD2 with genetic susceptibility of gastric cancer]. (PMID: 19035188) Wang J. … Xiao Y. (Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2008) 3 23 48
  4. Genetic variants in selenoprotein genes increase risk of colorectal cancer. (PMID: 20378690) MAcplan C. … Hesketh J.E. (Carcinogenesis 2010) 3 23 48
  5. Human mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase: cDNA cloning, expression and genomic organization. (PMID: 10215850) Miranda-Vizuete A. … Spyrou G. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1999) 2 3 4

Products for TXNRD2 Gene

Sources for TXNRD2 Gene

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