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Aliases for TXNRD1 Gene

Aliases for TXNRD1 Gene

  • Thioredoxin Reductase 1 2 3 5
  • Gene Associated With Retinoic And Interferon-Induced Mortality 12 Protein 3 4
  • Gene Associated With Retinoic And IFN-Induced Mortality 12 Protein 3 4
  • KM-102-Derived Reductase-Like Factor 3 4
  • Thioredoxin Reductase TR1 3 4
  • EC 1.8.1.9 4 63
  • GRIM-12 3 4
  • TR 3 4
  • Testis Tissue Sperm-Binding Protein Li 46a 3
  • Thioredoxin Reductase GRIM-12 3
  • Oxidoreductase 3
  • EC 1.8.1 63
  • GRIM12 4
  • TRXR1 3
  • TXNR 3
  • KDRF 4
  • TR1 3

External Ids for TXNRD1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TXNRD1 Gene

  • GC12P103793
  • GC12P104561
  • GC12P104540
  • GC12P103183
  • GC12P103204
  • GC12P103133
  • GC12P101669
  • GC12P104609

Summaries for TXNRD1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TXNRD1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the family of pyridine nucleotide oxidoreductases. This protein reduces thioredoxins as well as other substrates, and plays a role in selenium metabolism and protection against oxidative stress. The functional enzyme is thought to be a homodimer which uses FAD as a cofactor. Each subunit contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue which is required for catalytic activity. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA codon that normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of selenocysteine-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), that is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding the same or different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TXNRD1 Gene

TXNRD1 (Thioredoxin Reductase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Uptake and actions of bacterial toxins and Purine metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding. An important paralog of this gene is TXNRD3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNRD1 Gene

  • Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of interferon-beta and retinoic acid.

Gene Wiki entry for TXNRD1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TXNRD1 Gene

Genomics for TXNRD1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TXNRD1 Gene

Enhancers for TXNRD1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TXNRD1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TXNRD1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around TXNRD1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TXNRD1 Gene

Chromosome:
12
Start:
104,215,779 bp from pter
End:
104,350,307 bp from pter
Size:
134,529 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TXNRD1 Gene

Genes around TXNRD1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TXNRD1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TXNRD1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TXNRD1 Gene

Proteins for TXNRD1 Gene

  • Protein details for TXNRD1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q16881-TRXR1_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Q16881
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z1F4
    • B7Z3Y8
    • B7Z904
    • E9PMY9
    • F5H780
    • Q6FI31
    • Q6VB40
    • Q6VB41
    • Q6VB42
    • Q6VBP2
    • Q6VBP3
    • Q6VBP4
    • Q6VBP5
    • Q6VBP9
    • Q6VBQ0
    • Q6YNQ1
    • Q76P53
    • Q7LA96
    • Q8WVC8
    • Q99475
    • Q9UES8
    • Q9UH79

    Protein attributes for TXNRD1 Gene

    Size:
    649 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    70906 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Isoform 4 interacts with ESR1 and ESR2. Interacts with HERC5.
    Miscellaneous:
    • The thioredoxin reductase active site is a redox-active disulfide bond. The selenocysteine residue is also essential for catalytic activity.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAB35418.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAC69621.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAF15900.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAV38446.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAZ67916.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAA13674.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAH11490.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAH12374.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAH14140.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAA04503.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAA62629.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAG38744.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=EAW97745.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TXNRD1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TXNRD1 Gene

neXtProt entry for TXNRD1 Gene

Proteomics data for TXNRD1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TXNRD1 Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for TXNRD1 (Thioredoxin Reductase 1/TRXR1)
  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TXNRD1 (TRXR1)

Domains & Families for TXNRD1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q16881

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

TRXR1_HUMAN :
  • The N-terminal glutaredoxin domain found in isoform 1 does not contain the C-P-Y-C redox-active motif normally found in glutaredoxins and has been found to be inactive in classical glutaredoxin assays.
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
Domain:
  • The N-terminal glutaredoxin domain found in isoform 1 does not contain the C-P-Y-C redox-active motif normally found in glutaredoxins and has been found to be inactive in classical glutaredoxin assays.
  • Contains 1 glutaredoxin domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TXNRD1: view

No data available for Gene Families for TXNRD1 Gene

Function for TXNRD1 Gene

Molecular function for TXNRD1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thioredoxin reductase,pyridine nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase family,ubiquitously expressed
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Thioredoxin + NADP(+) = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of interferon-beta and retinoic acid.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Isoform 5 is induced by a combination of interferon-beta and retinoic acid (at protein level). Isoform 1 is induced by estradiol or testosterone in HeLa cells.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TXNRD1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TXNRD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15199063
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNRD1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TXNRD1: view

Animal Models for TXNRD1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TXNRD1:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for TXNRD1

CRISPR Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TXNRD1 Gene

Localization for TXNRD1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNRD1 Gene

Cytoplasm.
Isoform 4: Cytoplasm. Nucleus.
Isoform 5: Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for TXNRD1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TXNRD1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
mitochondrion 4

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TXNRD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 18570454
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNRD1: view

Pathways & Interactions for TXNRD1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TXNRD1: view

Pathways by source for TXNRD1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TXNRD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000302 response to reactive oxygen species TAS --
GO:0007165 signal transduction NAS 8921404
GO:0007369 gastrulation IEA --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
GO:0055086 nucleobase-containing small molecule metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNRD1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TXNRD1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TXNRD1 Gene

(20) Drugs for TXNRD1 Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Arsenic trioxide Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Target 116
FAD Approved Pharma Target 0
Trisenox Approved September 2000 Pharma 0
spermidine Experimental Pharma Antagonist, Pore Blocker, Target 0
Selenocysteine Experimental Pharma 0

(24) Additional Compounds for TXNRD1 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
nadph
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
53-57-6
selenite
  • Selenite (SeO32-)
  • Selenite ion (SeO32-)
  • Selenite ion(2-)
  • Selenite(2-)
14124-67-5
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
Hydrogen selenide
  • Dihydrogen monoselenide
  • Dihydrogen selenide
  • Hydrogen selenide
  • Selane
  • Selenium dihydride
Methaneselenol
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TXNRD1: view

Transcripts for TXNRD1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TXNRD1 Gene

Thioredoxin reductase 1:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXNRD1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7:
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - - -
SP12:
SP13:
SP14: - - - -

ExUns: 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19a · 19b · 19c · 19d
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: -
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7: - -
SP8:
SP9:
SP10: - - - - - - - - -
SP11:
SP12: - -
SP13:
SP14:

Relevant External Links for TXNRD1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TXNRD1
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TXNRD1

Expression for TXNRD1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TXNRD1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TXNRD1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal Gland (x4.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TXNRD1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone marrow stromal cell (9.5), Urinary Bladder (8.3), and Lymph node (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TXNRD1 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TXNRD1 Gene Hs.654922

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TXNRD1 Gene

Q16881-TRXR1_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 is expressed predominantly in Leydig cells (at protein level). Also expressed in ovary, spleen, heart, liver, kidney and pancreas and in a number of cancer cell lines. Isoform 4 is widely expressed with highest levels in kidney, testis, uterus, ovary, prostate, placenta and fetal liver.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TXNRD1: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TXNRD1 Gene

- Elite partner

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for TXNRD1 Gene

Orthologs for TXNRD1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TXNRD1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TXNRD1 35
  • 88.78 (n)
  • 92.99 (a)
TXNRD1 36
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TXNRD1 35
  • 87.4 (n)
  • 87.96 (a)
TXNRD1 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Txnrd1 35
  • 85.27 (n)
  • 90.77 (a)
Txnrd1 16
Txnrd1 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TXNRD1 35
  • 99.73 (n)
  • 99.6 (a)
TXNRD1 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Txnrd1 35
  • 85.44 (n)
  • 90.78 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TXNRD1 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TXNRD1 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TXNRD1 35
  • 79.09 (n)
  • 85.37 (a)
TXNRD1 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TXNRD1 36
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia txnrd1 35
  • 71.83 (n)
  • 73.81 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii -- 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Trxr-1 37
  • 50 (a)
Trxr-2 37
  • 51 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C06G3.7 37
  • 58 (a)
ZK637.10 37
  • 44 (a)
trxr-1 36
  • 48 (a)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GLR1 36
  • 34 (a)
OneToMany
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons GR1 35
  • 49.28 (n)
  • 38.1 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0813500 35
  • 46.57 (n)
  • 36.27 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 66 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.8034 36
  • 59 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for TXNRD1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TXNRD1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TXNRD1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TXNRD1 (if available)

Paralogs for TXNRD1 Gene

Paralogs for TXNRD1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TXNRD1: view

Variants for TXNRD1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TXNRD1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1127954 - 104,321,195(+) TTTAG(A/G)CGTCA reference, missense
rs7134193 -- 104,310,058(+) CCCCT(A/G)CATCT intron-variant
rs13023 -- 104,349,893(+) CGTCC(C/G)CCACA utr-variant-3-prime
rs15317 -- 104,350,103(+) CTTTT(C/T)TTAGT utr-variant-3-prime
rs15318 -- 104,350,195(+) TGAAA(C/T)ATATA utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TXNRD1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv899493 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv899494 CNV Gain 21882294
esv2659315 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv1648435 CNV Deletion 17803354
nsv819204 CNV Gain 19587683
nsv52994 CNV Loss 16902084
esv23043 CNV Loss 19812545
esv2658616 CNV Deletion 23128226

Variation tolerance for TXNRD1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 39.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.10; 22.31% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for TXNRD1 Gene

Disorders for TXNRD1 Gene

Relevant External Links for TXNRD1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
TXNRD1
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
TXNRD1
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
TXNRD1

No disorders were found for TXNRD1 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TXNRD1 Gene

Publications for TXNRD1 Gene

  1. Cloning and sequencing of a human thioredoxin reductase. (PMID: 7589432) Gasdaska P.Y. … Powis G. (FEBS Lett. 1995) 2 3 4 67
  2. Thioredoxin reductase-1 mediates curcumin-induced radiosensitization of squamous carcinoma cells. (PMID: 20160040) Javvadi P. … Koumenis C. (Cancer Res. 2010) 3 23
  3. Thioredoxin reductase 1 haplotypes modify familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis onset. (PMID: 18996185) Mitchell J. … de Belleroche J. (Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2009) 3 23
  4. Thioredoxin reductase 1 upregulates MCP-1 release in human endothelial cells. (PMID: 19555664) Liu Z.B. … Shen X. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2009) 3 23
  5. Modulation of thioredoxin reductase-2 expression in EAhy926 cells: implications for endothelial selenoprotein hierarchy. (PMID: 19595745) Crane M.S. … Beckett G.J. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2009) 3 23

Products for TXNRD1 Gene

Sources for TXNRD1 Gene

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