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Aliases for TUBB4B Gene

Aliases for TUBB4B Gene

  • Tubulin, Beta 4B Class IVb 2 3
  • TUBB2C 3 4 6
  • Class IVb Beta-Tubulin 2 3
  • Tubulin Beta-2C Chain 3 4
  • Tubulin Beta-2 Chain 3 4
  • Tubulin, Beta 2C 2 3
  • Class IVb Beta Tubulin 3
  • Tubulin Beta-4B Chain 3
  • Tubulin, Beta, 2 3
  • BETA2 3
  • TUBB2 3

External Ids for TUBB4B Gene

Previous Symbols for TUBB4B Gene

  • TUBB2C

Summaries for TUBB4B Gene

GeneCards Summary for TUBB4B Gene

TUBB4B (Tubulin, Beta 4B Class IVb) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are ERK Signaling and GPCR Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and unfolded protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is TUBB3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB4B Gene

  • Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

Tocris Summary for TUBB4B Gene

  • Microtubules are cylindrical tubes of 20-25 nm in diameter. They are composed of protofilaments which are in turn composed of alpha- and beta-tubulin polymers. Each microtubule is polarized, at one end alpha-subunits are exposed (-) and at the other beta-subunits are exposed (+). Microtubules act as a scaffold to determine cell shape, and provide a backbone for cell organelles and vesicles to move on, a process that requires motor proteins. The major microtubule motor proteins are kinesin, which generally moves towards the (+) end of the microtubule, and dynein, which generally moves towards the (-) end. Microtubules also form the spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis.

Gene Wiki entry for TUBB4B Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TUBB4B Gene

Genomics for TUBB4B Gene

Genomic Location for TUBB4B Gene

Start:
137,241,213 bp from pter
End:
137,243,707 bp from pter
Size:
2,495 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TUBB4B Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TUBB4B Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TUBB4B Gene

No data available for Regulatory Elements for TUBB4B Gene

Proteins for TUBB4B Gene

  • Protein details for TUBB4B Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P68371-TBB4B_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Tubulin beta-4B chain
    Protein Accession:
    P68371
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A2BFA2
    • P05217

    Protein attributes for TUBB4B Gene

    Size:
    445 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    49831 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells

neXtProt entry for TUBB4B Gene

Proteomics data for TUBB4B Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TUBB4B Gene

  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate residues and results in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Also monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles, axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of such modifications is still unclear but they regulate the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules (Probable).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys58, Lys103, Lys216, Lys252, Lys297, Lys324, Lys336, Lys350, Lys362, and Lys379

Other Protein References for TUBB4B Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TUBB4B Gene

Domains for TUBB4B Gene

Gene Families for TUBB4B Gene

HGNC:
  • TUB :Tubulins

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

TBB4B_HUMAN
Domain:
  • The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium:
    • P68371
Family:
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.:
    • P68371
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TUBB4B: view

Function for TUBB4B Gene

Molecular function for TUBB4B Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TUBB4B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003725 double-stranded RNA binding IDA 21266579
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA --
GO:0005200 structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA --
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA --
GO:0042288 MHC class I protein binding TAS 11120798
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB4B: view

Phenotypes for TUBB4B Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for TUBB4B:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TUBB4B: view

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for TUBB4B Gene

Localization for TUBB4B Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB4B Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TUBB4B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton TAS 16130169
GO:0005874 microtubule IDA 21525035
GO:0031982 vesicle IDA 24769233
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB4B: view

Pathways for TUBB4B Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TUBB4B: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TUBB4B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000086 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0006184 obsolete GTP catabolic process --
GO:0006457 protein folding TAS --
GO:0006928 movement of cell or subcellular component TAS 16130169
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB4B: view

Compounds for TUBB4B Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for TUBB4B Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Colchicine Inhibitor of tubulin [64-86-8]
Docetaxel Microtubule stabilizer [114977-28-5]
Epothilone B Microtubule stabilization agent; promotes tubulin polymerization [152044-54-7]
Vinblastine sulfate Disrupts microtubules [143-67-9]
Vinorelbine ditartrate Selective mitotic microtubule antagonist [125317-39-7]
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TUBB4B: view

Transcripts for TUBB4B Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TUBB4B Gene

Unigene Clusters for TUBB4B Gene

Tubulin, beta 4B class IVb:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TUBB4B Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP5:
SP6: - - - -
SP7: - - - - - -
SP8:

Relevant External Links for TUBB4B Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TUBB4B
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TUBB4B

Expression for TUBB4B Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TUBB4B Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TUBB4B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (4.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TUBB4B Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TUBB4B Gene Hs.433615

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TUBB4B Gene

P68371-TBB4B_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with TUBB4B: view

Orthologs for TUBB4B Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TUBB4B Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TUBB2C 36
  • 99.7 (n)
  • 100 (a)
TUBB2C 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TUBB4B 36
  • 91.84 (n)
  • 100 (a)
TUBB4B 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC102153202 36
  • 92.43 (n)
  • 100 (a)
TUBB4B 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tubb4b 36
  • 90.11 (n)
  • 100 (a)
Tubb4b 16
Tubb4b 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToMany
Tubb4b-ps1 37
  • 98 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TUBB4B 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 91 (a)
ManyToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tubb4b 36
  • 90.71 (n)
  • 99.78 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TUBB2C 36
  • 86.83 (n)
  • 100 (a)
TUBB2C 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TUBB4B 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tubb4b 36
  • 86.82 (n)
  • 99.33 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tubb4b 36
  • 83.07 (n)
  • 98.88 (a)
zgc:123194 37
  • 98 (a)
ManyToMany
zgc:55461 37
  • 99 (a)
ManyToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010929 36
  • 81.58 (n)
  • 97.89 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta betaTub56D 36
  • 84.23 (n)
  • 97.66 (a)
betaTub56D 37
  • 91 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea tbb-4 36
  • 74.55 (n)
  • 95.78 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACR225C 36
  • 70.65 (n)
  • 77.99 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TUB2 36
  • 66.59 (n)
  • 77.05 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0D05269g 36
  • 62.92 (n)
  • 75.18 (a)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.1232 36
soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.5502 36
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TUB1 36
  • 71.66 (n)
  • 86.42 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0780600 36
  • 76.97 (n)
  • 88.76 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU04054 36
  • 76.27 (n)
  • 85.48 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes nda3 36
  • 65.18 (n)
  • 78.45 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 37
  • 59 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.4227 37
  • 97 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.7878 37
  • 98 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for TUBB4B:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TUBB4B Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TUBB4B (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TUBB4B (if available)

Paralogs for TUBB4B Gene

Paralogs for TUBB4B Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for TUBB4B Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TUBB4B: view

Variants for TUBB4B Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TUBB4B Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2071355 -- 137,242,377(+) TTGCT(C/G)TACCT intron-variant
rs9722604 -- 137,239,267(+) AGATG(C/T)CCAGT upstream-variant-2KB
rs9802782 -- 137,239,696(+) gcagg(A/C)gaatt upstream-variant-2KB
rs11524723 -- 137,240,027(+) TGGGG(C/G/T)GGGGC upstream-variant-2KB
rs11545603 -- 137,242,770(+) TACAA(C/T)GCCAC reference, synonymous-codon

Relevant External Links for TUBB4B Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
TUBB4B

No data available for Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TUBB4B Gene

Disorders for TUBB4B Gene

No disorders were found for TUBB4B Gene.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB4B Gene

Publications for TUBB4B Gene

  1. Three expressed sequences within the human beta-tubulin multigene family each define a distinct isotype. (PMID: 3999141) Lewis S.A. … Cowan N.J. (J. Mol. Biol. 1985) 2 3 4
  2. Proteomic comparison of nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines C666-1 and NP69 identifies down-regulation of annexin II and beta2-tubulin for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (PMID: 18384219) Chan C.M. … Chan A.T. (Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 2008) 3 23
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4
  4. The double-edged sword of activation-induced cytidine deaminase. (PMID: 15634916) Wu X. … Cascalho M. (J. Immunol. 2005) 3
  5. Nucleolar proteome dynamics. (PMID: 15635413) Andersen J.S. … Mann M. (Nature 2005) 3

Products for TUBB4B Gene

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TUBB4B
    • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
    • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TUBB4B
    • Block miRNA regulation of TUBB4B using miScript Target Protectors

    Sources for TUBB4B Gene

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