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TXNDC2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 47
GCID: GC18P009875

Thioredoxin Domain Containing 2 (Spermatozoa)

  See TXNDC2-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Thioredoxin Domain Containing 2 (Spermatozoa)1 2     sptrx-12
Sperm-Specific Thioredoxin 11 2     Thioredoxin Domain-Containing 2 (Spermatozoa)2
Spermatid-Specific Thioredoxin-12 3     Thioredoxin Domain-Containing Protein 22
SPTRX2 3     Sptrx-13
SPTRX12 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 164701   Entrez Gene: 842032   Ensembl: ENSG000001684547   UniProtKB: Q86VQ33   

Export aliases for TXNDC2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifer: GC18P010019


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for TXNDC2 Gene:
TXNDC2 (thioredoxin domain containing 2 (spermatozoa)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TXNDC2 include malignant pleural mesothelioma. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and protein disulfide isomerase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TXNDC8.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TXND2_HUMAN, Q86VQ3
Function: Probably plays a regulatory role in sperm development. May participate in regulation of fibrous sheath
(FS) assembly by supporting the formation of disulfide bonds during sperm tail morphogenesis. May also be
required to rectify incorrect disulfide pairing and generate suitable pairs between the FS constituents. Can
reduce disulfide bonds in vitro in the presence of NADP and thioredoxin reductase

Gene Wiki entry for TXNDC2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000018.9  NT_010859.15  NC_018929.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TXNDC2 gene promoter:
         CBF-A   CBF-B   NF-YC   CP1A   CBF(2)   CBF-C   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTXNDC2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TXNDC2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TXNDC2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Ensembl cytogenetic band:  18p11.22   HGNC cytogenetic band: 18p11.31-p11.2

TXNDC2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TXNDC2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 18         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC18P009875:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
9,885,723 bp from pter      End:
9,889,272 bp from pter
Size:
3,550 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TXND2_HUMAN, Q86VQ3 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Thioredoxin domain-containing protein 2  
Size: 553 amino acids; 60404 Da
Secondary accessions: A5YM73 Q8N7U4 Q96RX3 Q9H0L8
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  Q86VQ3-1   Q86VQ3-2   Q86VQ3-3   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TXNDC2: NX_Q86VQ3

Explore proteomics data for TXNDC2 at MOPED


See TXNDC2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
NP_001091999.1  NP_115619.4  

ENSEMBL proteins: 
 ENSP00000437393   ENSP00000464677   ENSP00000350419   ENSP00000304908  

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(According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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4 InterPro protein domains:
 IPR001419 Glutenin
 IPR005746 Thioredoxin
 IPR012336 Thioredoxin-like_fold
 IPR013766 Thioredoxin_domain

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q86VQ3

ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q86VQ3

1 Blocks protein domain: IPB006662 Thioredoxin type domain

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TXND2_HUMAN, Q86VQ3
Similarity: Contains 1 thioredoxin domain


Find genes that share domains with TXNDC2           About GenesLikeMe


(According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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Molecular Function:

     UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TXND2_HUMAN, Q86VQ3
Function: Probably plays a regulatory role in sperm development. May participate in regulation of fibrous sheath
(FS) assembly by supporting the formation of disulfide bonds during sperm tail morphogenesis. May also be
required to rectify incorrect disulfide pairing and generate suitable pairs between the FS constituents. Can
reduce disulfide bonds in vitro in the presence of NADP and thioredoxin reductase

     Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0003756protein disulfide isomerase activity IEA--
GO:0004791thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity ISS--
GO:0015035protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA--
GO:0045735nutrient reservoir activity IEA--
     
Find genes that share ontologies with TXNDC2           About GenesLikeMe


Phenotypes:
     1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for TXNDC2:
 Big cells 

     7 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Txndc2):
 cellular  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system 
 mortality/aging  reproductive system 

Find genes that share phenotypes with TXNDC2           About GenesLikeMe

Animal Models:
     MGI mouse knock-outs for TXNDC2: Txndc2tm1Lex Txndc2tm1.1Arte

   inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for TXNDC2
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(According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
TXND2_HUMAN, Q86VQ3: Cytoplasm. Note=In ejaculated spermatozoa, it localizes in the caudal region of the head to
the end of the principal piece
Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

CompartmentConfidence
cytosol4
nucleus4
golgi apparatus1
mitochondrion1

Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0001520outer dense fiber IEA--
GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
GO:0005730nucleolus IDA--
GO:0005737cytoplasm ISS--
GO:0031514motile cilium IEA--

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(SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for TXNDC2
Interactions:

    Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TXNDC2

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 15)

Selected Interacting proteins for TXNDC2 (Q86VQ33 ENSP000003049084) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 15)
InteractantInteraction Details
GeneCardExternal ID(s)
APOA1P026473, ENSP000002368504I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000236850
GSRENSP000002211304STRING: ENSP00000221130
MSRAENSP000003139214STRING: ENSP00000313921
NSFENSP000003812934STRING: ENSP00000381293
PRDX5ENSP000002654624STRING: ENSP00000265462
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Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 7):    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0006457protein folding ----
GO:0006662glycerol ether metabolic process IEA--
GO:0007275multicellular organismal development IEA--
GO:0007283spermatogenesis NAS11399755
GO:0030154cell differentiation IEA--

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(Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
   Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
  Browse compounds at ApexBio 

Browse Tocris compounds for TXNDC2 (TXND2)

1 HMDB Compound for TXNDC2    About this table
CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
NADPAdenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (see all 18)53-59-8--

1 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationship for TXNDC2 gene    About this table
Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
nadph 47.1 2 11399755 (1), 12149401 (1)



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(Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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REFSEQ mRNAs for TXNDC2 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
NM_001098529.1  NM_032243.5  

Unigene Cluster for TXNDC2:

Thioredoxin domain containing 2 (spermatozoa)
Hs.98712  [show with all ESTs]
Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001098529
5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
ENST00000536353 ENST00000584255 ENST00000357775(uc002koh.4) ENST00000306084(uc002koi.4)
ENST00000426718
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  QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TXNDC2

Additional mRNA sequence: 

AF080095.1 AK097656.1 AK303045.1 BC050132.1 EF560747.1 

3 DOTS entries:

DT.75107258  DT.100017816  DT.121083918 

21 AceView cDNA sequences:

BM554364 NM_032243 AF080095 BI829219 BM559733 AL136742 BI463874 BI828938 
BC050132 AI125222 BM553904 CD557557 BI826592 BI831969 AK097656 BI832369 
BI831948 BI828141 BI831646 BI562175 BI460141 

GeneLoc Exon Structure

4 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXNDC2    About this scheme

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c
SP1:              -                 -     -                     
SP2:                                -     -                     
SP3:                                      -                     
SP4:                                                            


ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for TXNDC2

(RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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TXNDC2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
CGAP TAG: TATTCTGAAA
TXNDC2 Expression
About this image

TXNDC2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

TXNDC2 Protein Expression

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.98712

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TXND2_HUMAN, Q86VQ3
Tissue specificity: Testis-specific. Only expressed during spermiogenesis, prominently in round and elongating
spermatids

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(Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for TXNDC2 gene from Selected species (see all 14)    About this table
Organism Taxonomic
classification
Gene Description Human
Similarity
Orthology
Type
Details
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Txndc21 , 5 thioredoxin domain containing 2 (spermatozoa)1, 5 68.17(n)1
47.47(a)1
  17 (34.99 cM)5
2132721  NM_153519.21  NP_705739.21 
 656375055 
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TXN6
Gallus gallus thioredoxin (TXN), mRNA.
57(a)
1 → many
Z(66343849-66349205)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia --
Thioredoxin
52(a)
1 → many
GL343476.1(264630-273279)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii txn6
zgc:564936
zgc:56493
50(a)
44(a)
many ↔ many
many ↔ many
7(25524322-25531917) ENSDARG00000044125
1(40656189-40663079) ENSDARG00000031435
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Trx-26
thioredoxin-2
42(a)
many ↔ many
2L(9613165-9616048)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea trx-16
Protein TRX-1, isoform a (trx-1) mRNA, complete cd...
28(a)
many ↔ many
II(7752632-7753607) WBGene00015062
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TRX26
TRX36
(see all 3)
Cytoplasmic thioredoxin isoenzyme of the thioredox...
Mitochondrial thioredoxin, highly conserved oxidor...
(see all 3)
32(a)
31(a)
(see all 3)
many ↔ many
many ↔ many
(see all 3)
VII(912913-913227) YGR209C
III(259578-259961) YCR083W


ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TXNDC2 (if available)
TreeFam Gene Tree for TXNDC2 (if available)

(Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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Paralogs for TXNDC2 gene
TXNDC82  TXN2  TXNL12  

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(SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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Selected SNPs for TXNDC2 (see all 219)    About this table                                 

Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
SNP IDValidClinical
significance
Chr 18 posSequence#AA
Chg
TypeMore#Allele
freq
PopTotal
sample
More
----------
rs1880822371,2
--9883729(+) TCTTGA/CTCTGT 2 -- us2k10--------
rs1909391611,2
--9883773(+) CTCACG/TGCAAC 2 -- us2k10--------
rs1389167411,2
--9883816(+) CTCAGA/CCTCCT 2 -- us2k10--------
rs99464201,2
C--9883864(+) GCTAAC/GTTTCG 2 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- G:0.14WA EA 240
rs1827663481,2
--9883884(+) TAGAGA/TTCTAA 2 -- us2k10--------
rs1888856031,2
--9883894(+) AAATCA/GCATTT 2 -- us2k10--------
rs1424470421,2
--9883933(+) CTGTGC/TTGGCA 2 -- us2k10--------
rs1925905281,2
--9883987(+) TTGCCC/TCCACA 2 -- us2k10--------
rs1845650761,2
--9884162(+) TTGTGC/TTAATA 2 -- us2k10--------
rs1398031131,2
--9884170(+) ATAAAA/GTCTGC 2 -- us2k10--------

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TXNDC2 (9885723 - 9889272 bp)

Structural Variations
     Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for TXNDC2:    About this table    
Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
esv2716778CNV Deletion23290073
esv2716777CNV Deletion23290073
nsv833586CNV Loss17160897
nsv527829CNV Gain19592680

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(in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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1 disease for TXNDC2:    
About MalaCards
malignant pleural mesothelioma

1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for TXNDC2:
Primary ciliary dyskinesia

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Genetic Association Database (GAD): TXNDC2

Export disorders for TXNDC2 gene to outside databases

(in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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PubMed articles for TXNDC2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 18):
(articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TXNDC2)
    Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
world of online information

  1. Characterization of Sptrx, a novel member of the thioredoxin family specifically expressed in human spermatozoa. (PubMed id 11399755)1, 2, 3, 9 Miranda-Vizuete A.... Spyrou G. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
  2. Towards a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs. (PubMed id 11230166)1, 2, 3 Wiemann S.... Poustka A. (Genome Res. 2001)
  3. Human spermatid-specific thioredoxin-1 (Sptrx-1) is a two-domain protein with oxidizing activity. (PubMed id 12387870)1, 2, 9 Jimenez A.... Miranda-Vizuete A. (FEBS Lett. 2002)
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
  5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
  6. Genome-wide joint meta-analysis of SNP and SNP-by-smoking interaction identifies novel loci for pulmonary function. (PubMed id 23284291)1 Hancock D.B....London S.J. (PLoS Genet. 2012)
  7. Is serum thioredoxin-1 a useful clinical marker for malignant pleural mesothelioma? (PubMed id 21375472)1 Maeda R....Nakano T. (amp 2011)
  8. Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome. (PubMed id 18029348)1 Barbe L....Andersson-Svahn H. (amp 2008)
  9. Genome-wide association of echocardiographic dimensions, brachial artery endothelial function and treadmill exercise responses in the Framingham Heart Study. (PubMed id 17903301)4 Vasan R.S....Benjamin E.J. (BMC Med. Genet. 2007)
  10. A genome-wide association for kidney function and endocrine-related traits in the NHLBI's Framingham Heart Study. (PubMed id 17903292)4 Hwang S.J....Fox C.S. (BMC Med. Genet. 2007)

(in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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 ANDOR
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  Query String
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(According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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Entrez Gene: 84203 HGNC: 16470 AceView: TXNDC2 Ensembl:ENSG00000168454 euGenes: HUgn84203
ECgene: TXNDC2 H-InvDB: TXNDC2

(According to HUGE)
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(According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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NameDescription
PharmGKB entry for TXNDC2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

(Patent information from GeneIP,
Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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Patent Information for TXNDC2 gene:
Search GeneIP for patents involving TXNDC2

GeneCards and IP:
Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



(Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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