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Aliases for TXN2 Gene

Aliases for TXN2 Gene

  • Thioredoxin 2 2 3 5
  • MT-TRX 3 4
  • TRX2 3 4
  • MTRX 3 4
  • Mitochondrial Thioredoxin 3
  • Thioredoxin-2 4
  • COXPD29 3

External Ids for TXN2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TXN2 Gene

  • GC22M033477
  • GC22M035105
  • GC22M035106
  • GC22M035187
  • GC22M036863
  • GC22M019831

Summaries for TXN2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TXN2 Gene

  • This nuclear gene encodes a mitochondrial member of the thioredoxin family, a group of small multifunctional redox-active proteins. The encoded protein may play important roles in the regulation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and in protection against oxidant-induced apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TXN2 Gene

TXN2 (Thioredoxin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TXN2 include Penile Cancer and Ocular Hypertension. Among its related pathways are Glucose / Energy Metabolism and Oxidative Stress. GO annotations related to this gene include protein complex binding and oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, disulfide as acceptor.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN2 Gene

  • Has an anti-apoptotic function and plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Could be involved in the resistance to anti-tumor agents. Possesses a dithiol-reducing activity.

Gene Wiki entry for TXN2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TXN2 Gene

Genomics for TXN2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TXN2 Gene

Enhancers for TXN2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TXN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TXN2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around TXN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TXN2 Gene

Chromosome:
22
Start:
36,467,036 bp from pter
End:
36,482,030 bp from pter
Size:
14,995 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for TXN2 Gene

Genes around TXN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TXN2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TXN2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TXN2 Gene

Proteins for TXN2 Gene

  • Protein details for TXN2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q99757-THIOM_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Thioredoxin, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Q99757
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5JZA0
    • Q6FH60
    • Q9UH29

    Protein attributes for TXN2 Gene

    Size:
    166 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18383 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TXN2 Gene

neXtProt entry for TXN2 Gene

Proteomics data for TXN2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TXN2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TXN2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TXN2 (TXN2)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TXN2 Gene

Domains & Families for TXN2 Gene

Protein Domains for TXN2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TXN2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q99757

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

THIOM_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.
  • Belongs to the thioredoxin family.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the thioredoxin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TXN2: view

No data available for Gene Families for TXN2 Gene

Function for TXN2 Gene

Molecular function for TXN2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Has an anti-apoptotic function and plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Could be involved in the resistance to anti-tumor agents. Possesses a dithiol-reducing activity.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TXN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016671 oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, disulfide as acceptor IBA --
GO:0033743 peptide-methionine (R)-S-oxide reductase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TXN2: view

Animal Models for TXN2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TXN2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for TXN2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TXN2 Gene

Localization for TXN2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN2 Gene

Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for TXN2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TXN2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TXN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005730 nucleolus IDA --
GO:0030425 dendrite IEA --
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN2: view

Pathways & Interactions for TXN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TXN2: view

Pathways by source for TXN2 Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for TXN2 Gene
1 BioSystems pathway for TXN2 Gene
1 R&D Systems pathway for TXN2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TXN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEA --
GO:0006457 protein folding IBA --
GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress IEA --
GO:0007584 response to nutrient IEA --
GO:0009749 response to glucose IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TXN2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TXN2 Gene

(10) Drugs for TXN2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(12) Additional Compounds for TXN2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TXN2: view

Transcripts for TXN2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TXN2 Gene

Thioredoxin 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXN2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e · 6f
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: -
SP5:
SP6: - - -
SP7: - -

Relevant External Links for TXN2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TXN2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TXN2

Expression for TXN2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TXN2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TXN2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (11.4) and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (9.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TXN2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TXN2 Gene Hs.211929

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TXN2 Gene

Q99757-THIOM_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Widely expressed in adult (at protein level) and fetal tissues.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TXN2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TXN2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for TXN2 Gene

Orthologs for TXN2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TXN2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TXN2 35
  • 88.55 (n)
  • 88.55 (a)
TXN2 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TXN2 35
  • 89.37 (n)
  • 90.18 (a)
TXN2 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Txn2 35
  • 85.94 (n)
  • 88.55 (a)
Txn2 16
Txn2 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Txn2 35
  • 85.14 (n)
  • 87.95 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TXN2 36
  • 66 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TXN2 35
  • 71.89 (n)
  • 76.12 (a)
TXN2 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TXN2 36
  • 66 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.6528 35
txn2 35
  • 67.96 (n)
  • 72.9 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia txn2-prov 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii txn2 35
  • 63.98 (n)
  • 62.11 (a)
txn2 36
  • 57 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta TRX2 35
  • 54.99 (n)
  • 43.59 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG8993 35
  • 60.67 (n)
  • 48 (a)
CG3719 36
  • 34 (a)
OneToMany
CG8517 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
CG8993 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea trx-2 35
  • 52.11 (n)
  • 45.07 (a)
trx-2 36
  • 42 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for TXN2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TXN2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TXN2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TXN2 (if available)

Paralogs for TXN2 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for TXN2 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for TXN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TXN2: view

No data available for Paralogs for TXN2 Gene

Variants for TXN2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TXN2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs8487 -- 36,467,218(+) GAGGC(A/C)GCTCC utr-variant-3-prime
rs2267337 -- 36,474,424(+) CTTGC(C/T)GCAGG intron-variant
rs7288408 -- 36,468,433(+) aaGAT(G/T)CAAGT intron-variant
rs2281082 -- 36,476,703(+) TGGCT(G/T)CCCTG intron-variant
rs2281083 -- 36,477,238(+) AGTCT(C/G)GCTCT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TXN2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv520497 CNV Gain 19592680
nsv834186 CNV Loss 17160897
esv2663104 CNV Deletion 23128226

Variation tolerance for TXN2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 41.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.37; 8.11% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TXN2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
TXN2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN2 Gene

Disorders for TXN2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for TXN2 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
penile cancer
  • ca penis
ocular hypertension
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TXN2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for TXN2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
TXN2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
TXN2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
TXN2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TXN2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TXN2 Gene

Publications for TXN2 Gene

  1. Overexpressed human mitochondrial thioredoxin confers resistance to oxidant-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells. (PMID: 12032145) Chen Y. … Jones D.P. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002) 3 4 23 67
  2. Thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 have opposed regulatory functions on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. (PMID: 17220299) Zhou J. … BrA1ne B. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007) 2 3 23
  3. Genetic polymorphisms in the thioredoxin 2 (TXN2) gene and risk for spina bifida. (PMID: 19165900) Wen S. … Finnell R.H. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2009) 3 23
  4. Interaction of mitochondrial thioredoxin with glucocorticoid receptor and NF-kappaB modulates glucocorticoid receptor and NF-kappaB signalling in HEK-293 cells. (PMID: 19570036) Psarra A.M. … Spyrou G. (Biochem. J. 2009) 3 23
  5. Thioredoxin2 enhances the damaged DNA binding activity of mtTFA through direct interaction. (PMID: 19885567) Kidani A. … Kohno K. (Int. J. Oncol. 2009) 3 23

Products for TXN2 Gene

Sources for TXN2 Gene

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