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Aliases for TXN Gene

Aliases for TXN Gene

  • Thioredoxin 2 3 3 5
  • Surface-Associated Sulphydryl Protein 3 4
  • ATL-Derived Factor 3 4
  • SASP 3 4
  • TRX1 3 4
  • TRDX 3 4
  • ADF 3 4
  • TRX 3 4
  • Testicular Tissue Protein Li 199 3
  • Thioredoxin Delta 3 3
  • TXN Delta 3 3

External Ids for TXN Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TXN Gene

  • GC09M103804
  • GC09M104738
  • GC09M106463
  • GC09M108386
  • GC09M110085
  • GC09M112045
  • GC09M113006
  • GC09M082608

Summaries for TXN Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TXN Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene acts as a homodimer and is involved in many redox reactions. The encoded protein is active in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteines in certain proteins, which is part of the response to intracellular nitric oxide. This protein is found in the cytoplasm. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GeneCards Summary for TXN Gene

TXN (Thioredoxin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TXN include Breast Mucinous Carcinoma and Adult T-Cell Leukemia. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Immune System. GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, disulfide as acceptor. An important paralog of this gene is TXNDC2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN Gene

  • Participates in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to a disulfide and catalyzes dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Plays a role in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues in target proteins, and thereby contributes to the response to intracellular nitric oxide. Nitrosylates the active site Cys of CASP3 in response to nitric oxide (NO), and thereby inhibits caspase-3 activity. Induces the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in ionizing radiation (IR) cells through its oxidation/reduction status and stimulates AP-1 transcriptional activity.

  • ADF augments the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor TAC (IL2R/P55).

Gene Wiki entry for TXN Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TXN Gene

Genomics for TXN Gene

Regulatory Elements for TXN Gene

Enhancers for TXN Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH09F110250 1.5 FANTOM5 ENCODE 14.7 +1.2 1248 9.0 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 MLX WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 TXN AKAP2 C9orf152
GH09F110281 1 Ensembl ENCODE 17.3 -26.4 -26437 3.7 SOX13 PKNOX1 CBX3 CEBPG ZNF644 YY1 RARA GATAD2A SOX5 RNF2 TXN TXNDC8
GH09F110179 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 10.9 +76.3 76296 2.4 ELF3 ATF1 ZFP64 ARID4B DMAP1 THRB ZNF48 ZSCAN9 RARA RFX5 TXN C9orf152 LOC105376217 GC09M110189
GH09F110197 0.8 ENCODE 16.3 +57.2 57241 3.6 ELF3 DRAP1 TBP CTCF SAP130 SREBF2 ARID4B RAD21 RARA YY1 TXN C9orf152 TRR-TCG6-1
GH09F110212 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 11.6 +42.8 42788 2.3 SOX13 TFAP4 MLX ARID4B CEBPG ZNF644 RARA YY1 GATA3 CTBP1 TXN C9orf152
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TXN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TXN Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00001311389 640 2801 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1
ENSR00001912264 -1060 201 BRD4 HDGF WRNIP1 UBTF ADNP IKZF1 SCRT2 IRF1

Genomic Location for TXN Gene

Chromosome:
9
Start:
110,243,811 bp from pter
End:
110,256,640 bp from pter
Size:
12,830 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for TXN Gene

Genes around TXN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TXN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TXN Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TXN Gene

Proteins for TXN Gene

  • Protein details for TXN Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P10599-THIO_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Thioredoxin
    Protein Accession:
    P10599
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1ALW1
    • O60744
    • Q53X69
    • Q96KI3
    • Q9UDG5

    Protein attributes for TXN Gene

    Size:
    105 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11737 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Interacts with TXNIP through the redox-active site. Interacts with MAP3K5 and CASP3. In case of infection, interacts with S.typhimurium protein slrP. Interacts with APEX1; the interaction stimulates the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in a redox-dependent manner.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TXN Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TXN Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for TXN Gene

Post-translational modifications for TXN Gene

  • In case of infection, ubiquitinated by S.typhimurium protein slrP, leading to its degradation.
  • In the fully reduced protein, both Cys-69 and Cys-73 are nitrosylated in response to nitric oxide (NO). When two disulfide bonds are present in the protein, only Cys-73 is nitrosylated. Cys-73 can serve as donor for nitrosylation of target proteins.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TXN Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TXN (TXN)

Assay Products

  • Enzo Life Sciences assays for TXN

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TXN Gene

Domains & Families for TXN Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TXN Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P10599

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

THIO_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.
  • Belongs to the thioredoxin family.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the thioredoxin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TXN: view

No data available for Gene Families for TXN Gene

Function for TXN Gene

Molecular function for TXN Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thioredoxin
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Participates in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to a disulfide and catalyzes dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Plays a role in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues in target proteins, and thereby contributes to the response to intracellular nitric oxide. Nitrosylates the active site Cys of CASP3 in response to nitric oxide (NO), and thereby inhibits caspase-3 activity. Induces the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in ionizing radiation (IR) cells through its oxidation/reduction status and stimulates AP-1 transcriptional activity.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
ADF augments the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor TAC (IL2R/P55).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated by ionizing radiation.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TXN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004791 thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11118054
GO:0015035 protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA,IBA --
GO:0015037 peptide disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016671 oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, disulfide as acceptor IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TXN: view

Animal Models for TXN Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TXN:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TXN

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TXN Gene

Localization for TXN Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN Gene

Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Secreted. Note=Translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induction (PMA) (PubMed:9108029). Predominantly in the cytoplasm in non irradiated cells (PubMed:11118054). Radiation induces translocation of TRX from the cytoplasm to the nucleus (PubMed:11118054). Secreted by a leaderless secretory pathway (PubMed:1332947). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11118054, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1332947, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9108029}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TXN gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 4
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
peroxisome 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TXN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN: view

Pathways & Interactions for TXN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TXN: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TXN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA --
GO:0000302 response to reactive oxygen species TAS --
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
GO:0006457 protein folding IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TXN Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TXN Gene

(55) Drugs for TXN Gene - From: ApexBio, DGIdb, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Auranofin Approved Pharma Activation, Activator Thioredoxin reductase inhibitor; induces MPT 11
PX-12 Investigational Pharma inhibitor 0
PMX 464 Pharma Putative inhibitor of the Trx-TrxR system; antiproliferative 0

(66) Additional Compounds for TXN Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(2) ApexBio Compounds for TXN Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Auranofin 34031-32-8
PMX 464 485842-97-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TXN: view

Transcripts for TXN Gene

Unigene Clusters for TXN Gene

Thioredoxin:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TXN

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXN Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TXN Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TXN
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TXN

Expression for TXN Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for TXN Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TXN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Mucosa (x5.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TXN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Saliva (9.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TXN Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for TXN Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TXN Gene:

TXN

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TXN Gene:

Hs.435136
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TXN: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TXN Gene

Orthologs for TXN Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TXN Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TXN 34 35
  • 99.68 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC474798 34
  • 93.75 (n)
TXN 35
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TXN 34 35
  • 93.02 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Txn1 34
  • 85.9 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Txn1 34 16 35
  • 85.76 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TXN 34 35
  • 74.29 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 69 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100170420 34
  • 64.1 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii txn 34 35
  • 65.03 (n)
zgc:56493 35
  • 58 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Trx-2 34
  • 56.77 (n)
dhd 35
  • 36 (a)
ManyToMany
CG13473 35
  • 30 (a)
ManyToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta TRX1 34
  • 54.37 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea trx-4 35
  • 35 (a)
ManyToMany
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F10351g 34
  • 54.13 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TRX3 34 35
  • 51.82 (n)
TRX2 35 37
  • 48 (a)
ManyToMany
TRX1 35
  • 46 (a)
ManyToMany
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TRX2 34
  • 60 (n)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os07g0190800 34
  • 52.1 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes trx1 34
  • 54.21 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06556 34
  • 49 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11205 35
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for TXN was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TXN Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TXN (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TXN (if available)

Paralogs for TXN Gene

Paralogs for TXN Gene

(9) SIMAP similar genes for TXN Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TXN: view

Variants for TXN Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TXN Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1049927 -- 110,256,475(-) TTTCC(A/G)TCGGT utr-variant-5-prime
rs10816952 -- 110,249,121(+) ACTCC(A/T)TCTCA intron-variant
rs10980284 -- 110,245,516(+) GCCAT(C/T)CTCCC intron-variant
rs10980285 -- 110,247,399(+) TCATA(C/T)GGAAG intron-variant
rs10980286 -- 110,248,852(+) CGTGG(G/T)GGATA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TXN Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1173288 CNV insertion 17803354
esv2752274 CNV gain 17911159
esv3573357 CNV loss 25503493
esv3621449 CNV gain 21293372
esv3621453 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1040651 CNV gain 25217958
nsv437092 CNV loss 16327808
nsv508562 CNV deletion 20534489
nsv521448 CNV loss 19592680
nsv615152 CNV gain 21841781
nsv6662 CNV deletion 18451855

Variation tolerance for TXN Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 62.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.26; 5.87% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TXN Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
TXN

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN Gene

Disorders for TXN Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for TXN Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
breast mucinous carcinoma
  • invasive mucinous breast carcinoma
adult t-cell leukemia
  • adult t-cell leukemia/lymphoma
myocarditis
  • myocardial inflammation
malignant pleural mesothelioma
  • malignant mesothelioma of pleura
exencephaly
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TXN in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for TXN

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
TXN
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
TXN
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
TXN
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TXN: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TXN Gene

Publications for TXN Gene

  1. AP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by a direct association between thioredoxin and Ref-1. (PMID: 9108029) Hirota K. … Yodoi J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1997) 3 4 22 64
  2. Crystal structures of reduced, oxidized, and mutated human thioredoxins: evidence for a regulatory homodimer. (PMID: 8805557) Weichsel A. … Montfort W.R. (Structure 1996) 3 4 22 64
  3. Human thioredoxin reactivity-structure/function relationship. (PMID: 2176490) Jacquot J.-P. … Wollman E. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1990) 3 4 22 64
  4. The roles of thioredoxin and thioredoxin-binding protein-2 in endometriosis. (PMID: 20172870) Seo S.K. … Lee B.S. (Hum. Reprod. 2010) 3 22 64
  5. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose J.E. … Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010) 3 46 64

Products for TXN Gene

Sources for TXN Gene

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