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Aliases for TXNRD2 Gene

Aliases for TXNRD2 Gene

  • Thioredoxin Reductase 2 2 3 5
  • Selenoprotein Z 2 3 4
  • Thioredoxin Reductase Beta 2 3
  • Thioredoxin Reductase TR3 3 4
  • EC 4 61
  • TR-BETA 3 4
  • TRXR2 3 4
  • SELZ 3 4
  • Thioredoxin Reductase 2, Mitochondrial 3
  • Thioredoxin Reductase 3 3
  • KIAA1652 4
  • EC 1.8.1 61
  • TR3 3
  • TR 3

External Ids for TXNRD2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TXNRD2 Gene

  • GC22M016803
  • GC22M018237
  • GC22M003482

Summaries for TXNRD2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TXNRD2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the class I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. The encoded protein is a selenocysteine-containing flavoenzyme that maintains thioredoxins in a reduced state, thereby playing a key role in regulating the cellular redox environment. Mammals have three related thioredoxin reductases. This gene encodes a mitochondrial form important for scavenging of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

GeneCards Summary for TXNRD2 Gene

TXNRD2 (Thioredoxin Reductase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TXNRD2 include Familial Glucocorticoid Deficiency and Familial Isolated Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Among its related pathways are Oxidative Stress and Purine metabolism (KEGG). GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and NADP binding. An important paralog of this gene is TXNRD1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNRD2 Gene

  • Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. Implicated in the defenses against oxidative stress. May play a role in redox-regulated cell signaling.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TXNRD2 Gene

Genomics for TXNRD2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TXNRD2 Gene

Enhancers for TXNRD2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH22F019871 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 20.5 +64.4 64358 12.3 PKNOX1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 FOS ZNF263 SP5 TXNRD2 RPL8P5 ABHD17AP4 GNB1L C22orf29 DGCR6L COMT ZDHHC8 GC22M019875
GH22F019884 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 19.1 +55.3 55292 5.4 ATF1 PKNOX1 FEZF1 ZNF2 GLIS2 KLF7 TSHZ1 GLIS1 HMBOX1 WT1 TXNRD2 RPL8P5 GNB1L C22orf29 COMT TRMT2A GC22M019875
GH22F019946 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 12 -8.3 -8310 8.2 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX WRNIP1 ZFP64 SIN3A ARID4B FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 DGCR8 LINC01311 LOC100420177 ENSG00000273300 RPL8P5 TXNRD2 MIR185 COMT DGCR11 RPL7AP70
GH22F019852 1.1 ENCODE 15.2 +86.9 86944 4.8 MLX ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 KLF13 ZNF263 TXNRD2 C22orf29 ABHD17AP4 GNB1L RPL8P5 GC22P019862
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TXNRD2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TXNRD2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Location for TXNRD2 Gene

19,875,517 bp from pter
19,941,992 bp from pter
66,476 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TXNRD2 Gene

Genes around TXNRD2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TXNRD2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TXNRD2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TXNRD2 Gene

Proteins for TXNRD2 Gene

  • Protein details for TXNRD2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thioredoxin reductase 2, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O95840
    • Q96IJ2
    • Q9H2Z5
    • Q9NZV3
    • Q9NZV4
    • Q9P2Y0
    • Q9P2Y1
    • Q9UQU8

    Protein attributes for TXNRD2 Gene

    524 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    56507 Da
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    • The active site is a redox-active disulfide bond. The selenocysteine residue is essential for enzymatic activity (By similarity).
    • Sequence=AAD25167.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAG47635.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=523; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TXNRD2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TXNRD2 Gene


neXtProt entry for TXNRD2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for TXNRD2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for TXNRD2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for TXNRD2 Gene

Gene Families for TXNRD2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TXNRD2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TXNRD2: view

Function for TXNRD2 Gene

Molecular function for TXNRD2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thioredoxin reductase 2,localized in the mitochondria,expressed in prostate,testis,liver
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Thioredoxin + NADP(+) = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. Implicated in the defenses against oxidative stress. May play a role in redox-regulated cell signaling.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TXNRD2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TXNRD2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004791 thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity ISS,TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 20413580
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016668 oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, NAD(P) as acceptor IEA --
GO:0050660 flavin adenine dinucleotide binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNRD2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TXNRD2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for TXNRD2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for TXNRD2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TXNRD2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for TXNRD2

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TXNRD2 Gene

Localization for TXNRD2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNRD2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TXNRD2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 5
peroxisome 2
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TXNRD2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005623 cell IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA 10215850
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNRD2: view

Pathways & Interactions for TXNRD2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TXNRD2: view

Pathways by source for TXNRD2 Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for TXNRD2 Gene
2 KEGG pathways for TXNRD2 Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for TXNRD2 Gene
1 Qiagen pathway for TXNRD2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TXNRD2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000302 response to reactive oxygen species TAS --
GO:0000305 response to oxygen radical TAS 10455115
GO:0045454 cell redox homeostasis IEA,IBA --
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
GO:0098869 cellular oxidant detoxification IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNRD2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TXNRD2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TXNRD2 Gene

(33) Drugs for TXNRD2 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
FAD Approved Pharma 0
Water Approved Pharma 0
Selenocysteine Experimental Pharma 0
motexafin gadolinium Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Target 38
Selenium Pharma 175

(25) Additional Compounds for TXNRD2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
  • Selenite (SeO32-)
  • Selenite ion (SeO32-)
  • Selenite ion(2-)
  • Selenite(2-)
3-Deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulosonic acid
  • 2-KDN
  • 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononate
  • 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid
  • 2-Oxo-3-deoxy-D-glycero-galactononulosonate
  • 2-Oxo-3-deoxy-D-glycero-galactononulosonic acid
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
Hydrogen selenide
  • Dihydrogen monoselenide
  • Dihydrogen selenide
  • Hydrogen selenide
  • Selane
  • Selenium dihydride
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TXNRD2: view

Transcripts for TXNRD2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TXNRD2 Gene

Thioredoxin reductase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXNRD2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b · 16c
SP1: - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: -

Relevant External Links for TXNRD2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TXNRD2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for TXNRD2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TXNRD2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (9.2), Lymph node (7.1), and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (6.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TXNRD2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TXNRD2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TXNRD2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TXNRD2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TXNRD2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in the prostate, ovary, liver, testis, uterus, colon and small intestine. Intermediate levels in brain, skeletal muscle, heart and spleen. Low levels in placenta, pancreas, thymus and peripheral blood leukocytes. According to PubMed:10608886, high levels in kidney, whereas according to PubMed:9923614, levels are low.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TXNRD2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for TXNRD2 Gene

Orthologs for TXNRD2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for TXNRD2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TXNRD2 34 35
  • 99.31 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TXNRD2 34 35
  • 86.13 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TXNRD2 34 35
  • 83.33 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Txnrd2 34 16 35
  • 82.79 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Txnrd2 34
  • 82.06 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TXNRD2 35
  • 67 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TXNRD2 35
  • 65 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TXNRD2 34 35
  • 70.22 (n)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia txnrd2 34
  • 68.24 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia txnrd2-prov 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii txnrd2 35
  • 70 (a)
TXNRD2 (1 of 2) 35
  • 67 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta TRXR 34
  • 62.73 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Trxr-1 36 34 35
  • 60.07 (n)
Trxr-2 36 35
  • 55 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea trxr-2 34 35
  • 51.4 (n)
C06G3.7 36
  • 48 (a)
ZK637.10 36
  • 48 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GLR1 35
  • 34 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TXNRD2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TXNRD2 Gene

Gene Tree for TXNRD2 (if available)
Gene Tree for TXNRD2 (if available)

Paralogs for TXNRD2 Gene

Paralogs for TXNRD2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TXNRD2: view

Variants for TXNRD2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TXNRD2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs13306278 drug-response 19,941,504(+) GTTTC(C/T)CCACC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs148092370 Likely benign 19,931,092(+) CCCGC(A/T)GACCT reference, missense
rs182857388 Likely benign 19,915,831(+) TTAAA(A/G)TACTT reference, synonymous-codon
rs187065627 Likely benign 19,895,423(+) AGGAC(A/G)GTGTC reference, synonymous-codon
rs200076623 Likely benign 19,918,931(+) AGCAG(C/G/T)GCCGC reference, synonymous-codon

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TXNRD2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv953025 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv834130 CNV loss 17160897
nsv834129 CNV loss 17160897
nsv828939 CNV loss 20364138
nsv828938 CNV gain 20364138
nsv588238 CNV loss 21841781
nsv515664 CNV loss 19592680
nsv513585 CNV insertion 21212237
nsv469641 CNV loss 16826518
nsv3559 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv1129685 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
esv991750 CNV insertion 20482838
esv3893434 CNV gain 25118596
esv3647282 CNV loss 21293372
esv3647280 CNV gain 21293372
esv3647279 CNV gain 21293372
esv3575418 CNV gain 25503493
esv3568269 CNV loss 25503493
esv3568260 CNV loss 25503493
esv3557937 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3418873 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3347530 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3310499 CNV novel sequence insertion 20981092
esv2670386 CNV deletion 23128226
esv1459761 CNV insertion 17803354
esv1088050 CNV deletion 17803354
dgv7983n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv72n68 CNV loss 17160897
dgv1290e212 CNV loss 25503493
dgv1289e212 CNV loss 25503493

Variation tolerance for TXNRD2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 70.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 13.05; 95.05% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TXNRD2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNRD2 Gene

Disorders for TXNRD2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(12) MalaCards diseases for TXNRD2 Gene - From: Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
familial glucocorticoid deficiency
  • acth resistance
familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy
  • familial or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy
thyroid hormone resistance
  • thyroid hormone resistance syndrome
generalized resistance to thyroid hormone
  • grth
kashin-beck disease
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Relevant External Links for TXNRD2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TXNRD2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TXNRD2 Gene

Publications for TXNRD2 Gene

  1. Genetic variants in selenoprotein genes increase risk of colorectal cancer. (PMID: 20378690) MAcplan C. … Hesketh J.E. (Carcinogenesis 2010) 3 22 46 64
  2. [Association of genetic polymorphisms in selenoprotein GPX1 and TXNRD2 with genetic susceptibility of gastric cancer]. (PMID: 19035188) Wang J. … Xiao Y. (Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2008) 3 22 46 64
  3. Heterogeneity within animal thioredoxin reductases: evidence for alternative first exon splicing. (PMID: 11060283) Sun Q.-A. … Gladyshev V.N. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 4 22 64
  4. Cloning, sequencing and functional expression of a novel human thioredoxin reductase. (PMID: 9923614) Gasdaska P.Y. … Powis G. (FEBS Lett. 1999) 2 3 4 64
  5. Human mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase: cDNA cloning, expression and genomic organization. (PMID: 10215850) Miranda-Vizuete A. … Spyrou G. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1999) 2 3 4 64

Products for TXNRD2 Gene

Sources for TXNRD2 Gene

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