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Aliases for TXNDC12 Gene

Aliases for TXNDC12 Gene

  • Thioredoxin Domain Containing 12 2 3
  • Thioredoxin Domain Containing 12 (Endoplasmic Reticulum) 2 3 5
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Resident Protein 18 3 4
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Resident Protein 19 3 4
  • Thioredoxin-Like Protein P19 3 4
  • ER Protein 18 3 4
  • ER Protein 19 3 4
  • HTLP19 3 4
  • ERP18 3 4
  • ERP19 3 4
  • TLP19 3 4
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Thioredoxin Superfamily Member, 18 KDa 3
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Thioredoxin Superfamily Member 2
  • Protein Disulfide Isomerase Family A, Member 16 3
  • Anterior Gradient Homolog 1 (Xenopus Laevis) 2
  • Protein Disulfide Isomerase Family A 2
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein ERp19 3
  • Anterior Gradient Homolog 1 3
  • EC 4
  • Member 16 2
  • 18 KDa 2
  • PDIA16 3
  • ERP16 3
  • HAG-1 3
  • AGR1 3
  • AG1 3

External Ids for TXNDC12 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TXNDC12 Gene

  • GC01M052199
  • GC01M052485
  • GC01M050603

Summaries for TXNDC12 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TXNDC12 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the thioredoxin superfamily. Members of this family are characterized by a conserved active motif called the thioredoxin fold that catalyzes disulfide bond formation and isomerization. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and has a single atypical active motif. The encoded protein is mainly involved in catalyzing native disulfide bond formation and displays activity similar to protein-disulfide isomerases. This protein may play a role in defense against endoplasmic reticulum stress. Alternate splicing results in both coding and non-coding variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

GeneCards Summary for TXNDC12 Gene

TXNDC12 (Thioredoxin Domain Containing 12) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Glutathione metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include protein-disulfide reductase (glutathione) activity. An important paralog of this gene is AGR3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNDC12 Gene

  • Possesses significant protein thiol-disulfide oxidase activity.

Gene Wiki entry for TXNDC12 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TXNDC12 Gene

Genomics for TXNDC12 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TXNDC12 Gene

Enhancers for TXNDC12 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TXNDC12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TXNDC12 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around TXNDC12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TXNDC12 Gene

52,020,131 bp from pter
52,056,171 bp from pter
36,041 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TXNDC12 Gene

Genes around TXNDC12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TXNDC12 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TXNDC12 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TXNDC12 Gene

Proteins for TXNDC12 Gene

  • Protein details for TXNDC12 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thioredoxin domain-containing protein 12
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KQS0
    • Q5T1T4
    • Q96H50

    Protein attributes for TXNDC12 Gene

    172 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    19206 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TXNDC12 Gene

neXtProt entry for TXNDC12 Gene

Proteomics data for TXNDC12 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TXNDC12 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TXNDC12 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TXNDC12 Gene

Domains & Families for TXNDC12 Gene

Gene Families for TXNDC12 Gene

Protein Domains for TXNDC12 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TXNDC12 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.
  • Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TXNDC12: view

Function for TXNDC12 Gene

Molecular function for TXNDC12 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=25 uM for Asn-Arg-Cys-Ser-Gln-Gly-Ser-Cys-Trp-Asn; pH dependence: Optimum pH is 6.5.;
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2 glutathione + protein-disulfide = glutathione disulfide + protein-dithiol.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Possesses significant protein thiol-disulfide oxidase activity.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TXNDC12 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TXNDC12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0019153 protein-disulfide reductase (glutathione) activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNDC12: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TXNDC12: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for TXNDC12

CRISPR Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TXNDC12 Gene

Localization for TXNDC12 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNDC12 Gene

Endoplasmic reticulum lumen.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TXNDC12 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TXNDC12 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
extracellular 3

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TXNDC12 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TXNDC12 Gene

SuperPathways for TXNDC12 Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Glutathione metabolism
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TXNDC12: view

Pathways by source for TXNDC12 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for TXNDC12 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TXNDC12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:1902236 negative regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IDA 18628206
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNDC12: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TXNDC12 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TXNDC12 Gene

(1) Drugs for TXNDC12 Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutathione Approved Nutra Target 0

(1) Additional Compounds for TXNDC12 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Oxidized glutathione
  • (2S)-2-azaniumyl-4-{[(1R)-2-{[(2R)-2-[(4S)-4-azaniumyl-4-carboxylatobutanamido]-2-[(carboxylatomethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl]disulfanyl}-1-[(carboxylatomethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl]carbamoyl}butanoate
  • Glutathione disulfide
  • GSSG
  • L(-)-Glutathione(oxidized)
  • Oxiglutatione
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TXNDC12: view

Transcripts for TXNDC12 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TXNDC12 Gene

Thioredoxin domain containing 12 (endoplasmic reticulum):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXNDC12 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - -
SP5: -

Relevant External Links for TXNDC12 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TXNDC12 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TXNDC12 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TXNDC12 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Oral epithelium (11.9) and Bone (6.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TXNDC12 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TXNDC12 Gene Hs.476033

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TXNDC12 Gene

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TXNDC12: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TXNDC12 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for TXNDC12 Gene

Orthologs for TXNDC12 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TXNDC12 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TXNDC12 35
  • 94.19 (n)
  • 95.93 (a)
TXNDC12 36
  • 94 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC609843 35
  • 92.25 (n)
  • 94.77 (a)
TXNDC12 36
  • 94 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Txndc12 35
  • 89.62 (n)
  • 92.81 (a)
Txndc12 16
Txndc12 36
  • 89 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TXNDC12 35
  • 99.71 (n)
  • 100 (a)
TXNDC12 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Txndc12 35
  • 89.42 (n)
  • 92.22 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TXNDC12 36
  • 72 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TXNDC12 36
  • 81 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TXNDC12 36
  • 78 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TXNDC12 36
  • 81 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia txndc12 35
  • 70.68 (n)
  • 76.58 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii txndc12 35
  • 75.23 (n)
  • 81.08 (a)
txndc12 36
  • 79 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea CELE_Y57A10A.23 35
  • 54.04 (n)
  • 44.7 (a)
F49H12.5 36
  • 25 (a)
Y57A10A.23 36
  • 35 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TXNDC12:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TXNDC12 Gene

Gene Tree for TXNDC12 (if available)
Gene Tree for TXNDC12 (if available)

Paralogs for TXNDC12 Gene

Paralogs for TXNDC12 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for TXNDC12 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TXNDC12: view

Variants for TXNDC12 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TXNDC12 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs964894 -- 52,029,943(+) TATTA(C/T)ATGAC intron-variant
rs964895 -- 52,030,271(+) GCACT(G/T)CACTC intron-variant
rs1054035 -- 52,020,889(-) GGAAG(A/G)AAAGC utr-variant-3-prime
rs1932229 -- 52,053,356(+) TCAGT(A/T)CTTAC intron-variant
rs2039581 -- 52,044,358(-) ttaGT(C/T)TCTTT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TXNDC12 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv829848 CNV Loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for TXNDC12 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 59.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.01; 60.29% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for TXNDC12 Gene

Disorders for TXNDC12 Gene

Relevant External Links for TXNDC12

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for TXNDC12 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TXNDC12 Gene

Publications for TXNDC12 Gene

  1. Solution structure and dynamics of ERp18, a small endoplasmic reticulum resident oxidoreductase. (PMID: 19361226) Rowe M.L. … Howard M.J. (Biochemistry 2009) 3 4 23 67
  2. Protein disulphide isomerase family members show distinct substrate specificity: P5 is targeted to BiP client proteins. (PMID: 19887585) Jessop C.E. … Bulleid N.J. (J. Cell. Sci. 2009) 3 23
  3. Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. (PMID: 17016423) Imming P. … Meyer A. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006) 25 26
  4. How many drug targets are there? (PMID: 17139284) Overington J.P. … Hopkins A.L. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006) 25 26
  5. Functional characterization of ERp18, a new endoplasmic reticulum- located thioredoxin superfamily member. (PMID: 12761212) Alanen H.I. … Ruddock L.W. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 23

Products for TXNDC12 Gene

Sources for TXNDC12 Gene