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TXNRD1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 70
GCID: GC12P104609

Thioredoxin Reductase 1

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Thioredoxin Reductase 11 2     TR12
Gene Associated With Retinoic And IFN-Induced Mortality 12 Protein2 3     TRXR12
Gene Associated With Retinoic And Interferon-Induced Mortality 12 Protein2 3     oxidoreductase2
Thioredoxin Reductase TR12 3     Thioredoxin Reductase 1, Cytoplasmic2
GRIM-122 3     Thioredoxin Reductase GRIM-122
TR2 3     GRIM123
KM-102-Derived Reductase-Like Factor2 3     KDRF3
EC 1.8.1.93 8     EC 1.8.18
TXNR2 5     

External Ids:    HGNC: 124371   Entrez Gene: 72962   Ensembl: ENSG000001984317   OMIM: 6011125   UniProtKB: Q168813   

Export aliases for TXNRD1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC12P103793 GC12P104561 GC12P104540 GC12P103183 GC12P103204 GC12P103133 GC12P101669


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TXNRD1 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the family of pyridine nucleotide oxidoreductases. This protein reduces thioredoxins
as well as other substrates, and plays a role in selenium metabolism and protection against oxidative stress. The
functional enzyme is thought to be a homodimer which uses FAD as a cofactor. Each subunit contains a
selenocysteine (Sec) residue which is required for catalytic activity. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA
codon that normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of selenocysteine-containing genes have a common
stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), that is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec
codon rather than as a stop signal. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding the same
or different isoforms. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for TXNRD1 Gene:
TXNRD1 (thioredoxin reductase 1) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding. An important paralog of this gene is TXNRD3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRXR1_HUMAN, Q16881
Function: Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin
and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the
transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional
activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of
interferon-beta and retinoic acid

Gene Wiki entry for TXNRD1 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000012.11  NC_018923.2  NT_029419.13  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TXNRD1 gene promoter:
         PPAR-gamma1   PPAR-gamma2   LCR-F1   NF-kappaB1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): TXNRD1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TXNRD1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TXNRD1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12q23-q24.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12q23.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12q23-q24.1

TXNRD1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TXNRD1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12P104609:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
104,609,557 bp from pter      End:
104,744,062 bp from pter
Size:
134,506 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRXR1_HUMAN, Q16881 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic  
Size: 649 amino acids; 70906 Da
Cofactor: Binds 1 FAD per subunit
Subunit: Homodimer. Isoform 4 interacts with ESR1 and ESR2. Interacts with HERC5
Miscellaneous: The thioredoxin reductase active site is a redox-active disulfide bond. The selenocysteine residue
is also essential for catalytic activity
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAB35418.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec;
Sequence=AAC69621.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=AAF15900.1;
Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=AAV38446.1; Type=Erroneous
termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=AAZ67916.1; Type=Erroneous termination;
Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=BAA13674.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648;
Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=BAH11490.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec;
Sequence=BAH12374.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=BAH14140.1;
Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=CAA04503.1; Type=Erroneous
termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=CAA62629.1; Type=Erroneous termination;
Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=CAG38744.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648;
Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=EAW97745.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for TXNRD1 (see all 8):
1W1C (3D)        2CFY (3D)        2J3N (3D)        2ZZ0 (3D)        2ZZB (3D)        2ZZC (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B7Z1F4 B7Z3Y8 B7Z904 E9PMY9 F5H780 Q6FI31 Q6VB40 Q6VB41 Q6VB42 Q6VBP2
Q6VBP3 Q6VBP4 Q6VBP5 Q6VBP9 Q6VBQ0 Q6YNQ1 Q76P53 Q7LA96 Q8WVC8 Q99475 Q9UES8 Q9UH79
Alternative splicing: 7 isoforms:  Q16881-1   Q16881-2   Q16881-3   Q16881-4   Q16881-5   Q16881-6   Q16881-7   (No experimental confirmation)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TXNRD1: NX_Q16881

Explore proteomics data for TXNRD1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • The N-terminus of isoform 5 is blocked1
  • ISGylated (Probable)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys179, Lys218, Lys274, Lys405, Lys449, Lys574, Lys580, Lys607, Lys613
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for TXNRD1 (Q16881) (see all 26)
     IGGGSGG  DSRNYGW  LGPNAGE  GDKEYCI 


    See TXNRD1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (7 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001087240.1  NP_001248374.1  NP_001248375.1  NP_003321.3  NP_877393.1  NP_877419.1  NP_877420.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000434516   ENSP00000431294   ENSP00000421934   ENSP00000435929   ENSP00000431925  
     ENSP00000435123   ENSP00000433507   ENSP00000434919   ENSP00000432273   ENSP00000433732  
     ENSP00000433887   ENSP00000436229   ENSP00000433425   ENSP00000433935   ENSP00000433599  
     ENSP00000432812   ENSP00000412045   ENSP00000373506   ENSP00000440978   ENSP00000367310  
     ENSP00000380844   ENSP00000393328   ENSP00000347020   ENSP00000442709  
    Reactome Protein details: Q16881

    TXNRD1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    Novus Biologicals TXNRD1 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals TXNRD1 Lysate
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for TXNRD1
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for TXNRD1
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for TXNRD1 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for TXNRD1 (23 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for TXNRD1

    TXNRD1 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of TXNRD1
    R&D Systems Antibodies for TXNRD1 (Thioredoxin Reductase 1/TRXR1)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TXNRD1  (TRXR1)
    OriGene Antibodies for TXNRD1
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for TXNRD1
    Novus Biologicals TXNRD1 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for TXNRD1
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for TXNRD1
    antibodies-online antibodies for TXNRD1 (56 products) 

    TXNRD1 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    GenScript Custom Assay Services for TXNRD1
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for TXNRD1 
    antibodies-online kits for TXNRD1 (18 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 9):
     IPR013027 FAD_pyr_nucl-diS_OxRdtase
     IPR002109 Glutaredoxin
     IPR012336 Thioredoxin-like_fold
     IPR012999 Pyr_OxRdtase_I_AS
     IPR004099 Pyr_nucl-diS_OxRdtase_dimer

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q16881

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q16881

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001100 Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    IPB001327 Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    IPB013027 FAD-dependent pyridine nucleotide reductase signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRXR1_HUMAN, Q16881
    Domain: The N-terminal glutaredoxin domain found in isoform 1 does not contain the C-P-Y-C redox-active motif
    normally found in glutaredoxins and has been found to be inactive in classical glutaredoxin assays
    Similarity: Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family
    Similarity: Contains 1 glutaredoxin domain


    Find genes that share domains with TXNRD1           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TRXR1_HUMAN, Q16881
    Function: Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin
    and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the
    transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional
    activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of
    interferon-beta and retinoic acid
    Catalytic activity: Thioredoxin + NADP(+) = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
    Induction: Isoform 5 is induced by a combination of interferon-beta and retinoic acid (at protein level). Isoform
    1 is induced by estradiol or testosterone in HeLa cells

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TXNRD1:
    thioredoxin reductase,pyridine nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase family,ubiquitously expressed

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 1.8.1.91 2 EC 1.8.12

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004791thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity EXP--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI19820694
    GO:0009055electron carrier activity IEA--
    GO:0015035protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA--
    GO:0016174NAD(P)H oxidase activity ----
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with TXNRD1           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for TXNRD1:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

         9 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 4 alleles(MGI details for Txnrd1):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  embryogenesis  growth/size/body 
     mortality/aging  nervous system  normal  reproductive system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with TXNRD1           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for TXNRD1: Txnrd1tm1.1Marc Txnrd1tm1.1Ees

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for TXNRD1

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target TXNRD1:
    hsa-mir-186-5p (MIRT021121), hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT029399), hsa-mir-34a-5p (MIRT025447), hsa-let-7e-5p (MIRT051614), hsa-mir-155-5p (MIRT001489), hsa-mir-504-5p (MIRT041077)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat TXNRD1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TXNRD1 (see all 23):
    hsa-miR-124* hsa-miR-3164 hsa-miR-125a-5p hsa-miR-500a hsa-miR-421 hsa-miR-548a-3p hsa-miR-125b hsa-miR-23a
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTXNRD1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for TXNRD1
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TXNRD1

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for TXNRD1

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for TXNRD1 (see all 28)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TXNRD1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 5): TXNRD1 (NM_182742)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TXNRD1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TXNRD1

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for TXNRD1
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for TXNRD1 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TXNRD1


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TRXR1_HUMAN, Q16881: Cytoplasm (By similarity)
    TRXR1_HUMAN, Q16881: Isoform 4: Cytoplasm. Nucleus
    TRXR1_HUMAN, Q16881: Isoform 5: Cytoplasm
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    cytosol4
    mitochondrion2

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IEA--
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with TXNRD1           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for TXNRD1 About   (see all 13)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Selenium Pathway
    Selenium Pathway
    thioredoxin pathway0.00
    2Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species
    Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species
    Oxidative Stress Regulatory Pathway (Erythrocyte)0.00
    3Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism
    Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism0.65
    PPARA Activates Gene Expression0.63
    Regulation of Lipid Metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)0.65
    4Purine metabolism (REACTOME)
    Metabolism of nucleotides0.42
    Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates0.00
    5Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins0.37


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with TXNRD1           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 Downloadable PowerPoint Slide of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for TXNRD1
        Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for TXNRD1
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for TXNRD1
        Mechanisms of CFTR activation by S-nitrosoglutathione (normal and CF)

    4 BioSystems Pathways for TXNRD1
        Selenium Metabolism and Selenoproteins
    Oxidative Stress
    Selenium Pathway
    thioredoxin pathway


    3 Reactome Pathways for TXNRD1
        Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species
    Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates
    PPARA activates gene expression

    1 PharmGKB Pathway for TXNRD1
        Oxidative Stress Regulatory Pathway (Erythrocyte)

    2 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for TXNRD1):
        Pyrimidine metabolism
    Selenocompound metabolism

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including TXNRD1: 
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat
              Oxidative Stress in human mouse rat
              Signal Transduction PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Hepatotoxicity in human mouse rat
              Stress & Toxicity PathwayFinder in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TXNRD1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for TXNRD1 (Q168811, 2, 3 ENSP000004120454) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 84)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CAV1Q031351, 2, 3, ENSP000003391914EBI-716617,EBI-603614 MINT-7307648 MINT-7307603 MINT-7307629 MINT-7307587 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000339191
    TXNIPQ9H3M73, ENSP000003583234I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000358323
    POU2F1P148593, ENSP000002714114I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000271411
    TXNDC17Q9BRA23, ENSP000002501014I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000250101
    GLRX2Q9NS183, ENSP000003564104I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000356410
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 26):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001707mesoderm formation IEA--
    GO:0001890placenta development ----
    GO:0006749glutathione metabolic process ----
    GO:0007165signal transduction NAS8921404
    GO:0007369gastrulation ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with TXNRD1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for TXNRD1 (TRXR1)

    5 HMDB Compounds for TXNRD1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    FAD1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide (see all 21)146-14-5--
    NADPAdenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (see all 18)53-59-8--
    NADPH2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide (see all 23)53-57-6--
    Seleniumselenium (see all 5)7782-49-2--
    Selenocysteine(2R)-2-amino-3-selanylpropanoate (see all 8)3614-08-2--

    5 DrugBank Compounds for TXNRD1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide-- 146-14-5target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Nadph Dihydro-Nicotinamide-Adenine-Dinucleotidephosphate-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Spermidine1,5,10-Triazadecane (see all 8)124-20-9target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Fotemustine(+-)-Diethyl (1-(3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosoureido)ethyl)phosphonate (see all 5)--target--17139284 17016423
    Arsenic trioxideAcide Arsenieux [French] (see all 11)1327-53-3targetinhibitor17640917

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TXNRD1 gene (see all 30)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    selenocysteine 88.3 26 12574159 (3), 9315320 (2), 8650234 (2), 9671710 (2) (see all 12)
    selenodiglutathione 84.1 1 9315320 (1)
    selenium 78.6 53 18215477 (6), 12574159 (4), 16857846 (3), 9315320 (2) (see all 23)
    selenite 77.9 30 15935149 (5), 18215477 (3), 17150329 (3), 18405881 (3) (see all 10)
    goldthioglucose 74.5 7 17115890 (1), 12431787 (1), 18267104 (1)
    trypanothione 72.1 9 8760878 (2), 11170645 (1), 10036154 (1), 18448175 (1) (see all 6)
    sulforaphane 70.7 25 17150329 (5), 12663510 (4), 15740016 (4), 20204301 (3) (see all 6)
    dithiol 69.3 2 9315320 (1), 14622292 (1)
    dtnb 62.9 1 19020731 (1)
    gold sodium thiomalate 60.5 2 14584040 (1), 18632643 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with TXNRD1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TXNRD1 gene (7 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001093771.2  NM_001261445.1  NM_001261446.1  NM_003330.3  NM_182729.2  NM_182742.2  NM_182743.2  

    Unigene Cluster for TXNRD1:

    Thioredoxin reductase 1
    Hs.654922  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001261445
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 28):
    ENST00000525566(uc021rcx.1 uc010swq.2) ENST00000534282(uc001tkm.1)
    ENST00000526006 ENST00000526266 ENST00000503506 ENST00000526691(uc021rcy.1 uc021rcz.1 uc021rda.1 uc021rdb.1 uc010swp.2)
    ENST00000531691(uc001tkv.2) ENST00000526390 ENST00000531689 ENST00000529546
    ENST00000529751 ENST00000526207 ENST00000528079 ENST00000526580 ENST00000529784
    ENST00000524698 ENST00000527688 ENST00000527335
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TXNRD1 (see all 23):
    hsa-miR-124* hsa-miR-3164 hsa-miR-125a-5p hsa-miR-500a hsa-miR-421 hsa-miR-548a-3p hsa-miR-125b hsa-miR-23a
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF077367.1 AF208018.1 AJ001050.1 AK128515.1 AK129977.1 AK226071.1 AK293322.1 AK295067.1 
    AK296495.1 AK304241.1 AK308881.1 AK312262.1 AY057105.1 BC018122.1 BC042974.1 BT019640.1 
    CR536506.1 D88687.1 S79851.1 X91247.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 39):

    DT.101985558  DT.453295  DT.100675942  DT.101957868  DT.95346175  DT.100857589  DT.102839481  DT.100678555 
    DT.121140038  DT.121139786  DT.92452779  DT.121139750  DT.101985557  DT.97864432  DT.121139777  DT.121139969 
    DT.121139807  DT.121139936  DT.100717877  DT.92452782  DT.121139878  DT.95148645  DT.97787792  DT.121140353 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 731):

    BM693444 AA699383 BU676155 BQ217267 BQ433011 AI080556 BQ026952 AW167597 
    AA027812 AI672445 BF692051 AA358202 AU124109 CD513477 BM755155 AI090145 
    AA641768 BU178416 AA370416 AI922535 AI751930 AI150765 AI280188 AI831885 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXNRD1 (see all 14)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^
    SP1:                                                  -     -           -     -     -     -     -                                                               
    SP2:                                      -     -     -     -           -     -     -     -     -                                                               
    SP3:                                                                    -     -     -     -     -                                                               
    SP4:                                      -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                                               
    SP5:                                                  -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                                               

    ExUns: 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19a · 19b · 19c · 19d
    SP1:                          -                 -     -                           
    SP2:                          -                 -     -                           
    SP3:                          -                                                   
    SP4:                                                                              
    SP5:                                                                              


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for TXNRD1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    TXNRD1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TATTTTTGTT
    TXNRD1 Expression
    About this image

    TXNRD1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TXNRD1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.654922

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRXR1_HUMAN, Q16881
    Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 is expressed predominantly in Leydig cells (at protein level). Also expressed in
    ovary, spleen, heart, liver, kidney and pancreas and in a number of cancer cell lines. Isoform 4 is widely
    expressed with highest levels in kidney, testis, uterus, ovary, prostate, placenta and fetal liver

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for TXNRD1 gene from Selected species (see all 17)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Txnrd11 , 5 thioredoxin reductase 11, 5 85.27(n)1
    90.77(a)1
      10 (40.66 cM)5
    504931  NM_001042523.11  NP_001035988.11 
     828592065 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TXNRD11 thioredoxin reductase 1 79.09(n)
    85.37(a)
      418082  NM_001030762.2  NP_001025933.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia TXNRD16
    thioredoxin reductase 1
    78(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    5(18307727-18363691)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia txnrd11 thioredoxin reductase 1 71.83(n)
    73.81(a)
      100495372  NM_001256471.1  NP_001243400.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii BC054599.12   -- 74.09(n)   352924  BC054599.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea C06G3.73 pyridine nucleotide-disulphide
    oxidoreductase
    58(a)
    (best of 2)
      IV(7012218-7016190)   --
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes GLR16
    Cytosolic and mitochondrial glutathione oxidoreduc...
    34(a)
    1 → many
    XVI(375502-376953) YPL091W
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons GR11 GR1 49.28(n)
    38.1(a)
      822003  NM_001125216.1  NP_001118688.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os02g08135001 Os02g0813500 46.57(n)
    36.27(a)
      4331112  NM_001055020.1  NP_001048485.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TXNRD1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TXNRD1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TXNRD1 gene
    TXNRD32  TXNRD22  GSR2  
    7 SIMAP similar genes for TXNRD1 using alignment to 15 protein entries:     TRXR1_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    KIAA0586    TXNRD3    L3MBTL2    DKFZp781E0833    TXNRD2    GSR
    DLD

    Find genes that share paralogs with TXNRD1           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

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    Selected SNPs for TXNRD1 (see all 2985)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs724875121,2
    C--104447687(+) GTGGAC/TGCCTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1407478661,2
    C--104447740(+) AACCCA/GGGAGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1841329721,2
    C--104447795(+) GGGCAA/CCAGAG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs802050881,2
    C,F--104447908(+) TTTGAC/GTCTGG 1 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- G:0.04WA CSA 122
    rs1501114631,2
    --104448086(+) AGCCAA/GGCATA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs733925931,2
    C,F--104448087(+) GCCAGG/ACATAA 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- A:0.08WA NA 242
    rs1385608781,2
    --104448120(+) GTTAAC/TTGAAA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1416411461,2
    C--104448179(+) TGATGG/TGCCGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1151241521,2
    F--104448182(+) TGTGCC/TGCAAT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01WA 118
    rs1876694231,2
    --104448208(+) AAAAAA/GTCACT 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TXNRD1 (104609557 - 104744062 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 8 variations for TXNRD1:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2658616CNV Deletion23128226
    esv1648435CNV Deletion17803354
    esv2659315CNV Deletion23128226
    esv23043CNV Loss19812545
    nsv52994CNV Loss16902084
    nsv899494CNV Gain21882294
    nsv819204CNV Gain19587683
    nsv899493CNV Gain21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

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    OMIM gene information: 601112    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with TXNRD1           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TXNRD1 gene (see all 11)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cancer 28.1 14 19838062 (4), 12894524 (2), 18357548 (1), 19020731 (1)
    tumors 17.4 23 17316382 (3), 16546977 (2), 14584040 (1), 15183196 (1) (see all 12)
    cell damage 15.9 1 17150329 (1)
    rheumatoid arthritis 13.9 2 10555039 (1), 18632643 (1)
    atherosclerotic plaque 11.3 3 15183196 (2), 19555664 (1)
    colon cancer 7.63 5 19782697 (3), 20098717 (1)
    necrosis 4.21 5 14584040 (1), 15183196 (1), 15521073 (1), 18766175 (1)
    breast carcinoma 0 3 9774665 (1), 12894524 (1)
    breast cancer 0 3 15740016 (1), 12894524 (1)
    osteoarthritis 0 1 17516242 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TXNRD1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TXNRD1 (10 documents)

    Export disorders for TXNRD1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TXNRD1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 233):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TXNRD1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning and sequencing of a human thioredoxin reductase. (PubMed id 7589432)1, 2, 3 Gasdaska P.Y.... Powis G. (FEBS Lett. 1995)
    2. Evidence for intriguingly complex transcription of human thioredoxin reductase 1. (PubMed id 14980707)1, 2, 9 Rundloef A.-K.... Arner E.S. (Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2004)
    3. Thioredoxin reductase 1 haplotypes modify familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis onset. (PubMed id 18996185)1, 4, 9 Mitchell J....de Belleroche J. (amp 2009)
    4. Induction of cell membrane protrusions by the N-terminal glutaredoxin domain of a rare splice variant of human thioredoxin reductase 1. (PubMed id 18042542)1, 2, 9 Dammeyer P.... Arner E.S.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2008)
    5. Thioredoxin reductase mediates cell death effects of the combination of beta interferon and retinoic acid. (PubMed id 9774665)1, 2, 9 Hofman E.R.... Kalvakolanu D.V. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1998)
    6. Selenocysteine, identified as the penultimate C-terminal residue in human T-cell thioredoxin reductase, corresponds to TGA in the human placental gene. (PubMed id 8650234)1, 2, 9 Gladyshev V.N.... Stadtman T.C. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1996)
    7. Variation in the selenoenzyme genes and risk of advanced distal colorectal adenoma. (PubMed id 18483336)1, 4, 9 Peters U....Foster C.B. (amp 2008)
    8. Low 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine levels and influence of genetic background in an Andean population exposed to high levels of arsenic. (PubMed id 19896490)1, 4, 9 EngstrAPm K.S....Broberg K. (Mutat. Res. 2010)
    9. The structure of human thioredoxin reductase 1 provides insights into C-terminal rearrangements during catalysis. (PubMed id 17512005)1, 2, 9 Fritz-Wolf K.... Becker K. (J. Mol. Biol. 2007)
    10. An alternative splicing variant of the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase is a modulator of estrogen signaling. (PubMed id 15199063)1, 2, 9 Damdimopoulos A.E....Spyrou G. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 7296 HGNC: 12437 AceView: TXNRD1 Ensembl:ENSG00000198431 euGenes: HUgn7296
    ECgene: TXNRD1 Kegg: 7296 H-InvDB: TXNRD1

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TXNRD1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/txnrd1/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section

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    Patent Information for TXNRD1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TXNRD1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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