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Aliases for TUBB3 Gene

Aliases for TUBB3 Gene

  • Tubulin, Beta 3 Class III 2 3
  • TUBB4 3 4 6
  • Class III Beta-Tubulin 2 3
  • Tubulin Beta-4 Chain 3 4
  • Tubulin Beta-III 3 4
  • CFEOM3A 3 6
  • CDCBM1 3 6
  • Fibrosis Of Extraocular Muscles, Congenital, 3 2
  • Tubulin Beta-3 Chain 3
  • Tubulin, Beta 3 2
  • BETA-4 3
  • CFEOM3 3
  • CDCBM 3
  • FEOM3 3

External Ids for TUBB3 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TUBB3 Gene

  • FEOM3

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TUBB3 Gene

  • GC16P088514
  • GC16P089987
  • GC16P089991
  • GC16P089996
  • GC16P089999

Summaries for TUBB3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TUBB3 Gene

  • This gene encodes a class III member of the beta tubulin protein family. Beta tubulins are one of two core protein families (alpha and beta tubulins) that heterodimerize and assemble to form microtubules. This protein is primarily expressed in neurons and may be involved in neurogenesis and axon guidance and maintenance. Mutations in this gene are the cause of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 3. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

GeneCards Summary for TUBB3 Gene

TUBB3 (Tubulin, Beta 3 Class III) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TUBB3 include cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 1 and fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3a. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and ERK Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and structural constituent of cytoskeleton. An important paralog of this gene is TUBB2B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB3 Gene

  • Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain. TUBB3 plays a critical role in proper axon guidance and mantainance.

Tocris Summary for TUBB3 Gene

  • Microtubules are cylindrical tubes of 20-25 nm in diameter. They are composed of protofilaments which are in turn composed of alpha- and beta-tubulin polymers. Each microtubule is polarized, at one end alpha-subunits are exposed (-) and at the other beta-subunits are exposed (+). Microtubules act as a scaffold to determine cell shape, and provide a backbone for cell organelles and vesicles to move on, a process that requires motor proteins. The major microtubule motor proteins are kinesin, which generally moves towards the (+) end of the microtubule, and dynein, which generally moves towards the (-) end. Microtubules also form the spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis.

Gene Wiki entry for TUBB3 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TUBB3 Gene

Genomics for TUBB3 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TUBB3 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for TUBB3 Gene

89,919,165 bp from pter
89,936,097 bp from pter
16,933 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TUBB3 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TUBB3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TUBB3 Gene

Proteins for TUBB3 Gene

  • Protein details for TUBB3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tubulin beta-3 chain
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K854
    • Q9BTZ0
    • Q9BW10

    Protein attributes for TUBB3 Gene

    450 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    50433 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells

    Alternative splice isoforms for TUBB3 Gene


neXtProt entry for TUBB3 Gene

Proteomics data for TUBB3 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TUBB3 Gene

  • Phosphorylated on Ser-172 by CDK1 during the cell cycle, from metaphase to telophase, but not in interphase. This phosphorylation inhibits tubulin incorporation into microtubules.
  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate residues and results in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Also monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles, axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of such modifications is still unclear but they regulate the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules (Probable).
  • Ubiquitination at Lys252, Lys297, Lys362, and Lys379
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TUBB3 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TUBB3 (TUBB3)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TUBB3 Gene

Domains for TUBB3 Gene

Gene Families for TUBB3 Gene

  • TUB :Tubulins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TUBB3 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q13509
  • The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TUBB3: view

Function for TUBB3 Gene

Molecular function for TUBB3 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain. TUBB3 plays a critical role in proper axon guidance and mantainance.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TUBB3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity --
GO:0005200 structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 24021646
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB3: view

Phenotypes for TUBB3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TUBB3: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TUBB3

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for TUBB3 Gene

Localization for TUBB3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB3 Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TUBB3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005874 microtubule IDA 21525035
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane --
GO:0030424 axon IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB3: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS for TUBB3 Gene

Pathways for TUBB3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TUBB3: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TUBB3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006184 obsolete GTP catabolic process --
GO:0006457 protein folding TAS --
GO:0007017 microtubule-based process IEA --
GO:0007067 mitotic nuclear division IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB3: view

Compounds for TUBB3 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for TUBB3 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
ABT 751 Inhibitor of microtubule polymerization; antimitotic and antitumor [141430-65-1]
Colchicine Inhibitor of tubulin [64-86-8]
Docetaxel Microtubule stabilizer [114977-28-5]
Harmine Potent and selective Dyrk1A inhibitor [442-51-3]
Vinblastine sulfate Disrupts microtubules [143-67-9]

(2) HMDB Compounds for TUBB3 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Ca
Guanosine triphosphate
  • 5'-GTP

(3) Drugbank Compounds for TUBB3 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
Epothilone B
  • EPO 906
152044-54-7 target
Epothilone D
189453-10-9 target
  • Aza-epothilone B
219989-84-1 target inhibitor

(21) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TUBB3 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
epothilone b 68.1 4
paclitaxel 66.8 20
bromodeoxyuridine 55.1 12
vinorelbine 49.2 3
docetaxel 46.1 4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TUBB3: view

Transcripts for TUBB3 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TUBB3 Gene

(933) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(15) Additional mRNA sequences :
(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for TUBB3 Gene

Tubulin, beta 3 class III:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TUBB3

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TUBB3 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c · 11d · 11e
SP1: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - -
SP7: - - - - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: -
SP11: - -

Relevant External Links for TUBB3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TUBB3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TUBB3 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TUBB3 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TUBB3 Gene Hs.511743

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TUBB3 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expression is primarily restricted to central and peripheral nervous system. Greatly increased expression in most cancerous tissues.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with TUBB3: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for TUBB3 Gene

Orthologs for TUBB3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TUBB3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TUBB3 35
  • 99.19 (n)
  • 99.78 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TUBB3 35
  • 93.41 (n)
  • 100 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 85 (a)
TUBB3 35
  • 92.96 (n)
  • 100 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tubb3 35
  • 90.74 (n)
  • 99.78 (a)
Tubb3 16
Tubb3 36
  • 97 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tubb3 35
  • 90.96 (n)
  • 99.78 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TUBB3 35
  • 91.54 (n)
  • 99.55 (a)
TUBB3 36
  • 99 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia MGC76202 35
tubb3 35
  • 81.99 (n)
  • 99.33 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TUBB3:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for TUBB3 Gene

Gene Tree for TUBB3 (if available)
Gene Tree for TUBB3 (if available)

Paralogs for TUBB3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TUBB3: view

Variants for TUBB3 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TUBB3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs12207 -- 89,935,952(-) GAGGA(C/T)GAGGC utr-variant-3-prime
rs1135394 -- 89,935,806(+) GTGAA(A/G)CTGCT utr-variant-3-prime
rs1135425 -- 89,935,882(+) CATCT(C/T)GCTGC utr-variant-3-prime
rs2302897 Likely benign 89,932,549(-) AGAGG(A/G)GGGGT intron-variant
rs2302898 -- 89,932,386(-) ATATG(C/T)ACCTC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TUBB3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv428331 CNV Gain+Loss 18775914
dgv3009n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907429 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907433 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv3014n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv3015n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907442 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907443 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv509640 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv525671 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv907444 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2660542 CNV Deletion 23128226

Relevant External Links for TUBB3 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB3 Gene

Disorders for TUBB3 Gene

(2) OMIM Diseases for TUBB3 Gene (602661)


  • Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3A (CFEOM3A) [MIM:600638]: A congenital ocular motility disorder marked by restrictive ophthalmoplegia affecting extraocular muscles innervated by the oculomotor and/or trochlear nerves. It is clinically characterized by anchoring of the eyes in downward gaze, ptosis, and backward tilt of the head. Congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3 presents as a non-progressive, autosomal dominant disorder with variable expression. Patients may be bilaterally or unilaterally affected, and their oculo-motility defects range from complete ophthalmoplegia (with the eyes fixed in a hypo- and exotropic position), to mild asymptomatic restrictions of ocular movement. Ptosis, refractive error, amblyopia, and compensatory head positions are associated with the more severe forms of the disorder. In some cases, the ocular phenotype is accompanied by additional features including developmental delay, corpus callosum agenesis, basal ganglia dysmorphism, facial weakness, polyneuropathy. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20074521}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 1 (CDCBM1) [MIM:614039]: A disorder of aberrant neuronal migration and disturbed axonal guidance. Affected individuals have mild to severe mental retardation, strabismus, axial hypotonia, and spasticity. Brain imaging shows variable malformations of cortical development, including polymicrogyria, gyral disorganization, and fusion of the basal ganglia, as well as thin corpus callosum, hypoplastic brainstem, and dysplastic cerebellar vermis. Extraocular muscles are not involved. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20829227}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(17) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TUBB3 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
nsclc 37.7 15
ovarian cancer 32.1 12
glioblastoma 30.5 6
picks disease 30.2 1
tumors 19.5 20
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TUBB3: view

Publications for TUBB3 Gene

  1. Cloning and sequencing of human betaIII-tubulin cDNA: induction of betaIII isotype in human prostate carcinoma cells by acute exposure to antimicrotubule agents. (PMID: 9473684) Ranganathan S. … Hudes G.R. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1998) 2 3 4 23
  2. Human TUBB3 mutations perturb microtubule dynamics, kinesin interactions, and axon guidance. (PMID: 20074521) Tischfield M.A. … Engle E.C. (Cell 2010) 2 3 4
  3. Distinct alpha- and beta-tubulin isotypes are required for the positioning, differentiation and survival of neurons: new support for the 'multi-tubulin' hypothesis. (PMID: 20406197) Tischfield M.A. … Engle E.C. (Biosci. Rep. 2010) 3 23
  4. Identification of new human receptor and transporter genes by high throughput cDNA (EST) sequencing. (PMID: 8098743) Venter J.C. (J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1993) 2 3
  5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4

Products for TUBB3 Gene

Sources for TUBB3 Gene

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