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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

TXN Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 65
GCID: GC09M113006

Thioredoxin

Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
thioredoxin1 2     TRX12 3
Surface-Associated Sulphydryl Protein2 3     ATL-Derived Factor2 3
ADF2 3     Thioredoxin Delta 32
SASP2 3     TXN Delta 32
TRDX2 3     Trx3
TRX2 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 124351   Entrez Gene: 72952   Ensembl: ENSG000001368107   OMIM: 1877005   UniProtKB: P105993   

Export aliases for TXN gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC09M103804 GC09M104738 GC09M106463 GC09M108386 GC09M110085 GC09M112045 GC09M082608


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for TXN Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene acts as a homodimer and is involved in many redox reactions. The encoded protein
is active in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteines in certain proteins, which is part of the response to
intracellular nitric oxide. This protein is found in the cytoplasm. Two transcript variants encoding different
isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011)

GeneCards Summary for TXN Gene: 
TXN (thioredoxin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TXN include breast mucinous carcinoma, and adult t-cell leukemia, and among its related super-pathways are The NLRP3 inflammasome and Immune System. GO annotations related to this gene include protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is TXNDC8.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: THIO_HUMAN, P10599
Function: Participates in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to
a disulfide and catalyzes dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Plays a role in the reversible S-nitrosylation of
cysteine residues in target proteins, and thereby contributes to the response to intracellular nitric oxide.
Nitrosylates the active site Cys of CASP3 in response to nitric oxide (NO), and thereby inhibits caspase-3
activity. Induces the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in ionizing radiation (IR) cells through its
oxidation/reduction status and stimulates AP-1 transcriptional activity
Function: ADF augments the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor TAC (IL2R/P55)

Gene Wiki entry for TXN (Thioredoxin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000009.11  NC_018920.2  NT_008470.19  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TXN gene promoter:
         Egr-3   GR   Sp1   AP-1   ATF-2   GR-beta   PPAR-gamma1   GR-alpha   c-Jun   PPAR-gamma2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): TXN promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for TXN

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat TXN


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 9q31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  9q31.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 9q31

TXN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TXN gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 9         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC09M113006:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
113,006,091 bp from pter      End:
113,018,920 bp from pter
Size:
12,830 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: THIO_HUMAN, P10599 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Thioredoxin  
Size: 105 amino acids; 11737 Da
Subunit: Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Interacts with TXNIP through the redox-active site. Interacts with MAP3K5
and CASP3. In case of infection, interacts with S.typhimurium protein slrP. Interacts with APEX1; the interaction
stimulates the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in a redox-dependent manner
Subcellular location: Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Secreted. Note=Secreted by a leaderless secretory pathway. Predominantly
in the cytoplasm in non irradiated cells. Radiation induces translocation of TRX from the cytoplasm to the
nucleus
6/30 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for TXN (see all 30):
1AIU (3D)        1AUC (3D)        1CQG (3D)        1CQH (3D)        1ERT (3D)        1ERU (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B1ALW1 O60744 Q53X69 Q96KI3 Q9UDG5
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P10599-1   P10599-2   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TXN: NX_P10599

Explore proteomics data for TXN at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: In the fully reduced protein, both Cys-69 and Cys-73 are nitrosylated in response to nitric oxide (NO). When two
    disulfide bonds are present in the protein, only Cys-73 is nitrosylated. Cys-73 can serve as donor for
    nitrosylation of target proteins
  • UniProtKB: In case of infection, ubiquitinated by S.typhimurium protein slrP, leading to its degradation
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P10599

  • TXN Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    TXN Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001231867.1  NP_003320.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000363639   ENSP00000363641  
    Reactome Protein details: P10599
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for TXN: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for TXN (Thioredoxin-1, Thioredoxin-80)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for TXN
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for TXN
    OriGene MassSpec for TXN 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for TXN
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for TXN
    Novus Biologicals TXN Proteins
    Novus Biologicals TXN Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for TXN
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for TXN
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp. 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/10 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region IEA--
    GO:0005634nucleus ----
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005681spliceosomal complex ----
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----

    TXN for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    TXN Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of TXN
    R&D Systems Antibodies for TXN (Thioredoxin-1)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TXN 
    OriGene Antibodies for TXN
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for TXN
    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for TXN
    Novus Biologicals TXN Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for TXN
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for TXN
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for TXN 

    Assay Products for TXN: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for TXN
    R&D Systems Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays for TXN (Thioredoxin-1)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for TXN
    Enzo Life Sciences assays for TXN
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR013766 Thioredoxin_domain
     IPR017937 Thioredoxin_CS
     IPR005746 Thioredoxin
     IPR012336 Thioredoxin-like_fold

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P10599

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P10599

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB006662 Thioredoxin type domain

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: THIO_HUMAN, P10599
    Similarity: Belongs to the thioredoxin family
    Similarity: Contains 1 thioredoxin domain


    TXN for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: THIO_HUMAN, P10599
    Function: Participates in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to
    a disulfide and catalyzes dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Plays a role in the reversible S-nitrosylation of
    cysteine residues in target proteins, and thereby contributes to the response to intracellular nitric oxide.
    Nitrosylates the active site Cys of CASP3 in response to nitric oxide (NO), and thereby inhibits caspase-3
    activity. Induces the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in ionizing radiation (IR) cells through its
    oxidation/reduction status and stimulates AP-1 transcriptional activity
    Function: ADF augments the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor TAC (IL2R/P55)
    Induction: Up-regulated by ionizing radiation

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TXN:
    thioredoxin

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI11118054
    GO:0009055electron carrier activity IEA--
    GO:0015035protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA--
    GO:0015037peptide disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA--
    GO:0019899enzyme binding IEA--
         
    TXN for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         3 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Txn1):
     cellular  embryogenesis  mortality/aging 

    TXN for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Txn1tm1Mmt for TXN

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for TXN 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for TXN

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for TXN 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for TXN 

    miRNA
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    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat TXN
    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate TXN
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for TXN
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TXN

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for TXN
    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of TXN

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for TXN (see all 8)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TXN
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 12): TXN (NM_004993)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for TXN
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TXN
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TXN
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of TXN 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of TXN 

    Cell Line
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    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for TXN
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for TXN
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TXN


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for TXN About   (see all 17)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Inflammasomes
    The NLRP3 inflammasome0.71
    Inflammasomes0.71
    2Immune System
    Immune System0.56
    Innate Immune System0.50
    3Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways
    Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways0.69
    4Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic action of nuclear ESR1 and ESR2
    Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic action of nuclear ESR1 and ESR21.00
    5Purine metabolism
    Metabolism of nucleotides0.42

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 EMD Millipore Pathway for TXN
        Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic action of nuclear ESR1 and ESR2


    4 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for TXN
        Apoptosis and Autophagy
    Lymphocyte Signaling
    Glucose / Energy Metabolism
    NF-kappaB Signaling

    2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for TXN
        Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic action of nuclear ESR1 and ESR2
    Inhibitory action of Lipoxin A4 on PDGF, EGF and LTD4 signaling

    4 BioSystems Pathways for TXN
        Selenium Pathway
    Signaling events mediated by PTP1B
    TNF receptor signaling pathway
    p38 MAPK signaling pathway


    5/8        Reactome Pathways for TXN (see all 8)
        Metabolism of nucleotides
    Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates
    Metabolism
    Inflammasomes
    Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways

    1 PharmGKB Pathway for TXN
        Oxidative Stress Regulatory Pathway (Erythrocyte)


    TXN for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for TXN

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/193 Interacting proteins for TXN (P105991, 2, 3 ENSP000003636414) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 193)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    COPS5Q929051, 3, ENSP000003505124EBI-594644,EBI-594661 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000350512
    HMGB1P094292, 3, ENSP000003430404MINT-6795963 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000343040
    MAP3K5Q996831, 3, ENSP000003519084EBI-594644,EBI-476263 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000351908
    PRDX2P321192, 3, ENSP000003015224MINT-5115275 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000301522
    PRDX1Q068302, 3, ENSP000002627464MINT-5115288 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000262746
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/30 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 30):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000122negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA--
    GO:0006351transcription, DNA-dependent IEA--
    GO:0006662glycerol ether metabolic process IEA--
    GO:0006928cellular component movement TAS10947064
    GO:0007067mitosis ----

    TXN for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    TXN for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for TXN (THIO)

    10/119 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TXN gene (see all 119)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    dithiol 90.3 79 12816947 (3), 2177148 (3), 16969714 (2), 14713336 (2) (see all 46)
    selenocysteine 83 29 14584040 (2), 10833265 (2), 11683552 (1), 9535831 (1) (see all 18)
    cysteine 77.3 132 8542921 (5), 17627472 (4), 15180957 (3), 18202017 (2) (see all 82)
    ebselen selenol 77.3 4 12177067 (2), 19406206 (1)
    selenodiglutathione 76.3 8 19366212 (1), 7615089 (1), 9315320 (1), 7476355 (1) (see all 6)
    nadph 75.6 207 9315320 (3), 15983215 (3), 8626570 (2), 16085680 (2) (see all 98)
    dithiothreitol 72.4 52 8495739 (2), 9823546 (2), 14674681 (2), 1372607 (1) (see all 37)
    methionine sulfoxide 70.8 21 11807942 (2), 17761174 (2), 16735467 (1), 17034341 (1) (see all 13)
    h2o2 70.7 98 14688353 (4), 15685369 (3), 8761470 (3), 17823364 (3) (see all 57)
    selenol 69.1 2 15651042 (1), 17115886 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about TXN / THIO

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for TXN gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001244938.1  NM_003329.3  

    Unigene Cluster for TXN:

    Thioredoxin
    Hs.435136  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BM810480
    3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000374515 ENST00000374517(uc004bep.2 uc004beq.2) ENST00000487892

    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
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    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat TXN
    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate TXN
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    Clone
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TXN
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 12): TXN (NM_004993)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TXN
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TXN
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of TXN 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of TXN 
    Primer
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      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TXN
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TXN

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF065241.1 AF085844.1 AF276919.1 AF313911.1 AK289508.1 AY004872.1 BC003377.1 BC054866.1 
    BX647247.1 CR407665.1 D28376.1 J04026.1 JQ313905.1 X77584.1 

    24/27 DOTS entries (see all 27):

    DT.101969754  DT.100039182  DT.95346744  DT.121158987  DT.91775546  DT.121158974  DT.40116225  DT.91930402 
    DT.91739861  DT.100879170  DT.92041955  DT.95233817  DT.121159085  DT.121254610  DT.100672944  DT.100879172 
    DT.121158975  DT.121158976  DT.121158979  DT.121158989  DT.121158996  DT.121159061  DT.91867980  DT.95155183 

    24/654 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 654):

    CB109701 BQ774337 AI878869 AJ712981 AI810659 AI879657 AI146721 BF792137 
    AI301311 AI879273 BG319527 AI308827 AI130009 BU506955 AA314279 AA336735 
    R29707 W60036 BM888150 BU155561 AA541704 CK903911 BX472803 AA304663 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    TXN expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      TXN embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TTTTCTGAAA
    TXN Expression
    About this image


    TXN expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/21 selected tissues (see all 21) fully expand
     
     Epithelium
             vagina ; squamous epithelial cells   
     
     Uterus
             uterus, post-menopause ; glandular cells   
     
     Oral Cavity (Gastrointestinal Tract)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             salivary gland ; glandular cells   
             Tongue   
     
     Colon (Gastrointestinal Tract)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             rectum ; glandular cells   
     
     Intestine (Gastrointestinal Tract)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             small intestine ; glandular cells   

    See TXN Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for TXN

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.435136
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including TXN: 
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat
              Oxidative Stress in human mouse rat
              Signal Transduction PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Stress & Toxicity PathwayFinder in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for TXN
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat TXN
    QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TXN
    QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TXN
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TXN

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for TXN gene from 9/19 species (see all 19)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Txn11 , 5 thioredoxin 11, 5 85.76(n)1
    89.32(a)1
      4 (31.87 cM)5
    221661  NM_011660.31  NP_035790.11 
     579433735 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TXN1 thioredoxin 74.29(n)
    70.48(a)
      396437  NM_205453.1  NP_990784.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    Thioredoxin
    69(a)
    1 → many
    GL343476.1(264630-273279)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii BC049031.12   -- 75.04(n)   336637  BC049031.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Trx-21 thioredoxin-2 56.77(n)
    52.48(a)
      34281  NM_078802.3  NP_523526.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea trx-16
    Thioredoxin-1
    32(a)
    possible ortholog
    II(7752632-7753607)
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes TRX2(YGR209C)4
    TRX21
    Cytoplasmic thioredoxin isoenzyme of the thioredoxin more4
    Trx2p1
    53(n)1
    50(a)1
      7(913227-912913)4
    8531231, 4  NP_011725.31  NP_011725.14 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons TRX21 thioredoxin H2 60(n)
    47.06(a)
      833992  NM_123358.3  NP_198811.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os07g01908001 hypothetical protein 52.1(n)
    47.57(a)
      4342618  NM_001065625.2  NP_001059090.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TXN (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TXN (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for TXN gene
    TXNDC82  TXNDC22  TXNL12  
    10 SIMAP similar genes for TXN using alignment to 2 protein entries:     THIO_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    TXNDC2    TXN2    TXNL1    P4HB    PDIA3    ERP44
    TXNDC8    DKFZp666I134    STRF8    TXNDC5

    TXN for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    5/7 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for TXN (see all 7)
    PGOHUM00000238638 PGOHUM00000237203 PGOHUM00000244067 PGOHUM00000244850 PGOHUM00000240383


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/365 SNPs in TXN are shown (see all 365)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 9 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1510816531,2
    C--113005966(+) TGGCA-/AAAC  
            
    AAACA
    2 -- ds50010--------
    rs41352301,2
    C,F,H--113005969(-) TGTTTG/ATTTTG 2 -- ds50014Minor allele frequency- A:0.32NS EA 470
    rs1851268051,2
    --113005971(+) AAACAA/CACAAA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1470471301,2
    --113005982(+) CAAAAC/TGAACA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs41352291,2
    C--113006044(-) GAATCC/ATCTAT 2 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.01NS 176
    rs41352281,2
    C--113006105(-) GTAGTA/GTGTTG 2 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- G:0.01NS 178
    rs41352271,2
    C,F,H--113006108(-) AAAGTA/GGTATG 2 -- ut316Minor allele frequency- G:0.03NS EA WA 712
    rs1895399811,2
    --113006128(+) ATTGCC/TCCCAA 2 -- ut310--------
    rs27761,2
    C,F,O,A,H--113006288(-) GTCTCG/ATGTCT 2 -- ut31 ese339Minor allele frequency- A:0.39NS MN NA EA WA CSA 4364
    rs1826149381,2
    --113006293(+) TGAGAC/TGGTTT 2 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TXN (113006091 - 113018920 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 6 variations for TXN:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv1173288CNV Insertion17803354
    nsv508562CNV Loss20534489
    nsv6662CNV Loss18451855
    nsv521448CNV Loss19592680
    esv2752274CNV Gain17911159
    nsv893713CNV Gain21882294

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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 187700    OMIM disorders: --

    20/117 diseases for TXN (see all 117):    About MalaCards
    breast mucinous carcinoma    adult t-cell leukemia    myocarditis    acute myocarditis
    japanese encephalitis    trypanosomiasis    bronchopulmonary dysplasia    retinal ischemia
    autoimmune myocarditis    malignant mesothelioma    skin squamous cell carcinoma    allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
    nonalcoholic steatohepatitis    glucose intolerance    hyperhomocysteinemia    influenza
    thymoma    aspergillosis    food allergy    fanconi's anemia

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for TXN:
    Adult T-cell leukemia     Vascular disease

    TXN for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/90 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TXN gene (see all 90)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cancer 39 150 18979503 (4), 17697931 (4), 16459166 (4), 16428932 (3) (see all 79)
    leukemia t-cell 35.4 14 1900462 (1), 11841839 (1), 15818395 (1), 11213477 (1) (see all 9)
    tumors 24 164 15701837 (5), 15313215 (3), 19799607 (3), 11705859 (3) (see all 76)
    fanconis anemia 19.7 7 14669993 (3), 9475178 (2), 14730345 (1), 11948424 (1)
    malignant mesothelioma 17.3 2 11307155 (1)
    necrosis 17.2 20 10985667 (2), 10555039 (1), 12744469 (1), 16298911 (1) (see all 18)
    lung carcinoma 16.7 7 18661523 (2), 15003321 (1), 11595699 (1), 11410516 (1)
    retinal ischemia 15.4 3 9010470 (1), 8206709 (1)
    shock 15.2 26 15896550 (3), 16624572 (2), 18206876 (2), 12077134 (2) (see all 15)
    breast cancer 15.1 48 19566940 (5), 11163861 (5), 16322305 (3), 11705859 (3) (see all 21)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TXN
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TXN (14 documents)

    Export disorders for TXN gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for TXN gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 1212):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TXN)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. AP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by a direct association between thioredoxin and Ref-1. (PubMed id 9108029)1, 2, 9 Hirota K....Yodoi J. (1997)
    2. Common germline genetic variation in antioxidant defense genes and survival after diagnosis of breast cancer. (PubMed id 17634480)1, 4, 9 Udler M....Pharoah P. (2007)
    3. Crystal structures of reduced, oxidized, and mutated human thioredoxins: evidence for a regulatory homodimer. (PubMed id 8805557)1, 2, 9 Weichsel A.... Montfort W.R. (1996)
    4. Human thioredoxin reactivity-structure/function relationship. (PubMed id 2176490)1, 2, 9 Jacquot J.-P.... Wollman E. (1990)
    5. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (2010)
    6. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of t hiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipr il and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (2010)
    7. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gen es influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (2010)
    8. Common polymorphisms in ITGA2, PON1 and THBS2 are ass ociated with coronary atherosclerosis in a candidate gene association study of the Chinese Han population. (PubMed id 20485444)1, 4 Wang Y....Huang W. (2010)
    9. Salmonella type III secretion effector SlrP is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for mammalian thioredoxin. (PubMed id 19690162)1, 2 Bernal-Bayard J. and Ramos-Morales F. (2009)
    10. Common genetic variation in candidate genes and susceptibility to subtypes of breast cancer. (PubMed id 19124506)1, 4 Mavaddat N....Pharoah P.D. (2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 7295 HGNC: 12435 AceView: TXN Ensembl:ENSG00000136810 euGenes: HUgn7295
    ECgene: TXN H-InvDB: TXN

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TXN Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for TXN Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/txn/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for TXN gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TXN

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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    About This Section

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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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