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Aliases for TUBB4B Gene

Aliases for TUBB4B Gene

  • Tubulin Beta 4B Class IVb 2 3 5
  • Tubulin Beta-2C Chain 3 4
  • Tubulin Beta-2 Chain 3 4
  • Tubulin, Beta 2C 2 3
  • TUBB2C 3 4
  • Class IVb Beta-Tubulin 2
  • Class IVb Beta Tubulin 3
  • Tubulin Beta-4B Chain 3
  • Tubulin, Beta, 2 3
  • BETA2 3
  • TUBB2 3

External Ids for TUBB4B Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TUBB4B Gene

  • TUBB2C

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TUBB4B Gene

  • GC09P140136

Summaries for TUBB4B Gene

GeneCards Summary for TUBB4B Gene

TUBB4B (Tubulin Beta 4B Class IVb) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TUBB4B include Chondroid Chordoma. Among its related pathways are Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition and Development Slit-Robo signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and unfolded protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is TUBB4A.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB4B Gene

  • Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.

Gene Wiki entry for TUBB4B Gene

Additional gene information for TUBB4B Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TUBB4B Gene

Genomics for TUBB4B Gene

Regulatory Elements for TUBB4B Gene

Enhancers for TUBB4B Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH09H137265 0.5 dbSUPER 13.4 +25.4 25407 1 NFIC KLF1 NFIB ZIC2 NELFB TUBB4B SLC34A3 NOXA1 EXD3 TOR4A
GH09H137233 1.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 0.7 -2.9 -2908 9 MLX FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF416 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC ZC3H11A ZFP41 EHMT1 SDCCAG3 NDOR1 ANAPC2 LOC651337 INPP5E DPH7 MAN1B1 SEC16A IL9RP1
GH09H137243 1.1 ENCODE dbSUPER 0.7 +3.1 3056 1 PTBP1 ZNF473 GLIS2 PAF1 SMAD5 ZNF398 ZNF662 MBD2 SSRP1 MYNN INPP5E ANAPC2 DPH7 SNAPC4 SNHG7 FAM166A EXD3 ZMYND19 SDCCAG3 ARRDC1-AS1
GH09H137248 0.3 FANTOM5 0.4 +7.5 7516 0 LCNL1 ABCA2 SLC34A3 STPG3 TUBB4B
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TUBB4B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TUBB4B Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000243167 -113 2601 PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B YY1 ZNF143

Genomic Location for TUBB4B Gene

Chromosome:
9
Start:
137,241,213 bp from pter
End:
137,243,707 bp from pter
Size:
2,495 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TUBB4B Gene

Genes around TUBB4B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TUBB4B Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TUBB4B Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TUBB4B Gene

Proteins for TUBB4B Gene

  • Protein details for TUBB4B Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P68371-TBB4B_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Tubulin beta-4B chain
    Protein Accession:
    P68371
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A2BFA2
    • P05217

    Protein attributes for TUBB4B Gene

    Size:
    445 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    49831 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.

neXtProt entry for TUBB4B Gene

Post-translational modifications for TUBB4B Gene

  • Phosphorylated on Ser-172 by CDK1 during the cell cycle, from metaphase to telophase, but not in interphase. This phosphorylation inhibits tubulin incorporation into microtubules.
  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella). Both polyglutamylation and monoglycylation can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of monoglycylation is still unclear (Probable).
  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated, resulting in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group (PubMed:26875866). Polyglutamylation plays a key role in microtubule severing by spastin (SPAST). SPAST preferentially recognizes and acts on microtubules decorated with short polyglutamate tails: severing activity by SPAST increases as the number of glutamates per tubulin rises from one to eight, but decreases beyond this glutamylation threshold (PubMed:26875866).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TUBB4B Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TUBB4B Gene

Domains & Families for TUBB4B Gene

Gene Families for TUBB4B Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TUBB4B Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P68371

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

TBB4B_HUMAN :
  • The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium.
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
Domain:
  • The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium.
Family:
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TUBB4B: view

Function for TUBB4B Gene

Molecular function for TUBB4B Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TUBB4B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003725 double-stranded RNA binding IDA 21266579
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA --
GO:0005200 structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA --
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB4B: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TUBB4B: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for TUBB4B
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TUBB4B Gene

Localization for TUBB4B Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB4B Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TUBB4B gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
lysosome 4
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TUBB4B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton TAS 16130169
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB4B: view

Pathways & Interactions for TUBB4B Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TUBB4B: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for TUBB4B Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TUBB4B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000086 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0006928 movement of cell or subcellular component TAS 16130169
GO:0007010 cytoskeleton organization IEA --
GO:0007017 microtubule-based process IEA --
GO:0010389 regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB4B: view

Drugs & Compounds for TUBB4B Gene

(12) Drugs for TUBB4B Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Mebendazole Approved, Vet_approved Pharma binder, Target, inhibitor 29
Albendazole Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 91
Colchicine Approved Pharma Antagonist Tubulin Inhibitor, Inhibitor of tubulin 116
Docetaxel Approved May 1996, Investigational Pharma Microtubulin disassembly inhibitor, Tubulin and VEGF inhibitor, Taxanes, Microtubule stabilizer 1993
Epothilone D Experimental, Investigational Pharma Target 0

(2) Additional Compounds for TUBB4B Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Dolastatin 10 trifluoroacetate
MMAE
474645-27-7

(5) Tocris Compounds for TUBB4B Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Colchicine Inhibitor of tubulin 64-86-8
Docetaxel Microtubule stabilizer 114977-28-5
Dolastatin 10 trifluoroacetate Tubulin polymerization inhibitor
MMAE Potent dolastatin 10 analog; antitumor 474645-27-7
Vinblastine sulfate Disrupts microtubules 143-67-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TUBB4B: view

Transcripts for TUBB4B Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TUBB4B Gene

Unigene Clusters for TUBB4B Gene

Tubulin, beta 4B class IVb:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for TUBB4B
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TUBB4B Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP5:
SP6: - - - -
SP7: - - - - - -
SP8:

Relevant External Links for TUBB4B Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TUBB4B
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TUBB4B

Expression for TUBB4B Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TUBB4B Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TUBB4B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TUBB4B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (9.3) and Retina (7.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TUBB4B Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for TUBB4B Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TUBB4B Gene:

TUBB4B

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TUBB4B Gene:

Hs.433615

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TUBB4B Gene:

P68371-TBB4B_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TUBB4B Gene

  • Lung(4.4)
  • Muscle(4.4)
  • Skin(4.4)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Bone marrow(2.2)
  • Heart(2)
  • Liver(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TUBB4B: view

Primer Products

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TUBB4B Gene

Orthologs for TUBB4B Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TUBB4B Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TUBB4B 34
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TUBB4B 34
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
LOC102153202 33
  • 92.43 (n)
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TUBB2C 34 33
  • 99.7 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tubb4b-ps1 34
  • 98 (a)
OneToMany
Tubb4b 16 34 33
  • 90.11 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TUBB4B 34 33
  • 91.84 (n)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 91 (a)
ManyToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tubb4b 33
  • 90.71 (n)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TUBB2C 33 34
  • 86.83 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TUBB4B 34
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tubb4b 33
  • 86.82 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:55461 34
  • 99 (a)
ManyToMany
zgc:123194 34
  • 98 (a)
ManyToMany
tubb4b 33
  • 83.07 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta betaTub56D 33 34
  • 84.23 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010929 33
  • 81.58 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea tbb-4 33
  • 74.55 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACR225C 33
  • 70.65 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TUB2 33
  • 66.59 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0D05269g 33
  • 62.92 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TUB1 33
  • 71.66 (n)
soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.5502 33
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.1232 33
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0780600 33
  • 76.97 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.7878 34
  • 98 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.4227 34
  • 97 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 34
  • 59 (a)
ManyToMany
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU04054 33
  • 76.27 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes nda3 33
  • 65.18 (n)
Species where no ortholog for TUBB4B was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TUBB4B Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TUBB4B (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TUBB4B (if available)

Paralogs for TUBB4B Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for TUBB4B Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TUBB4B: view

Variants for TUBB4B Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TUBB4B Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000115299 -- 137,239,658(+) GGTGC(A/G)CACCT upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000179624 -- 137,240,683(+) GCTCC(A/G)TGCGG upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000442972 -- 137,239,433(+) GCCAA(A/G)ATGGT upstream-variant-2KB
rs1001153927 -- 137,243,959(+) CTTGG(C/G)GCTCG intron-variant, downstream-variant-500B
rs1002038108 -- 137,241,137(+) CAAAC(A/T)GGCTT upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TUBB4B Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv13009n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv13011n54 CNV loss 21841781
esv2422220 CNV deletion 17116639
nsv1161918 CNV duplication 26073780
nsv524322 CNV loss 19592680
nsv951207 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for TUBB4B Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 4.26% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.07; 1.59% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TUBB4B Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
TUBB4B

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB4B Gene

Disorders for TUBB4B Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for TUBB4B Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
chondroid chordoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Relevant External Links for TUBB4B

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
TUBB4B
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TUBB4B: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TUBB4B Gene

Publications for TUBB4B Gene

  1. Three expressed sequences within the human beta-tubulin multigene family each define a distinct isotype. (PMID: 3999141) Lewis SA … Cowan NJ (Journal of molecular biology 1985) 2 3 4 60
  2. Proteomic comparison of nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines C666-1 and NP69 identifies down-regulation of annexin II and beta2-tubulin for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (PMID: 18384219) Chan CM … Chan AT (Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 2008) 3 22 60
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 60
  4. Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks. (PMID: 28514442) Huttlin EL … Harper JW (Nature 2017) 3 60
  5. The scaffold protein KSR1, a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of Merlin-deficient tumors. (PMID: 26549023) Zhou L … Hanemann CO (Oncogene 2016) 3 60

Products for TUBB4B Gene

Sources for TUBB4B Gene

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