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Aliases for TXN2 Gene

Aliases for TXN2 Gene

  • Thioredoxin 2 2 3
  • Thioredoxin-2 3 4
  • MT-TRX 3 4
  • TRX2 3 4
  • MTRX 3 4
  • Thioredoxin, Mitochondrial 3
  • Mitochondrial Thioredoxin 3

External Ids for TXN2 Gene

Summaries for TXN2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TXN2 Gene

  • This nuclear gene encodes a mitochondrial member of the thioredoxin family, a group of small multifunctional redox-active proteins. The encoded protein may play important roles in the regulation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and in protection against oxidant-induced apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TXN2 Gene

TXN2 (Thioredoxin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TXN2 include urethra cancer and ocular hypertension. Among its related pathways are Cellular Senescence and Oxidative Stress. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN2 Gene

  • Has an anti-apoptotic function and plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Could be involved in the resistance to anti-tumor agents. Possesses a dithiol-reducing activity.

Gene Wiki entry for TXN2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TXN2 Gene

Genomics for TXN2 Gene

Genomic Location for TXN2 Gene

36,467,036 bp from pter
36,482,030 bp from pter
14,995 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TXN2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TXN2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TXN2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TXN2 Gene

Proteins for TXN2 Gene

  • Protein details for TXN2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thioredoxin, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5JZA0
    • Q6FH60
    • Q9UH29

    Protein attributes for TXN2 Gene

    166 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18383 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TXN2 Gene

neXtProt entry for TXN2 Gene

Proteomics data for TXN2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TXN2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TXN2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TXN2 Gene

Domains for TXN2 Gene

Protein Domains for TXN2 Gene


  • Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.:
    • Q99757
  • Belongs to the thioredoxin family.:
    • Q99757
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TXN2: view

No data available for Gene Families for TXN2 Gene

Function for TXN2 Gene

Molecular function for TXN2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Has an anti-apoptotic function and plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Could be involved in the resistance to anti-tumor agents. Possesses a dithiol-reducing activity.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TXN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0008113 peptide-methionine (S)-S-oxide reductase activity IEA --
GO:0015035 protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IBA --
GO:0016671 oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, disulfide as acceptor IBA --
GO:0032403 protein complex binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TXN2: view

Animal Models for TXN2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TXN2:

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for TXN2 Gene

Localization for TXN2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TXN2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TXN2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 4
nucleus 4

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TXN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005730 nucleolus IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0030425 dendrite IEA --
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN2: view

Pathways for TXN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TXN2: view

Pathways by source for TXN2 Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for TXN2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TXN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000103 sulfate assimilation IBA --
GO:0000302 response to reactive oxygen species TAS --
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEA --
GO:0006457 protein folding IBA --
GO:0006662 glycerol ether metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN2: view

Compounds for TXN2 Gene

(22) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TXN2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
imexon 86.5 1
dihydrolipoic acid 63 1
2-oxo acid 62.2 1
tert-butylhydroperoxide 55.1 3
gssg 49.9 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TXN2: view

Transcripts for TXN2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TXN2 Gene

Thioredoxin 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXN2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e · 6f
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: -
SP6: - - -
SP7: - -

Relevant External Links for TXN2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TXN2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TXN2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TXN2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TXN2 Gene Hs.211929

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TXN2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed in adult (at protein level) and fetal tissues.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with TXN2: view

Orthologs for TXN2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TXN2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TXN2 36
  • 88.55 (n)
  • 88.55 (a)
TXN2 37
  • 89 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TXN2 36
  • 89.37 (n)
  • 90.18 (a)
TXN2 37
  • 77 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Txn2 36
  • 85.94 (n)
  • 88.55 (a)
Txn2 16
Txn2 37
  • 89 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 77 (a)
-- 37
  • 70 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TXN2 37
  • 66 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Txn2 36
  • 85.14 (n)
  • 87.95 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TXN2 36
  • 71.89 (n)
  • 76.12 (a)
TXN2 37
  • 75 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TXN2 37
  • 66 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia txn2-prov 36
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.6528 36
txn2 36
  • 67.96 (n)
  • 72.9 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii txn2 36
  • 63.98 (n)
  • 62.11 (a)
txn2 37
  • 57 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta TRX2 36
  • 54.99 (n)
  • 43.59 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG3719 37
  • 34 (a)
CG8517 37
  • 38 (a)
CG8993 36
  • 60.67 (n)
  • 48 (a)
CG8993 37
  • 38 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea trx-2 36
  • 52.11 (n)
  • 45.07 (a)
trx-2 37
  • 42 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TXN2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TXN2 Gene

Gene Tree for TXN2 (if available)
Gene Tree for TXN2 (if available)

Paralogs for TXN2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for TXN2 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins: Pseudogenes for TXN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TXN2: view

No data available for Paralogs for TXN2 Gene

Variants for TXN2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TXN2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs8487 -- 36,467,218(+) GAGGC(A/C)GCTCC utr-variant-3-prime
rs139999 -- 36,467,328(+) CAGAC(A/C)TACAA utr-variant-3-prime
rs1062055 -- 36,467,388(-) AAAAA(A/G)AAAAA utr-variant-3-prime
rs2267337 -- 36,474,424(+) CTTGC(C/T)GCAGG intron-variant
rs2281082 -- 36,476,703(+) TGGCT(G/T)CCCTG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TXN2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv520497 CNV Gain 19592680
nsv834186 CNV Loss 17160897
esv2663104 CNV Deletion 23128226

Relevant External Links for TXN2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for TXN2 Gene

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for TXN2 Gene

(1) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TXN2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
necrosis 4.6 1

Relevant External Links for TXN2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TXN2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN2 Gene

Publications for TXN2 Gene

  1. Overexpressed human mitochondrial thioredoxin confers resistance to oxidant-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells. (PMID: 12032145) Chen Y. … Jones D.P. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002) 3 4 23
  2. Human mitochondrial thioredoxin. Involvement in mitochondrial membrane potential and cell death. (PMID: 12080052) Damdimopoulos A.E. … Spyrou G. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002) 3 4 23
  3. Thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 have opposed regulatory functions on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. (PMID: 17220299) Zhou J. … BrA1ne B. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007) 2 3 23
  4. Genetic polymorphisms in the thioredoxin 2 (TXN2) gene and risk for spina bifida. (PMID: 19165900) Wen S. … Finnell R.H. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2009) 3 23 49
  5. Thioredoxin2 enhances the damaged DNA binding activity of mtTFA through direct interaction. (PMID: 19885567) Kidani A. … Kohno K. (Int. J. Oncol. 2009) 3 23

Products for TXN2 Gene

Sources for TXN2 Gene

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