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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

TXNRD1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 71
GCID: GC12P104609

Thioredoxin Reductase 1

Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Thioredoxin Reductase 11 2     TR12
Gene Associated With Retinoic And IFN-Induced Mortality 12 Protein2 3     TRXR12
Gene Associated With Retinoic And Interferon-Induced Mortality 12 Protein2 3     oxidoreductase2
Thioredoxin Reductase TR12 3     Thioredoxin Reductase 1, Cytoplasmic2
GRIM-122 3     Thioredoxin Reductase GRIM-122
TR2 3     GRIM123
KM-102-Derived Reductase-Like Factor2 3     KDRF3
EC 1.8.1.93 8     EC 1.8.18
TXNR2 5     

External Ids:    HGNC: 124371   Entrez Gene: 72962   Ensembl: ENSG000001984317   OMIM: 6011125   UniProtKB: Q168813   

Export aliases for TXNRD1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC12P103793 GC12P104561 GC12P104540 GC12P103183 GC12P103204 GC12P103133 GC12P101669


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for TXNRD1 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the family of pyridine nucleotide oxidoreductases. This protein reduces thioredoxins
as well as other substrates, and plays a role in selenium metabolism and protection against oxidative stress. The
functional enzyme is thought to be a homodimer which uses FAD as a cofactor. Each subunit contains a
selenocysteine (Sec) residue which is required for catalytic activity. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA
codon that normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of selenocysteine-containing genes have a common
stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), that is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec
codon rather than as a stop signal. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding the same
or different isoforms. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for TXNRD1 Gene: 
TXNRD1 (thioredoxin reductase 1) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TXNRD1 include diphtheria, and leishmaniasis, and among its related super-pathways are Regulation of Lipid Metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and Metabolic pathways. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding. An important paralog of this gene is TXNRD3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRXR1_HUMAN, Q16881
Function: Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin
and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the
transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional
activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of
interferon-beta and retinoic acid

Gene Wiki entry for TXNRD1 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000012.11  NT_029419.12  NC_018923.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TXNRD1 gene promoter:
         PPAR-gamma1   PPAR-gamma2   LCR-F1   NF-kappaB1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): TXNRD1 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for TXNRD1

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat TXNRD1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12q23-q24.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12q23.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12q23-q24.1

TXNRD1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TXNRD1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12P104609:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
104,609,557 bp from pter      End:
104,744,062 bp from pter
Size:
134,506 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRXR1_HUMAN, Q16881 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic  
Size: 649 amino acids; 70906 Da
Cofactor: Binds 1 FAD per subunit
Subunit: Homodimer. Isoform 4 interacts with ESR1 and ESR2. Interacts with HERC5
Subcellular location: Cytoplasm (By similarity)
Subcellular location: Isoform 4: Cytoplasm. Nucleus
Subcellular location: Isoform 5: Cytoplasm
Miscellaneous: The thioredoxin reductase active site is a redox-active disulfide bond. The selenocysteine residue
is also essential for catalytic activity
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAB35418.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec;
Sequence=AAC69621.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=AAF15900.1;
Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=AAV38446.1; Type=Erroneous
termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=AAZ67916.1; Type=Erroneous termination;
Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=BAA13674.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648;
Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=CAA04503.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec;
Sequence=CAA62629.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec; Sequence=CAG38744.1;
Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=648; Note=Translated as Sec;
6/8 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for TXNRD1 (see all 8):
1W1C (3D)        2CFY (3D)        2J3N (3D)        2ZZ0 (3D)        2ZZB (3D)        2ZZC (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q6FI31 Q6VB40 Q6VB41 Q6VB42 Q6VBP2 Q6VBP3 Q6VBP4 Q6VBP5 Q6VBP9 Q6VBQ0
Q6YNQ1 Q76P53 Q7LA96 Q8WVC8 Q99475 Q9UES8 Q9UH79
Alternative splicing: 6 isoforms:  Q16881-1   Q16881-2   Q16881-3   Q16881-4   Q16881-5   Q16881-6   (Major isoform. The N-terminus of the sequence is processed into a mature form that lacks residues Met-151 and Asn-152 at the N-terminus)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TXNRD1: NX_Q16881

Explore proteomics data for TXNRD1 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: The N-terminus of isoform 5 is blocked
  • UniProtKB: ISGylated (Probable)
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q16881

  • 4/26 DME Specific Peptides for TXNRD1 (Q16881) (see all 26)
     IGGGSGG  DSRNYGW  LGPNAGE  GDKEYCI 

    TXNRD1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    TXNRD1 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (7 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001087240.1  NP_001248374.1  NP_001248375.1  NP_003321.3  NP_877393.1  NP_877419.1  NP_877420.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000434516   ENSP00000431294   ENSP00000421934   ENSP00000435929   ENSP00000431925  
     ENSP00000435123   ENSP00000433507   ENSP00000434919   ENSP00000432273   ENSP00000433732  
     ENSP00000433887   ENSP00000436229   ENSP00000433425   ENSP00000433935   ENSP00000433599  
     ENSP00000432812   ENSP00000412045   ENSP00000373506   ENSP00000440978   ENSP00000367310  
     ENSP00000380844   ENSP00000393328   ENSP00000347020   ENSP00000442709  
    Reactome Protein details: Q16881
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for TXNRD1: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for TXNRD1
    Browse OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysates
    OriGene MassSpec for TXNRD1 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for TXNRD1
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for TXNRD1
    Novus Biologicals TXNRD1 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals TXNRD1 Lysate
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for TXNRD1
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for TXNRD1
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp. 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/6 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005730nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA--
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IEA--
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    TXNRD1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    TXNRD1 Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of TXNRD1
    R&D Systems Antibodies for TXNRD1 (Thioredoxin Reductase 1/TRXR1)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TXNRD1  (TRXR1)
    OriGene Antibodies for TXNRD1
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for TXNRD1
    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for TXNRD1
    Novus Biologicals TXNRD1 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for TXNRD1
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for TXNRD1
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for TXNRD1 

    Assay Products for TXNRD1: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for TXNRD1
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for TXNRD1
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    5/9 InterPro protein domains (see all 9):
     IPR013027 FAD_pyr_nucl-diS_OxRdtase
     IPR002109 Glutaredoxin
     IPR012999 Pyr_OxRdtase_I_AS
     IPR004099 Pyr_nucl-diS_OxRdtase_dimer
     IPR006338 Thioredoxin/glutathione_Rdtase

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q16881

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q16881

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001100 Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    IPB001327 Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    IPB013027 FAD-dependent pyridine nucleotide reductase signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRXR1_HUMAN, Q16881
    Domain: The N-terminal glutaredoxin domain found in isoform 1 does not contain the C-P-Y-C redox-active motif
    normally found in glutaredoxins and has been found to be inactive in classical glutaredoxin assays
    Similarity: Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family
    Similarity: Contains 1 glutaredoxin domain


    TXNRD1 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TRXR1_HUMAN, Q16881
    Function: Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin
    and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the
    transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional
    activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of
    interferon-beta and retinoic acid
    Catalytic activity: Thioredoxin + NADP(+) = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
    Induction: Isoform 5 is induced by a combination of interferon-beta and retinoic acid (at protein level). Isoform
    1 is induced by estradiol or testosterone in HeLa cells

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TXNRD1:
    thioredoxin reductase,pyridine nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase family,ubiquitously expressed

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 1.8.1.91 2 EC 1.8.12

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/12 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004791thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity EXP--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI19820694
    GO:0009055electron carrier activity IEA--
    GO:0015035protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA--
    GO:0016174NAD(P)H oxidase activity IEA--
         
    TXNRD1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for TXNRD1:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

         9 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 4 alleles(MGI details for Txnrd1):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  embryogenesis  growth/size 
     mortality/aging  nervous system  normal  reproductive system 

    TXNRD1 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for TXNRD1: Txnrd1tm1.1Marc Txnrd1tm1.1Ees

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for TXNRD1 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for TXNRD1

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for TXNRD1 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for TXNRD1 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target TXNRD1:
    hsa-mir-155 (MIRT001489)

    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat TXNRD1
    8/23 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate TXNRD1 (see all 23):
    hsa-miR-124* hsa-miR-3164 hsa-miR-125a-5p hsa-miR-500a hsa-miR-421 hsa-miR-548a-3p hsa-miR-125b hsa-miR-23a
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTXNRD1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for TXNRD1
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TXNRD1

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for TXNRD1
    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of TXNRD1

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for TXNRD1 (see all 29)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TXNRD1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 5): TXNRD1 (NM_182742)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TXNRD1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TXNRD1
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of TXNRD1 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of TXNRD1 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for TXNRD1
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for TXNRD1
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TXNRD1


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for TXNRD1 About   (see all 14)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Regulation of Lipid Metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)
    Regulation of Lipid Metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)0.74
    Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism0.52
    PPARA Activates Gene Expression0.74
    2Metabolism
    Metabolism0.40
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins0.34
    3PAK Pathway
    Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C0.56
    4Purine metabolism
    Metabolism of nucleotides0.42
    5Purine metabolism
    Pyrimidine metabolism0.38

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 Downloadable PowerPoint Slide of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for TXNRD1
        Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for TXNRD1
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for TXNRD1
        Mechanisms of CFTR activation by S-nitrosoglutathione (normal and CF)

    4 BioSystems Pathways for TXNRD1
        Selenium Metabolism and Selenoproteins
    Oxidative Stress
    Selenium Pathway
    thioredoxin pathway


    5/7        Reactome Pathways for TXNRD1 (see all 7)
        Metabolism of nucleotides
    Regulation of Lipid Metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)
    Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates
    Metabolism
    PPARA Activates Gene Expression

    1 PharmGKB Pathway for TXNRD1
        Oxidative Stress Regulatory Pathway (Erythrocyte)

    2         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for TXNRD1):
        Pyrimidine metabolism
    Selenocompound metabolism


    TXNRD1 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for TXNRD1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/36 Interacting proteins for TXNRD1 (Q168812, 3 ENSP000004120454) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 36)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CAV1Q031352, 3, ENSP000003391914MINT-7307648 MINT-7307603 MINT-7307629 MINT-7307587 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000339191
    TXNIPQ9H3M73, ENSP000003583234I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000358323
    POU2F1P148593, ENSP000002714114I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000271411
    TXNDC17Q9BRA23, ENSP000002501014I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000250101
    GLRX2Q9NS183, ENSP000003564104I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000356410
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/29 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 29):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001707mesoderm formation IEA--
    GO:0001890placenta development IEA--
    GO:0006749glutathione metabolic process IEA--
    GO:0006790sulfur compound metabolic process ----
    GO:0006979response to oxidative stress ----

    TXNRD1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    TXNRD1 for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for TXNRD1 (TRXR1)

    5 HMDB Compounds for TXNRD1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    FAD1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide (see all 21)146-14-5--
    NADPAdenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (see all 18)53-59-8--
    NADPH2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide (see all 23)53-57-6--
    Seleniumselenium (see all 5)7782-49-2--
    Selenocysteine(2R)-2-amino-3-selanylpropanoate (see all 8)3614-08-2--

    5 DrugBank Compounds for TXNRD1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide-- 146-14-5target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Nadph Dihydro-Nicotinamide-Adenine-Dinucleotidephosphate-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Spermidine1,5,10-Triazadecane (see all 8)124-20-9target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Fotemustine(+-)-Diethyl (1-(3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosoureido)ethyl)phosphonate (see all 5)--target--17139284 17016423
    Arsenic trioxideAcide Arsenieux [French] (see all 11)1327-53-3targetinhibitor17640917

    10/30 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TXNRD1 gene (see all 30)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    selenocysteine 88.3 26 12574159 (3), 9315320 (2), 8650234 (2), 9671710 (2) (see all 12)
    selenodiglutathione 84.1 1 9315320 (1)
    selenium 78.6 53 18215477 (6), 12574159 (4), 16857846 (3), 9315320 (2) (see all 23)
    selenite 77.9 30 15935149 (5), 18215477 (3), 17150329 (3), 18405881 (3) (see all 10)
    goldthioglucose 74.5 7 17115890 (1), 12431787 (1), 18267104 (1)
    trypanothione 72.1 9 8760878 (2), 11170645 (1), 10036154 (1), 18448175 (1) (see all 6)
    sulforaphane 70.7 25 17150329 (5), 12663510 (4), 15740016 (4), 20204301 (3) (see all 6)
    dithiol 69.3 2 9315320 (1), 14622292 (1)
    dtnb 62.9 1 19020731 (1)
    gold sodium thiomalate 60.5 2 14584040 (1), 18632643 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about TXNRD1 / TRXR1

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for TXNRD1 gene (7 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001093771.2  NM_001261445.1  NM_001261446.1  NM_003330.3  NM_182729.2  NM_182742.2  NM_182743.2  

    Unigene Cluster for TXNRD1:

    Thioredoxin reductase 1
    Hs.654922  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001261445
    18/28 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 28):
    ENST00000525566(uc021rcx.1 uc010swq.2) ENST00000534282(uc001tkm.1)
    ENST00000526006 ENST00000526266 ENST00000503506 ENST00000526691(uc021rcy.1 uc021rcz.1 uc021rda.1 uc021rdb.1 uc010swp.2)
    ENST00000531691(uc001tkv.2) ENST00000526390 ENST00000531689 ENST00000529546
    ENST00000529751 ENST00000526207 ENST00000528079 ENST00000526580 ENST00000529784
    ENST00000524698 ENST00000527688 ENST00000527335
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

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    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTXNRD1 3' UTR sequence
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF077367.1 AF208018.1 AJ001050.1 AK128515.1 AK129977.1 AK226071.1 AK293322.1 AK295067.1 
    AK296495.1 AK304241.1 AK308881.1 AK312262.1 AY057105.1 BC018122.1 BC042974.1 BT019640.1 
    CR536506.1 D88687.1 S79851.1 X91247.1 

    24/39 DOTS entries (see all 39):

    DT.101985558  DT.453295  DT.100675942  DT.101957868  DT.95346175  DT.100857589  DT.102839481  DT.100678555 
    DT.121140038  DT.121139786  DT.92452779  DT.121139750  DT.101985557  DT.97864432  DT.121139777  DT.121139969 
    DT.121139807  DT.121139936  DT.100717877  DT.92452782  DT.121139878  DT.95148645  DT.97787792  DT.121140353 

    24/731 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 731):

    R22103 BG149359 BM990384 AL701548 BQ021757 AI280188 BU158843 BQ774233 
    BQ786945 BQ775668 BM452698 CB106811 CA449225 CN484286 BU164626 BQ433011 
    BF111980 AI672445 AI340123 BX646326 BM837847 H48572 CF129412 D88687 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5/14 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXNRD1 (see all 14)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^
    SP1:                                                  -     -           -     -     -     -     -                                                               
    SP2:                                      -     -     -     -           -     -     -     -     -                                                               
    SP3:                                                                    -     -     -     -     -                                                               
    SP4:                                      -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                                               
    SP5:                                                  -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                                               

    ExUns: 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19a · 19b · 19c · 19d
    SP1:                          -                 -     -                           
    SP2:                          -                 -     -                           
    SP3:                          -                                                   
    SP4:                                                                              
    SP5:                                                                              


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for TXNRD1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    TXNRD1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TATTTTTGTT
    TXNRD1 Expression
    About this image


    See TXNRD1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for TXNRD1

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.654922

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRXR1_HUMAN, Q16881
    Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 is expressed predominantly in Leydig cells (at protein level). Also expressed in
    ovary, spleen, heart, liver, kidney and pancreas and in a number of cancer cell lines. Isoform 4 is widely
    expressed with highest levels in kidney, testis, uterus, ovary, prostate, placenta and fetal liver

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including TXNRD1: 
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for TXNRD1 gene from 8/16 species (see all 16)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Txnrd11 , 5 thioredoxin reductase 11, 5 85.27(n)1
    90.77(a)1
      10 (40.66 cM)5
    504931  NM_001042523.11  NP_001035988.11 
     828592065 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TXNRD11 thioredoxin reductase 1 79.09(n)
    85.37(a)
      418082  NM_001030762.2  NP_001025933.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia TXNRD16
    Uncharacterized protein
    78(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    5(18307727-18363691)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii BC054599.12   -- 74.09(n)   352924  BC054599.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea C06G3.73
    trxr-11
    pyridine nucleotide-disulphide
    oxidoreductase3
    Protein TRXR-11
    58(a)
    (best of 2)3
    57.88(n)1
    56.78(a)1
      IV(7012218-7016190)3
    1774661  NM_068684.51  NP_501085.21 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes GLR16
    Cytosolic and mitochondrial glutathione oxidoreduc...
    34(a)
    1 → many
    XVI(375502-376953)
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons GR11 glutathione reductase, cytosolic 49.67(n)
    38.34(a)
      822003  NM_001035679.2  NP_001030756.2 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os02g08135001 hypothetical protein 46.71(n)
    36.27(a)
      4331112  NM_001055020.1  NP_001048485.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TXNRD1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TXNRD1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for TXNRD1 gene
    TXNRD32  TXNRD22  GSR2  
    8 SIMAP similar genes for TXNRD1 using alignment to 18 protein entries:     TRXR1_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    KIAA0586    TXNRD3    L3MBTL2    DKFZp781E0833    TXNRD2    GLRX2
    GSR    DLD

    TXNRD1 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/2985 SNPs in TXNRD1 are shown (see all 2985)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs724875121,2
    C--104447687(+) GTGGAC/TGCCTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1407478661,2
    C--104447740(+) AACCCA/GGGAGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1841329721,2
    C--104447795(+) GGGCAA/CCAGAG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs802050881,2
    C,F--104447908(+) TTTGAC/GTCTGG 1 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- G:0.04WA CSA 122
    rs1501114631,2
    --104448086(+) AGCCAA/GGCATA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs733925931,2
    C,F--104448087(+) GCCAGG/ACATAA 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- A:0.08WA NA 242
    rs1385608781,2
    --104448120(+) GTTAAC/TTGAAA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1416411461,2
    C--104448179(+) TGATGG/TGCCGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1151241521,2
    F--104448182(+) TGTGCC/TGCAAT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01WA 118
    rs1876694231,2
    --104448208(+) AAAAAA/GTCACT 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TXNRD1 (104609557 - 104744062 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 8 variations for TXNRD1:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2658616CNV Deletion23128226
    esv1648435CNV Deletion17803354
    esv2659315CNV Deletion23128226
    esv23043CNV Loss19812545
    nsv52994CNV Loss16902084
    nsv899494CNV Gain21882294
    nsv819204CNV Gain19587683
    nsv899493CNV Gain21882294

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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 601112    OMIM disorders: --

    20/30 diseases for TXNRD1 (see all 30):    About MalaCards
    diphtheria    leishmaniasis    lung adenocarcinoma    rhabdomyosarcoma
    malaria    lateral sclerosis    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis    colon cancer
    oral squamous cell carcinoma    rheumatoid arthritis    cholangiocarcinoma    arthritis
    pneumonia    myeloma    prostate cancer    adenoma
    obesity    squamous cell carcinoma    endotheliitis    prostatitis


    TXNRD1 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/11 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TXNRD1 gene (see all 11)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cancer 28.1 14 19838062 (4), 12894524 (2), 18357548 (1), 19020731 (1)
    tumors 17.4 23 17316382 (3), 16546977 (2), 14584040 (1), 15183196 (1) (see all 12)
    cell damage 15.9 1 17150329 (1)
    rheumatoid arthritis 13.9 2 10555039 (1), 18632643 (1)
    atherosclerotic plaque 11.3 3 15183196 (2), 19555664 (1)
    colon cancer 7.63 5 19782697 (3), 20098717 (1)
    necrosis 4.21 5 14584040 (1), 15183196 (1), 15521073 (1), 18766175 (1)
    breast carcinoma 0 3 9774665 (1), 12894524 (1)
    breast cancer 0 3 15740016 (1), 12894524 (1)
    osteoarthritis 0 1 17516242 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TXNRD1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TXNRD1 (10 documents)

    Export disorders for TXNRD1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for TXNRD1 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 229):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TXNRD1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning and sequencing of a human thioredoxin reductase. (PubMed id 7589432)1, 2, 3 Gasdaska P.Y.... Powis G. (1995)
    2. Evidence for intriguingly complex transcription of human thioredoxin reductase 1. (PubMed id 14980707)1, 2, 9 Rundloef A.-K.... Arner E.S. (2004)
    3. Thioredoxin reductase 1 haplotypes modify familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis onset. (PubMed id 18996185)1, 4, 9 Mitchell J....de Belleroche J. (2009)
    4. Induction of cell membrane protrusions by the N-terminal glutaredoxin domain of a rare splice variant of human thioredoxin reductase 1. (PubMed id 18042542)1, 2, 9 Dammeyer P.... Arner E.S.J. (2008)
    5. Thioredoxin reductase mediates cell death effects of the combination of beta interferon and retinoic acid. (PubMed id 9774665)1, 2, 9 Hofman E.R.... Kalvakolanu D.V. (1998)
    6. Selenocysteine, identified as the penultimate C-terminal residue in human T-cell thioredoxin reductase, corresponds to TGA in the human placental gene. (PubMed id 8650234)1, 2, 9 Gladyshev V.N.... Stadtman T.C. (1996)
    7. Variation in the selenoenzyme genes and risk of advanced distal colorectal adenoma. (PubMed id 18483336)1, 4, 9 Peters U....Foster C.B. (2008)
    8. Low 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine levels and in fluence of genetic background in an Andean population exposed to high levels of arsenic. (PubMed id 19896490)1, 4, 9 EngstrAPm K.S....Broberg K. (2010)
    9. The structure of human thioredoxin reductase 1 provides insights into C-terminal rearrangements during catalysis. (PubMed id 17512005)1, 2, 9 Fritz-Wolf K.... Becker K. (2007)
    10. An alternative splicing variant of the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase is a modulator of estrogen signaling. (PubMed id 15199063)1, 2, 9 Damdimopoulos A.E....Spyrou G. (2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 7296 HGNC: 12437 AceView: TXNRD1 Ensembl:ENSG00000198431 euGenes: HUgn7296
    ECgene: TXNRD1 Kegg: 7296 H-InvDB: TXNRD1

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TXNRD1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/txnrd1/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for TXNRD1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TXNRD1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    About This Section

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     SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids for TXNRD1
     SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids for TXNRD1
     ThermoFisher Antibody for TXNRD1
     Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TXNRD1
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for TXNRD1
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for TXNRD1
    Customized:
     lentivirus for stable overexpression of TXNRD1
     lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of TXNRD1
     adenovirus for overexpression of TXNRD1
     LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for TXNRD1
    Customized transgenic rodents for:
     Humanization
     Biomarker expression
     Off-target effect monitoring
     Translational medicine
     Tissue-specific gene expresssion
     Time-controlled gene expresssion
           
    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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    (GIFtS: 73)
    transforming growth factor, beta 1
    GIFtS Group
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