Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for TUBB4B Gene

Aliases for TUBB4B Gene

  • Tubulin Beta 4B Class IVb 2 3 5
  • Tubulin Beta-2C Chain 3 4
  • Tubulin Beta-2 Chain 3 4
  • Tubulin, Beta 2C 2 3
  • TUBB2C 3 4
  • Class IVb Beta-Tubulin 2
  • Class IVb Beta Tubulin 3
  • Tubulin Beta-4B Chain 3
  • Tubulin, Beta, 2 3
  • BETA2 3
  • TUBB2 3

External Ids for TUBB4B Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TUBB4B Gene

  • TUBB2C

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TUBB4B Gene

  • GC09P140136

Summaries for TUBB4B Gene

GeneCards Summary for TUBB4B Gene

TUBB4B (Tubulin Beta 4B Class IVb) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TUBB4B include Chondroid Chordoma. Among its related pathways are Development Slit-Robo signaling and Cytoskeleton remodeling Neurofilaments. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and unfolded protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is TUBB4A.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB4B Gene

  • Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.

Gene Wiki entry for TUBB4B Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TUBB4B Gene

Genomics for TUBB4B Gene

Regulatory Elements for TUBB4B Gene

Enhancers for TUBB4B Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association

Enhancers around TUBB4B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TUBB4B Gene

Chromosome:
9
Start:
137,241,213 bp from pter
End:
137,243,707 bp from pter
Size:
2,495 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TUBB4B Gene

Genes around TUBB4B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TUBB4B Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TUBB4B Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TUBB4B Gene

Proteins for TUBB4B Gene

  • Protein details for TUBB4B Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P68371-TBB4B_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Tubulin beta-4B chain
    Protein Accession:
    P68371
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A2BFA2
    • P05217

    Protein attributes for TUBB4B Gene

    Size:
    445 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    49831 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.

neXtProt entry for TUBB4B Gene

Post-translational modifications for TUBB4B Gene

  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella). Both polyglutamylation and monoglycylation can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of monoglycylation is still unclear (Probable).
  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated, resulting in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group (PubMed:26875866). Polyglutamylation plays a key role in microtubule severing by spastin (SPAST). SPAST preferentially recognizes and acts on microtubules decorated with short polyglutamate tails: severing activity by SPAST increases as the number of glutamates per tubulin rises from one to eight, but decreases beyond this glutamylation threshold (PubMed:26875866).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TUBB4B Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TUBB4B Gene

Domains & Families for TUBB4B Gene

Gene Families for TUBB4B Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TUBB4B Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P68371

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

TBB4B_HUMAN :
  • The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium.
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
Domain:
  • The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium.
Family:
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TUBB4B: view

Function for TUBB4B Gene

Molecular function for TUBB4B Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TUBB4B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003725 double-stranded RNA binding IDA 21266579
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA --
GO:0005200 structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA --
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA --
GO:0042288 MHC class I protein binding TAS 11120798
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB4B: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TUBB4B: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TUBB4B Gene

Localization for TUBB4B Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB4B Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for TUBB4B Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TUBB4B gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TUBB4B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton TAS 16130169
GO:0005874 microtubule IDA 21525035
GO:0031012 extracellular matrix IDA 23979707
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB4B: view

Pathways & Interactions for TUBB4B Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TUBB4B: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for TUBB4B Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TUBB4B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000086 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0006928 movement of cell or subcellular component TAS 16130169
GO:0007010 cytoskeleton organization IEA --
GO:0007017 microtubule-based process IEA --
GO:0042267 natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity NAS 11120798
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB4B: view

Drugs & Compounds for TUBB4B Gene

(11) Drugs for TUBB4B Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Mebendazole Approved, Vet_approved Pharma binder, Target, inhibitor 24
Albendazole Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 77
Colchicine Approved Pharma Antagonist Tubulin Inhibitor, Inhibitor of tubulin 106
Docetaxel Approved May 1996, Investigational Pharma Microtubulin disassembly inhibitor, Tubulin and VEGF inhibitor, Taxanes, Microtubule stabilizer 1880
Epothilone B Experimental, Investigational Pharma Target 67

(2) Additional Compounds for TUBB4B Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Dolastatin 10 trifluoroacetate
MMAE
474645-27-7

(5) Tocris Compounds for TUBB4B Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Colchicine Inhibitor of tubulin 64-86-8
Docetaxel Microtubule stabilizer 114977-28-5
Dolastatin 10 trifluoroacetate Tubulin polymerization inhibitor
MMAE Potent dolastatin 10 analog; antitumor 474645-27-7
Vinblastine sulfate Disrupts microtubules 143-67-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TUBB4B: view

Transcripts for TUBB4B Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TUBB4B Gene

Unigene Clusters for TUBB4B Gene

Tubulin, beta 4B class IVb:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TUBB4B Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP5:
SP6: - - - -
SP7: - - - - - -
SP8:

Relevant External Links for TUBB4B Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TUBB4B
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TUBB4B

Expression for TUBB4B Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TUBB4B Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TUBB4B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TUBB4B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (9.3) and Retina (7.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TUBB4B Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for TUBB4B Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TUBB4B Gene:

TUBB4B

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TUBB4B Gene:

Hs.433615

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TUBB4B Gene:

P68371-TBB4B_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TUBB4B: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for TUBB4B Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TUBB4B Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TUBB4B 34
  • 91.84 (n)
  • 100 (a)
TUBB4B 35
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC102153202 34
  • 92.43 (n)
  • 100 (a)
TUBB4B 35
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tubb4b 34
  • 90.11 (n)
  • 100 (a)
Tubb4b 16
Tubb4b 35
  • 100 (a)
OneToMany
Tubb4b-ps1 35
  • 98 (a)
OneToMany
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TUBB2C 34
  • 99.7 (n)
  • 100 (a)
TUBB2C 35
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tubb4b 34
  • 90.71 (n)
  • 99.78 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TUBB4B 35
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 91 (a)
ManyToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TUBB2C 34
  • 86.83 (n)
  • 100 (a)
TUBB2C 35
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TUBB4B 35
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tubb4b 34
  • 86.82 (n)
  • 99.33 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tubb4b 34
  • 83.07 (n)
  • 98.88 (a)
zgc:123194 35
  • 98 (a)
ManyToMany
zgc:55461 35
  • 99 (a)
ManyToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010929 34
  • 81.58 (n)
  • 97.89 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta betaTub56D 34
  • 84.23 (n)
  • 97.66 (a)
betaTub56D 35
  • 91 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea tbb-4 34
  • 74.55 (n)
  • 95.78 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACR225C 34
  • 70.65 (n)
  • 77.99 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0D05269g 34
  • 62.92 (n)
  • 75.18 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TUB2 34
  • 66.59 (n)
  • 77.05 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TUB1 34
  • 71.66 (n)
  • 86.42 (a)
soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.5502 34
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.1232 34
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0780600 34
  • 76.97 (n)
  • 88.76 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU04054 34
  • 76.27 (n)
  • 85.48 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes nda3 34
  • 65.18 (n)
  • 78.45 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 59 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.4227 35
  • 97 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.7878 35
  • 98 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for TUBB4B was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TUBB4B Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TUBB4B (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TUBB4B (if available)

Paralogs for TUBB4B Gene

Paralogs for TUBB4B Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for TUBB4B Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TUBB4B: view

Variants for TUBB4B Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TUBB4B Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs9722604 -- 137,239,267(+) AGATG(C/T)CCAGT upstream-variant-2KB
rs9802782 -- 137,239,696(+) gcagg(A/C)gaatt upstream-variant-2KB
rs117034573 -- 137,242,350(+) GCCGT(C/T)TTTTG intron-variant
rs117792037 -- 137,240,558(+) AGCAG(A/G)AAACT upstream-variant-2KB
rs138017782 -- 137,242,134(+) CTGAG(C/T)CACTC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TUBB4B Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv13009n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv13011n54 CNV loss 21841781
esv2422220 CNV deletion 17116639
nsv1161918 CNV duplication 26073780
nsv524322 CNV loss 19592680
nsv951207 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for TUBB4B Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 4.26% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.07; 1.59% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TUBB4B Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
TUBB4B

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB4B Gene

Disorders for TUBB4B Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for TUBB4B Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
chondroid chordoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Relevant External Links for TUBB4B

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
TUBB4B
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TUBB4B: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TUBB4B Gene

Publications for TUBB4B Gene

  1. Three expressed sequences within the human beta-tubulin multigene family each define a distinct isotype. (PMID: 3999141) Lewis S.A. … Cowan N.J. (J. Mol. Biol. 1985) 2 3 4 65
  2. Proteomic comparison of nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines C666-1 and NP69 identifies down-regulation of annexin II and beta2-tubulin for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (PMID: 18384219) Chan C.M. … Chan A.T. (Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 2008) 3 22 65
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 65
  4. The scaffold protein KSR1, a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of Merlin-deficient tumors. (PMID: 26549023) Zhou L. … Hanemann C.O. (Oncogene 2016) 3 65
  5. Reversible oxidation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) alters its interactions with signaling and regulatory proteins. (PMID: 26561776) Verrastro I. … Pitt A.R. (Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2016) 3 65

Products for TUBB4B Gene

Sources for TUBB4B Gene

Content
Loading form....