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Aliases for TXN Gene

Aliases for TXN Gene

  • Thioredoxin 2 3 3 5
  • Surface-Associated Sulphydryl Protein 3 4
  • ATL-Derived Factor 3 4
  • SASP 3 4
  • TRX1 3 4
  • TRDX 3 4
  • ADF 3 4
  • TRX 3 4
  • Testicular Tissue Protein Li 199 3
  • Thioredoxin Delta 3 3
  • TXN Delta 3 3

External Ids for TXN Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TXN Gene

  • GC09M103804
  • GC09M104738
  • GC09M106463
  • GC09M108386
  • GC09M110085
  • GC09M112045
  • GC09M113006
  • GC09M082608

Summaries for TXN Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TXN Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene acts as a homodimer and is involved in many redox reactions. The encoded protein is active in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteines in certain proteins, which is part of the response to intracellular nitric oxide. This protein is found in the cytoplasm. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GeneCards Summary for TXN Gene

TXN (Thioredoxin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TXN include Breast Mucinous Carcinoma and Adult T-Cell Leukemia. Among its related pathways are Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, disulfide as acceptor. An important paralog of this gene is TXNDC2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN Gene

  • Participates in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to a disulfide and catalyzes dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Plays a role in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues in target proteins, and thereby contributes to the response to intracellular nitric oxide. Nitrosylates the active site Cys of CASP3 in response to nitric oxide (NO), and thereby inhibits caspase-3 activity. Induces the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in ionizing radiation (IR) cells through its oxidation/reduction status and stimulates AP-1 transcriptional activity.

  • ADF augments the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor TAC (IL2R/P55).

Gene Wiki entry for TXN Gene

Additional gene information for TXN Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TXN Gene

Genomics for TXN Gene

Regulatory Elements for TXN Gene

Enhancers for TXN Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH09H110250 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 14.6 +1.2 1248 8 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 TXN AKAP2 C9orf152
GH09H110197 1.1 ENCODE dbSUPER 16.3 +57.2 57241 3 ELF3 SOX13 CTCF TBP DRAP1 FOXA2 SAP130 ARID4B RAD21 RARA TXN C9orf152 TRR-TCG6-1
GH09H110179 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.9 +76.3 76296 2 ELF3 FOXA2 ATF1 NFIB ZFP64 ARID4B DMAP1 THRB ZSCAN9 RARA TXN C9orf152 LOC105376217 GC09M110189
GH09H110212 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.6 +42.8 42788 2 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B RARA YY1 FOS CREM CEBPB PPARG KAT8 TXN C9orf152
GH09H110281 0.8 ENCODE 17.3 -26.4 -26437 3 SOX13 PKNOX1 FOXA2 CEBPG BATF ZNF644 RARA YY1 GATAD2A SOX5 TXN TXNDC8
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TXN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TXN Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000239679 540 2601 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF766

Genomic Location for TXN Gene

Chromosome:
9
Start:
110,243,811 bp from pter
End:
110,256,640 bp from pter
Size:
12,830 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for TXN Gene

Genes around TXN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TXN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TXN Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TXN Gene

Proteins for TXN Gene

  • Protein details for TXN Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P10599-THIO_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Thioredoxin
    Protein Accession:
    P10599
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1ALW1
    • O60744
    • Q53X69
    • Q96KI3
    • Q9UDG5

    Protein attributes for TXN Gene

    Size:
    105 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11737 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Interacts with TXNIP through the redox-active site. Interacts with MAP3K5 and CASP3. In case of infection, interacts with S.typhimurium protein slrP. Interacts with APEX1; the interaction stimulates the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in a redox-dependent manner.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TXN Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TXN Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for TXN Gene

Post-translational modifications for TXN Gene

  • In case of infection, ubiquitinated by S.typhimurium protein slrP, leading to its degradation.
  • In the fully reduced protein, both Cys-69 and Cys-73 are nitrosylated in response to nitric oxide (NO). When two disulfide bonds are present in the protein, only Cys-73 is nitrosylated. Cys-73 can serve as donor for nitrosylation of target proteins.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TXN Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TXN (TXN)

Protein Products

Assay Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TXN Gene

Domains & Families for TXN Gene

Gene Families for TXN Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TXN Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P10599

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

THIO_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the thioredoxin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the thioredoxin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TXN: view

Function for TXN Gene

Molecular function for TXN Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thioredoxin
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Participates in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to a disulfide and catalyzes dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Plays a role in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues in target proteins, and thereby contributes to the response to intracellular nitric oxide. Nitrosylates the active site Cys of CASP3 in response to nitric oxide (NO), and thereby inhibits caspase-3 activity. Induces the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in ionizing radiation (IR) cells through its oxidation/reduction status and stimulates AP-1 transcriptional activity.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
ADF augments the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor TAC (IL2R/P55).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated by ionizing radiation.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TXN Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TXN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003723 RNA binding IDA 22658674
GO:0004791 thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10814541
GO:0015035 protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IBA --
GO:0015037 peptide disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TXN: view

Animal Models for TXN Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TXN:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TXN
  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for TXN
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TXN Gene

Localization for TXN Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN Gene

Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Secreted. Note=Translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induction (PMA) (PubMed:9108029). Predominantly in the cytoplasm in non irradiated cells (PubMed:11118054). Radiation induces translocation of TRX from the cytoplasm to the nucleus (PubMed:11118054). Secreted by a leaderless secretory pathway (PubMed:1332947). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11118054, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1332947, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9108029}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TXN gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 4
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
peroxisome 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (4)
  • Nucleus (4)
  • Nucleoli (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TXN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN: view

Pathways & Interactions for TXN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TXN: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TXN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA --
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
GO:0006662 glycerol ether metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006928 movement of cell or subcellular component TAS 10947064
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TXN Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TXN Gene

(58) Drugs for TXN Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Auranofin Approved Pharma Activation, Activator Thioredoxin reductase inhibitor; induces MPT 11
Phenethyl isothiocyanate Investigational Pharma Target 12
PX-12 Investigational Pharma inhibitor 0
PMX 464 Pharma Putative inhibitor of the Trx-TrxR system; antiproliferative 0

(64) Additional Compounds for TXN Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(2) ApexBio Compounds for TXN Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Auranofin 34031-32-8
PMX 464 485842-97-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TXN: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for TXN Gene

Unigene Clusters for TXN Gene

Thioredoxin:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TXN
  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for TXN
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXN Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TXN Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TXN
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TXN

Expression for TXN Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TXN Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TXN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Mucosa (x5.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TXN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Saliva (9.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TXN Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for TXN Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TXN Gene:

TXN

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TXN Gene:

Hs.435136

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TXN Gene

  • Liver(4.9)
  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Blood(4.6)
  • Eye(4.4)
  • Lung(3.7)
  • Intestine(3.6)
  • Heart(3.2)
  • Kidney(3.1)
  • Muscle(2.7)
  • Skin(2.7)
  • Bone marrow(2.5)
  • Spleen(2.5)
  • Stomach(2.5)
  • Adrenal gland(2.3)
  • Lymph node(2.3)
  • Pancreas(2.3)
  • Thyroid gland(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TXN: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TXN Gene

Orthologs for TXN Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TXN Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TXN 33 34
  • 99.68 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC474798 33
  • 93.75 (n)
TXN 34
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TXN 33 34
  • 93.02 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Txn1 33
  • 85.9 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Txn1 33 16 34
  • 85.76 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TXN 33 34
  • 74.29 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 69 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100170420 33
  • 64.1 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii txn 33 34
  • 65.03 (n)
zgc:56493 34
  • 58 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Trx-2 33
  • 56.77 (n)
dhd 34
  • 36 (a)
ManyToMany
CG13473 34
  • 30 (a)
ManyToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta TRX1 33
  • 54.37 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea trx-4 34
  • 35 (a)
ManyToMany
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F10351g 33
  • 54.13 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TRX3 33 34
  • 51.82 (n)
TRX2 34 36
  • 48 (a)
ManyToMany
TRX1 34
  • 46 (a)
ManyToMany
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TRX2 33
  • 60 (n)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os07g0190800 33
  • 52.1 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes trx1 33
  • 54.21 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06556 33
  • 49 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11205 34
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for TXN was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TXN Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TXN (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TXN (if available)

Paralogs for TXN Gene

Paralogs for TXN Gene

(9) SIMAP similar genes for TXN Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TXN: view

Variants for TXN Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TXN Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000108507 -- 110,258,128(+) AAGGG(A/G)CAATG upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000423606 -- 110,253,273(+) GAGAA(A/T)GGTAG intron-variant
rs1000890485 -- 110,248,961(+) TTTAA(-/T)TTTGT intron-variant
rs1001086090 -- 110,254,991(+) AACAC(A/G)TGAGG intron-variant
rs1001164347 -- 110,246,618(+) AACCA(A/G)CGGAG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TXN Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1173288 CNV insertion 17803354
esv2752274 CNV gain 17911159
esv3573357 CNV loss 25503493
esv3621449 CNV gain 21293372
esv3621453 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1040651 CNV gain 25217958
nsv437092 CNV loss 16327808
nsv508562 CNV deletion 20534489
nsv521448 CNV loss 19592680
nsv615152 CNV gain 21841781
nsv6662 CNV deletion 18451855

Variation tolerance for TXN Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 62.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.26; 5.87% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TXN Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
TXN

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN Gene

Disorders for TXN Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(11) MalaCards diseases for TXN Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
breast mucinous carcinoma
  • invasive mucinous breast carcinoma
adult t-cell leukemia
  • adult t-cell leukemia/lymphoma
myocarditis
  • myocardial inflammation
malignant pleural mesothelioma
  • malignant mesothelioma of pleura
exencephaly
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TXN in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for TXN

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
TXN
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
TXN
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
TXN
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TXN: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TXN Gene

Publications for TXN Gene

  1. AP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by a direct association between thioredoxin and Ref-1. (PMID: 9108029) Hirota K … Yodoi J (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997) 3 4 22 60
  2. Crystal structures of reduced, oxidized, and mutated human thioredoxins: evidence for a regulatory homodimer. (PMID: 8805557) Weichsel A … Montfort WR (Structure (London, England : 1993) 1996) 3 4 22 60
  3. Human thioredoxin reactivity-structure/function relationship. (PMID: 2176490) Jacquot JP … Wollman E (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1990) 3 4 22 60
  4. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 45 60
  5. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 45 60

Products for TXN Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for TXN

Sources for TXN Gene

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