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TXNRD2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 65
GCID: GC22M019863

Thioredoxin Reductase 2

  See TXNRD2-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Thioredoxin Reductase 21 2     TR-BETA2
Selenoprotein Z1 2 3     TR32
TRXR22 3 5     Thioredoxin Reductase 2, Mitochondrial2
Thioredoxin Reductase Beta1 2     Thioredoxin Reductase 32
Thioredoxin Reductase TR32 3     KIAA16523
EC 1.8.1.93 8     SelZ3
SELZ2 5     TR-beta3
TR2     EC 1.8.18

External Ids:    HGNC: 181551   Entrez Gene: 105872   Ensembl: ENSG000001844707   OMIM: 6064485   UniProtKB: Q9NNW73   

Export aliases for TXNRD2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC22M016803 GC22M018237 GC22M003482


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TXNRD2 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the class I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. The encoded protein
is a selenocysteine-containing flavoenzyme that maintains thioredoxins in a reduced state, thereby playing a key
role in regulating the cellular redox environment. Mammals have three related thioredoxin reductases. This gene
encodes a mitochondrial form important for scavenging of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Alternatively
spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. (provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013)

GeneCards Summary for TXNRD2 Gene:
TXNRD2 (thioredoxin reductase 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TXNRD2 include generalized resistance to thyroid hormone, and thyrotoxicosis. GO annotations related to this gene include thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding. An important paralog of this gene is TXNRD3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRXR2_HUMAN, Q9NNW7
Function: Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. Implicated in the defenses against oxidative stress. May play
a role in redox-regulated cell signaling




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000022.10  NC_018933.2  NT_011520.13  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TXNRD2 gene promoter:
         GR   PPAR-alpha   PPAR-gamma1   GR-beta   GR-alpha   PPAR-gamma2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTXNRD2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TXNRD2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TXNRD2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 22q11.21   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  22q11.21   HGNC cytogenetic band: 22q11.21

TXNRD2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TXNRD2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 22         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC22M019863:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
19,863,040 bp from pter      End:
19,929,359 bp from pter
Size:
66,320 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRXR2_HUMAN, Q9NNW7 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Thioredoxin reductase 2, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 524 amino acids; 56507 Da
Cofactor: FAD (By similarity)
Subunit: Homodimer
Miscellaneous: The active site is a redox-active disulfide bond. The selenocysteine residue is essential for
enzymatic activity (By similarity)
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAD25167.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Sequence=AAG47635.1; Type=Erroneous termination;
Positions=523; Note=Translated as Sec;
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for TXNRD2:
1W1E (3D)    
Secondary accessions: O95840 Q96IJ2 Q9H2Z5 Q9NZV3 Q9NZV4 Q9P2Y0 Q9P2Y1 Q9UQU8
Alternative splicing: 4 isoforms:  Q9NNW7-1   Q9NNW7-2   Q9NNW7-3   Q9NNW7-4   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TXNRD2: NX_Q9NNW7

Explore proteomics data for TXNRD2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for TXNRD2 (Q9NNW7) (see all 13)
     LGPNAGE  YKPLEFTV  TTVFTPLE  KRSGLDPT 


    See TXNRD2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001269441.1  NP_006431.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000383362   ENSP00000383365   ENSP00000383369   ENSP00000383363   ENSP00000439314  
     ENSP00000439570   ENSP00000334451  
    Reactome Protein details: Q9NNW7

    TXNRD2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals TXNRD2 Protein
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for TXNRD2 

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    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for TXNRD2 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 7):
     IPR013027 FAD_pyr_nucl-diS_OxRdtase
     IPR012999 Pyr_OxRdtase_I_AS
     IPR004099 Pyr_nucl-diS_OxRdtase_dimer
     IPR006338 Thioredoxin/glutathione_Rdtase
     IPR016156 FAD/NAD-linked_Rdtase_dimer

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9NNW7

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9NNW7

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001100 Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    IPB001327 Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    IPB013027 FAD-dependent pyridine nucleotide reductase signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRXR2_HUMAN, Q9NNW7
    Similarity: Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family


    Find genes that share domains with TXNRD2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TRXR2_HUMAN, Q9NNW7
    Function: Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. Implicated in the defenses against oxidative stress. May play
    a role in redox-regulated cell signaling
    Catalytic activity: Thioredoxin + NADP(+) = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TXNRD2:
    thioredoxin reductase 2,localized in the mitochondria,expressed in prostate,testis,liver

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 1.8.1.91 2 EC 1.8.12

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004791thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity ISS--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
    GO:0016491oxidoreductase activity ----
    GO:0016668oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, NAD(P) as acceptor ----
    GO:0050660flavin adenine dinucleotide binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with TXNRD2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         10 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 4 alleles(MGI details for Txnrd2):
     cardiovascular system  cellular  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  liver/biliary system 
     mortality/aging  muscle  nervous system  no phenotypic analysis  normal 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with TXNRD2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Txnrd2tm1.1Marc for TXNRD2

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for TXNRD2
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for TXNRD2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for TXNRD2
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for TXNRD2

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target TXNRD2:
    hsa-mir-671-5p (MIRT039271), hsa-mir-106b-5p (MIRT044324), hsa-mir-17-3p (MIRT005748)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat TXNRD2 using miScript Target Protectors
    2 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TXNRD2:
    hsa-miR-3126-3p hsa-miR-452*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTXNRD2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for TXNRD2
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TXNRD2

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: TXNRD2 (NM_006440)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TXNRD2

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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TXNRD2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TRXR2_HUMAN, Q9NNW7: Mitochondrion
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    nucleus3
    peroxisome2
    cytosol1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA10215850
    GO:0005759mitochondrial matrix TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with TXNRD2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for TXNRD2 About   (see all 10)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Selenium Pathway
    Selenium Pathway
    thioredoxin pathway0.00
    2Cellular Senescence
    Cellular responses to stress0.81
    3PAK Pathway
    Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C0.56
    4Purine metabolism (KEGG)
    Pyrimidine metabolism0.38
    5Mechanisms of CFTR activation by S nitrosoglutathione normal and CF
    Mechanisms of CFTR activation by S nitrosoglutathione normal and CF 0.37


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with TXNRD2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 Downloadable PowerPoint Slide of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for TXNRD2
        Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for TXNRD2
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for TXNRD2
        Mechanisms of CFTR activation by S-nitrosoglutathione (normal and CF)

    4 BioSystems Pathways for TXNRD2
        Selenium Metabolism and Selenoproteins
    Oxidative Stress
    Selenium Pathway
    thioredoxin pathway

    1 Reactome Pathway for TXNRD2
        Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species


    2 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for TXNRD2):
        Pyrimidine metabolism
    Selenocompound metabolism

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including TXNRD2: 
              Oxidative Stress in human mouse rat
              Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TXNRD2

    Selected Interacting proteins for TXNRD2 (Q9NNW73) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 11)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PUF60Q9UHX13I2D: score=3 
    NCOR1O753763I2D: score=2 
    ENO1P067333I2D: score=1 
    GTF2H1P327803I2D: score=1 
    NCOA2Q155963I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000305response to oxygen radical TAS10455115
    GO:0007507heart development IEA--
    GO:0008033tRNA processing ----
    GO:0030097hemopoiesis IEA--
    GO:0045454cell redox homeostasis IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with TXNRD2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for TXNRD2 (TRXR2)

    6 HMDB Compounds for TXNRD2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    3-Deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulosonic acid2-KDN (see all 18)22594-61-2--
    FAD1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide (see all 21)146-14-5--
    NADPAdenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (see all 18)53-59-8--
    NADPH2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide (see all 23)53-57-6--
    Seleniumselenium (see all 5)7782-49-2--
    Selenocysteine(2R)-2-amino-3-selanylpropanoate (see all 8)3614-08-2--

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TXNRD2 gene (see all 48)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    prt-h 93.2 11 7528740 (3), 7920008 (1), 10022392 (1), 11356159 (1) (see all 8)
    selenocysteine 73.5 15 10455115 (3), 15178321 (2), 11213469 (2), 9177183 (1) (see all 8)
    triiodothyronine 73.4 37 10090317 (3), 11152480 (2), 9111334 (1), 8786093 (1) (see all 18)
    trypanothione 65 7 16806188 (1), 9174360 (1), 15157186 (1), 1357053 (1) (see all 6)
    thyroxine 63.9 3 10090317 (1), 8886752 (1), 12356724 (1)
    selenium 56.8 53 9354464 (7), 12449240 (6), 15051902 (3), 11213469 (2) (see all 10)
    diaziquone 56.6 5 1567483 (3), 2162313 (2)
    selenite 55.1 7 8679612 (3), 9354464 (1), 11294695 (1), 19373605 (1)
    cd 437 54.7 2 12704790 (1), 12237293 (1)
    sulforaphane 46.4 12 12949356 (4), 19595745 (3), 12663510 (1)

    1 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotation for TXNRD2 gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsCA  



    Find genes that share compounds with TXNRD2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TXNRD2 gene (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001282512.1  NM_006440.4  NM_145747.1  NM_145748.1  

    Unigene Cluster for TXNRD2:

    Thioredoxin reductase 2
    Hs.443430  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AB051439
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 19):
    ENST00000400518(uc002zqj.1) ENST00000494454 ENST00000474308(uc002zqo.1)
    ENST00000462330 ENST00000487165 ENST00000400521(uc021wlj.1) ENST00000400525
    ENST00000495655(uc002zqq.1) ENST00000400519 ENST00000485358 ENST00000462843
    ENST00000491939(uc002zqs.2) ENST00000475995 ENST00000484672 ENST00000471835
    ENST00000496729 ENST00000535882(uc002zqr.1) ENST00000542719
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    hsa-miR-3126-3p hsa-miR-452*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTXNRD2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TXNRD2
    Primer
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    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat TXNRD2
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TXNRD2
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TXNRD2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB019694.1 AB051439.1 AB209724.1 AF044212.1 AF106697.1 AF166126.1 AF171054.1 AK094698.1 
    AK097708.1 BC007489.2 BC032029.1 BC038708.1 BC099923.1 BC117354.1 BX957216.1 CR749428.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 34):

    DT.100824734  DT.95254820  DT.100833952  DT.100824740  DT.445233  DT.100668744  DT.100835757  DT.100028880 
    DT.91753802  DT.91851895  DT.95122952  DT.100684804  DT.97798831  DT.120644447  DT.91753807  DT.100824739 
    DT.100756477  DT.100771260  DT.95356424  DT.100763079  DT.100769858  DT.91753803  DT.100698475  DT.100732867 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 211):

    CR590262 BE502380 BQ919504 CR594969 CR602507 NM_145748 AK094698 CR593863 
    CR608079 BI871109 CR591901 BM045508 H55086 BU624948 AI620518 NM_145747 
    BX449455 BM981496 H55195 AI633759 BX355210 CR590304 AW003057 BM712948 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXNRD2 (see all 8)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b · 16c
    SP1:                                                              -     -     -     -                                                   
    SP2:                                                                                                                                    
    SP3:                                                              -     -     -     -     -                                             
    SP4:                                                                                -                                                   
    SP5:                                                                                                                                    


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for TXNRD2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    TXNRD2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TCCGAGCCCC
    TXNRD2 Expression
    About this image


    TXNRD2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 3) fully expand
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)
             Endothelial-like cells
     
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)
             Liver Lobule
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)
             Proerythroblasts Hematopoietic Bone Marrow
    TXNRD2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TXNRD2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.443430

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRXR2_HUMAN, Q9NNW7
    Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in the prostate, ovary, liver, testis, uterus, colon and small intestine.
    Intermediate levels in brain, skeletal muscle, heart and spleen. Low levels in placenta, pancreas, thymus and
    peripheral blood leukocytes. According to PubMed:10608886, high levels in kidney, whereas according to
    PubMed:9923614, levels are low

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including TXNRD2: 
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              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for TXNRD2 gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Txnrd21 , 5 thioredoxin reductase 21, 5 82.79(n)1
    84.13(a)1
      16 (11.41 cM)5
    264621  NM_013711.31  NP_038739.21 
     184264175 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TXNRD21 thioredoxin reductase 2 70.22(n)
    75.2(a)
      416782  NM_001122691.1  NP_001116163.1 
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia txnrd2-prov2 thioredoxin reductase 2 75.13(n)    BC056136.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii txnrd26
    TXNRD2 (1 of 2)6
    thioredoxin reductase 2
    70(a)
    67(a)
    1 ↔ many
    1 ↔ many
    5(17015506-17025366) ENSDARG00000094470
    5(17015506-17121381) ENSDARG00000075923
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Trxr-23
    Trxr-11
    antioxidant3
    Thioredoxin reductase-11
    55(a)
    (best of 2)3
    60.07(n)1
    56.67(a)1
      79E83
    317601  NM_167150.11  NP_727252.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea ZK637.103
    trxr-21
    Glutathione reductase3
    trxr-21
    48(a)
    (best of 2)3
    51.4(n)1
    49.46(a)1
      III(8985504-8988077)3
    1762591  NM_066570.41  NP_498971.11 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes GLR16
    Cytosolic and mitochondrial glutathione oxidoreduc...
    34(a)
    1 → many
    XVI(375502-376953) YPL091W


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TXNRD2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TXNRD2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TXNRD2 gene
    TXNRD32  TXNRD12  GSR2  
    5 SIMAP similar genes for TXNRD2 using alignment to 9 protein entries:     TRXR2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    DKFZp781E0833    TXNRD1    TXNRD3    GSR    DLD

    Find genes that share paralogs with TXNRD2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TXNRD2 (see all 1961)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 22 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1158291291,2
    F--3804582(+) GGCCAC/AGGTGG 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.03WA 118
    rs1123913341,2
    C--3804593(+) AAAACC/TGGCAA 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- T:0.50CSA 2
    rs130574411,2
    C,F,H--3804690(+) AAAGCC/TGGTGT 1 -- ds500114Minor allele frequency- T:0.04NS EA NA 1592
    rs1807835251,2
    --3805018(+) CTGGGC/TGATCC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs119127781,2
    C,H--3805019(+) TGGGCG/AATCCT 1 -- ds50014Minor allele frequency- A:0.22NA WA EA 360
    rs1138012901,2
    C,F--3805027(+) CCTGGG/AGGACC 1 -- ds50012Minor allele frequency- A:0.04WA 120
    rs10447321,2
    C,F,A,H--3805157(-) GTGCCA/GGATGA 1 -- ut31 ese323Minor allele frequency- G:0.09NA EA NS WA 2630
    rs10447251,2
    C,A--3805201(-) CACCTC/TTCAGC 1 -- ut31 ese31Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 2
    rs2017555971,2
    --3805229(+) GTCCC-/CTGAGCC 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1389332751,2
    --3805363(+) GGAAGA/GTCAGC 1 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TXNRD2 (19863040 - 19929359 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for TXNRD2 (see all 26):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv1088050CNV Deletion17803354
    nsv435744CNV Deletion17901297
    esv2723990CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2670386CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv513585CNV Insertion21212237
    esv991750CNV Insertion20482838
    nsv3559CNV Insertion18451855
    esv1459761CNV Insertion17803354
    dgv4847n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv4848n71CNV Loss21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): TXNRD2
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TXNRD2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for TXNRD2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 606448    OMIM disorders: --

    6 diseases for TXNRD2:    
    About MalaCards
    generalized resistance to thyroid hormone    thyrotoxicosis    neonatal thyrotoxicosis    thyroid hormone resistance syndrome
    cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1w    follicular thyroid carcinoma

    4 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for TXNRD2:
    Hypothyroidism     Goiter     Thyrotoxicosis     Hyperthyroidism

    Find genes that share disorders with TXNRD2           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TXNRD2 gene (see all 30)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    thyroid hormone resistance 93.7 12 16883531 (3), 10487671 (2), 8196183 (2), 1324420 (1) (see all 8)
    goiter 70.1 2 8701076 (1), 8670802 (1)
    hypothyroidism 57.3 1 10560954 (1)
    pituitary tumors 51.8 2 11701737 (1), 19391168 (1)
    short stature 49.1 1 8879995 (1)
    thyroid adenoma 45.3 1 17911173 (1)
    tachycardia 39.6 3 15191352 (1), 16007230 (1), 12699376 (1)
    thyroid cancer 36.7 6 17911173 (2), 19391168 (1), 17169389 (1)
    growth retardation 31.4 1 12356724 (1)
    somatic mutations 31.2 6 11701737 (4), 19391168 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TXNRD2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TXNRD2 (19 documents)

    Export disorders for TXNRD2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TXNRD2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 299):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TXNRD2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Human mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase: cDNA cloning, expression and genomic organization. (PubMed id 10215850)1, 2, 3, 9 Miranda-Vizuete A.... Spyrou G. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1999)
    2. Cloning, sequencing and functional expression of a novel human thioredoxin reductase. (PubMed id 9923614)1, 2, 3 Gasdaska P.Y.... Powis G. (FEBS Lett. 1999)
    3. Heterogeneity within animal thioredoxin reductases: evidence for alternative first exon splicing. (PubMed id 11060283)1, 2, 9 Sun Q.-A....Gladyshev V.N. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    4. [Association of genetic polymorphisms in selenoprotein GPX1 and TXNRD2 with genetic susceptibility of gastric cancer]. (PubMed id 19035188)1, 4, 9 Wang J....Xiao Y. (Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2008)
    5. Redox regulation of cell signaling by selenocysteine in mammalian thioredoxin reductases. (PubMed id 10455115)1, 2, 9 Sun Q.-A....Gladyshev V.N. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999)
    6. Genetic variants in selenoprotein genes increase risk of colorectal cancer. (PubMed id 20378690)1, 4, 9 MAcplan C....Hesketh J.E. (Carcinogenesis 2010)
    7. Association study between polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes and susceptibility to Kashin-Beck disease. (PubMed id 20178852)1, 4, 9 Xiong Y.M....Zang W.J. (Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2010)
    8. Genetic susceptibility to distinct bladder cancer subphenotypes. (PubMed id 19692168)1, 4 Guey L.T....Malats N. (Eur. Urol. 2010)
    9. Physiogenomic analysis of statin-treated patients: domain-specific counter effects within the ACACB gene on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol? (PubMed id 20602615)1, 4 RuaA+o G....Wu A.H. (Pharmacogenomics 2010)
    10. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 10587 HGNC: 18155 AceView: TXNRD2 Ensembl:ENSG00000184470 euGenes: HUgn10587
    ECgene: TXNRD2 Kegg: 10587 H-InvDB: TXNRD2

    (According to HUGE)
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    HUGE: KIAA1652

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TXNRD2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for TXNRD2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TXNRD2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TXNRD2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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