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TUBB Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 69
GCID: GC06P030687

Tubulin, Beta Class I

(Previous names: tubulin, beta polypeptide, tubulin, beta)
  See TUBB-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Tubulin, Beta Class I1 2     OK/SW-cl.562
TUBB52 3 5     TUBB12
Tubulin, Beta Polypeptide1 2     Beta 5-Tubulin2
beta1-tubulin1 2     Beta Ib Tubulin2
Class I Beta-Tubulin1 2     Beta-4 Tubulin2
Tubulin Beta-5 Chain2 3     Tubulin Beta Chain2
M402 5     Tubulin Beta Polypeptide2
Tubulin, Beta1     Tubulin Beta-1 Chain2

External Ids:    HGNC: 207781   Entrez Gene: 2030682   Ensembl: ENSG000001962307   OMIM: 1911305   UniProtKB: P074373   

Export aliases for TUBB gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC06M003138 GC06M003098 GC06P030797 GC06Pc30826 GC06P030489


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for TUBB Gene:
TUBB (tubulin, beta class I) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TUBB include cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 6, and distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type ii. GO annotations related to this gene include structural molecule activity and GTP binding. An important paralog of this gene is LOC260334.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TBB5_HUMAN, P07437
Function: Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site
on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

summary for TUBB Gene:
Microtubules are cylindrical tubes of 20-25 nm in diameter. They are composed of protofilaments which are in
turn composed of alpha- and beta-tubulin polymers. Each microtubule is polarized, at one end alpha-subunits
are exposed (-) and at the other beta-subunits are exposed (+). Microtubules act as a scaffold to determine
cell shape, and provide a backbone for cell organelles and vesicles to move on, a process that requires
motor proteins. The major microtubule motor proteins are kinesin, which generally moves towards the (+) end
of the microtubule, and dynein, which generally moves towards the (-) end. Microtubules also form the
spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis.

Gene Wiki entry for TUBB Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000006.11  NC_018917.2  NT_007592.16  NT_113891.3  NT_167244.2  NT_167245.2  NT_167246.2  NT_167247.2  
NT_167248.2  NT_167249.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TUBB gene promoter:
         GR   STAT1   p53   AP-1   GR-beta   STAT3   GR-alpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTUBB promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TUBB

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TUBB


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 6p21.33   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  6p21.33   HGNC cytogenetic band: 6p21.33

TUBB Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TUBB gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 6         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC06P030687:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
30,687,978 bp from pter      End:
30,693,203 bp from pter
Size:
5,226 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

Selected alternative locations (see all 7):
Chr6+,NT_167244 1,999,799-2,004,841      Chr6+,NT_113891.2 2,200,225-2,205,267      Chr6+,NT_167245 1,981,815-1,986,857     
Chr6+,NT_167247 2,070,040-2,075,082      Chr6+,NT_167246 2,036,251-2,041,293      Chr6+,NT_167249 2,020,464-2,025,506     

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TBB5_HUMAN, P07437 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Tubulin beta chain  
Size: 444 amino acids; 49671 Da
Subunit: May interact with RNABP10 (By similarity). Interacts with MX1 (By similarity). Dimer of alpha and beta
chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter
of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the
microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity.
Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms
and specialized cells. Interacts with PIFO
2 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for TUBB:
3QNZ (3D)        3QO0 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: P05218 Q8WUC1 Q9CY33

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TUBB: NX_P07437

Explore proteomics data for TUBB at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate
    residues and results in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Also monoglycylated but not
    polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin
    incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles,
    axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and
    lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of such
    modifications is still unclear but they regulate the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules (Probable)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys103, Lys216, Lys252, Lys297, Lys324, Lys336, Lys350, Lys362, Lys379
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See TUBB Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_821133.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000339001   ENSP00000365578   ENSP00000379672   ENSP00000379668   ENSP00000391672  
    Reactome Protein details: P07437

    TUBB Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    OriGene MassSpec for TUBB
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for TUBB
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for TUBB
    Novus Biologicals TUBB Proteins
    Novus Biologicals TUBB Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for TUBB 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for TUBB (29 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for TUBB

    TUBB Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of TUBB
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    Novus Biologicals TUBB Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for TUBB (P07437, P68363, Q13885)
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for TUBB
    antibodies-online antibodies for TUBB (262 products) 

    TUBB Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for TUBB
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for TUBB 
    antibodies-online kits for TUBB (28 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    TUB: Tubulins

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 8):
     IPR002453 Beta_tubulin
     IPR000217 Tubulin
     IPR003008 Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase
     IPR023123 Tubulin_C
     IPR018316 Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P07437

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P07437

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB002453 Beta tubulin

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TBB5_HUMAN, P07437
    Domain: The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium
    Similarity: Belongs to the tubulin family


    Find genes that share domains with TUBB           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TBB5_HUMAN, P07437
    Function: Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site
    on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TUBB:
    tubulin,beta polypeptide

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 9):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003924GTPase activity IEA--
    GO:0005198structural molecule activity TAS12090300
    GO:0005200structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
    GO:0005525GTP binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with TUBB           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         6 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for TUBB:
     Cell cycle / mitosis defect  Decreased cell number, increas  Decreased viability  Increased number of cells in m 
     Increased number of mitotic ce  Upregulation of Wnt/beta-caten 

    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for TUBB

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target TUBB:
    hsa-mir-25-3p (MIRT050270), hsa-mir-185-5p (MIRT045340), hsa-mir-484 (MIRT041962), hsa-mir-505-3p (MIRT041042), hsa-mir-196a-5p (MIRT048255), hsa-mir-877-5p (MIRT037326), hsa-mir-16-5p (MIRT031467), hsa-mir-330-3p (MIRT043834), hsa-mir-186-5p (MIRT045131), hsa-mir-193b-3p (MIRT041196), hsa-mir-196b-5p (MIRT042686), hsa-mir-92a-3p (MIRT049404), hsa-mir-20a-5p (MIRT050552), hsa-mir-320c (MIRT036174), hsa-mir-324-5p (MIRT043153), hsa-mir-324-3p (MIRT042825), hsa-mir-935 (MIRT036662), hsa-let-7b-5p (MIRT051953), hsa-mir-18a-3p (MIRT040807), hsa-mir-320b (MIRT036208), hsa-mir-92a-1-5p (MIRT038919), hsa-mir-423-5p (MIRT038161), hsa-mir-107 (MIRT048296), hsa-mir-708-5p (MIRT037752), hsa-mir-1180-3p (MIRT035930), hsa-mir-320a (MIRT044678), hsa-mir-615-3p (MIRT040151)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat TUBB using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TUBB (see all 26):
    hsa-miR-495 hsa-miR-16-2* hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-181c hsa-miR-4272 hsa-miR-4260 hsa-miR-421 hsa-miR-339-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTUBB 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TUBB

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TUBB
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: TUBB (NM_001069)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for TUBB
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TUBB
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TUBB

    Cell Line
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    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for TUBB 
    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TUBB

    Flow Cytometry
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    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-13380) for TUBB 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TBB5_HUMAN, P07437: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton5
    extracellular5
    cytosol4
    nucleus4
    plasma membrane4
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 11):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus ----
    GO:0005641nuclear envelope lumen IDA19567321
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0005856cytoskeleton TAS16130169

    Find genes that share ontologies with TUBB           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for TUBB About   (see all 15)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Development Slit Robo signaling
    Development Slit Robo signaling0.92
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection0.41
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Slit Robo signaling0.92
    Neurophysiological process Receptor mediated axon growth repulsion0.41
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection0.43
    2Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway
    Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin Proteasomal Pathway0.89
    Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway0.89
    3Cytoplasmic microtubules
    Cytoplasmic microtubules0.32
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Neurofilaments0.32
    4Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition
    Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes0.86
    Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition0.77
    Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes0.86
    G2/M Transition0.70
    Centrosome maturation0.86
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases0.69
    Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organizationfrom the centrosome0.86
    5Cell Cycle, Mitotic
    Cell Cycle, Mitotic0.90
    Cell Cycle0.90


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with TUBB           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for TUBB (see all 9)
        Sertoli-Sertoli Cell Junction Dynamics
    Remodeling of Adherens Junctions
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    Signaling in Gap Junctions
    Epithelial Adherens Junctions

    2 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for TUBB
        Neuroscience
    Cytoskeletal Signaling

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for TUBB (see all 10)
        Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Pathway
    Cell cycle Spindle assembly and chromosome separation
    Regulation of CFTR activity (norm and CF)
    Neurophysiological process Receptor-mediated axon growth repulsion
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Keratin filaments

    2 BioSystems Pathways for TUBB
        Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection


    4 Reactome Pathways for TUBB
        Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes
    Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organization,from the centrosome
    Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition
    Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes


    3 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for TUBB):
        Phagosome
    Gap junction
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including TUBB: 
              Huntington's Disease in human mouse rat
              Gap Junctions in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TUBB

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for TUBB (P074371, 2, 3 ENSP000003390014) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 1025)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    YWHAGP619812, 3MINT-50383 MINT-50849 MINT-8415355 I2D: score=2 
    ACTBP607092, 3MINT-7945693 MINT-7220149 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=1 
    YWHAZP631042, 3MINT-51021 MINT-8415355 I2D: score=4 
    NFKB2Q006532, 3MINT-48608 MINT-48739 I2D: score=2 
    TRAF1Q130772, 3MINT-49521 MINT-8415355 I2D: score=2 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 11):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000086G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0000278mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0006184GTP catabolic process ----
    GO:0006928cellular component movement TAS16130169
    GO:0007017microtubule-based process TAS12090300

    Find genes that share ontologies with TUBB           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for TUBB available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    Vinorelbine ditartrateSelective mitotic microtubule antagonist[125317-39-7]
    DocetaxelMicrotubule stabilizer[114977-28-5]
    Vinblastine sulfateDisrupts microtubules[143-67-9]
    ColchicineInhibitor of tubulin[64-86-8]
    Epothilone BMicrotubule stabilization agent; promotes tubulin polymerization[152044-54-7]

    2 HMDB Compounds for TUBB    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    CalciumCa (see all 2)7440-70-2--
    Guanosine triphosphate5'-GTP (see all 10)86-01-1--

    7 DrugBank Compounds for TUBB    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Vinblastine-- 865-21-4targetadduct14619954 9664292 1818332 15579115 18220533
    VinorelbineVinorelbin (see all 7)71486-22-1targetinhibitor17139284 20403547 17016423 7740336 9515574
    ColchicineColchicin (see all 3)64-86-8targetinhibitor20814887 15720245 16166440 19527023
    Vincristine22-Oxovincaleukoblastine (see all 12)57-22-7targetinhibitor19277662 17139284 17016423 20442307
    Epothilone BEPO 906 (see all 3)152044-54-7target--17139284 17016423
    Epothilone D-- 189453-10-9target--17139284 17016423
    Podofilox-- 477-47-4targetinhibitor2011590

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TUBB gene (see all 106)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    paclitaxel 83.4 157 14552587 (4), 7591286 (3), 9132006 (3), 10608867 (3) (see all 91)
    epothilones 82.4 7 16294009 (2), 18083698 (1), 10688884 (1), 12890533 (1) (see all 5)
    epothilone b 80.8 8 18723488 (1), 17938270 (1), 19228735 (1)
    taxane 76.9 22 10688884 (2), 17343904 (2), 15811618 (1), 19863156 (1) (see all 15)
    phomopsin a 76.2 3 15518544 (1), 19072542 (1)
    discodermolide 76 7 11564553 (1), 17002277 (1), 19863156 (1), 19894728 (1) (see all 7)
    colchicine 75.8 61 7766610 (3), 18712858 (3), 11005811 (2), 2011590 (2) (see all 31)
    tbceu 73.2 4 16099845 (1)
    rhizoxin 71.9 1 7788525 (1)
    dolastatin 10 70.7 7 15123603 (4), 10572005 (1), 15518544 (1), 16940412 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with TUBB           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TUBB gene: 
    NM_178014.2  

    Unigene Cluster for TUBB:

    Tubulin, beta class I
    Hs.636480  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK098772
    5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000327892(uc003nrl.3) ENST00000330914(uc011dmq.2) ENST00000396389
    ENST00000396384 ENST00000435534
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TUBB (see all 26):
    hsa-miR-495 hsa-miR-16-2* hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-181c hsa-miR-4272 hsa-miR-4260 hsa-miR-421 hsa-miR-339-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTUBB 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TUBB
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TUBB
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: TUBB (NM_001069)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TUBB
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TUBB
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for TUBB
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for TUBB
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    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-13380) for TUBB 

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB062393.1 AF070561.1 AF070593.1 AF070600.1 AF141349.1 AK098772.1 AK297489.1 AK297638.1 
    AK298889.1 AK302195.1 AK302314.1 AK303227.1 AK309684.1 AK316265.1 AK316316.1 BC001002.2 
    BC001896.1 BC001938.1 BC002347.2 BC005838.2 BC007605.1 BC013374.2 BC015889.1 BC019924.1 
    BC020946.1 BC021909.1 BC029323.1 BC062532.1 BC070326.1 BC103746.1 DQ457058.1 EF036509.1 
    V00599.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 185):

    DT.98082961  DT.91936800  DT.100732278  DT.95266883  DT.100732377  DT.99926884  DT.100732383  DT.95378931 
    DT.99926845  DT.453525  DT.95243839  DT.100732312  DT.100732449  DT.100732330  DT.100656828  DT.100867584 
    DT.91847371  DT.95266886  DT.100732388  DT.100732273  DT.91938078  DT.91938087  DT.91938086  DT.121370837 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 6126):

    BE257646 BE407352 BQ723751 BQ722107 BI859162 BU196598 BC007605 CF780872 
    CR620097 BF724936 AL702460 CR610704 BF026374 BE295597 BM471835 AU121594 
    BQ652654 BC021909 CR618223 BQ923297 AW085646 CR590449 CD366108 BQ433354 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    TUBB expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: AACGACCTCG
    TUBB Expression
    About this image


    TUBB expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 3) fully expand
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)
             Double Negative 2 Thymocytes Thymus
     
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Mural Trophectoderm Cells Mural Trophectoderm
     
     Blood (Cardiovascular System)
             Double Negative 2 Thymocytes Thymus
    TUBB Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TUBB Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.636480

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TBB5_HUMAN, P07437
    Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed with highest levels in spleen, thymus and immature brain

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including TUBB: 
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              Gap Junctions in human mouse rat

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    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TUBB
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TUBB

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for TUBB gene from Selected species (see all 20)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tubb51 , 5 tubulin, beta 5 class I1, 5 91.44(n)1
    100(a)1
      17 (18.70 cM)5
    221541  NM_011655.51  NP_035785.11 
     358339265 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TUBB1 tubulin, beta class I 85.36(n)
    100(a)
      396254  NM_205315.1  NP_990646.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia TUBB6
    tubulin, beta class I
    97(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343438.1(789167-808445)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia tubb1 tubulin, beta class I 83.33(n)
    99.77(a)
      448742  NM_001006894.1  NP_001006895.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii tubb51 tubulin, beta 5 83.26(n)
    98.65(a)
      386701  NM_198818.1  NP_942113.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta &bgr;Tub56D3 cytoskeleton organization and
    biogenesis structural more
    97(a)
    (best of 4)
        --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea mec-73
    ben-11
    beta tubulin3
    ben-11
    94(a)
    (best of 5)3
    75.06(n)1
    92.54(a)1
      X(7810216-7811403)3
    1754611  NM_065327.31  NP_497728.21 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons TUB61 TUB6 73.58(n)
    86.48(a)
      831100  NM_121263.3  NP_196786.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os01g08059001 Os01g0805900 76.85(n)
    86.95(a)
      4327550  NM_001051100.1  NP_001044565.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TUBB (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TUBB (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TUBB gene
    LOC2603342  TUBB8P72  TUBB4B2  TUBB4A2  TUBB82  TUBB2B2  TUBB32  TUBE12  
    TUBB62  TUBB2A2  ENSG000002589472  TUBB12  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for TUBB using alignment to 8 protein entries:     TBB5_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    XTP3TPATP1    DKFZp566F223    TUBB2A    TUBB2B    TUBB3    TUBB2C
    TUBB4Q    TUBB8    TUBB4B    TUBB6    TUBB4A    TUBB1
    LOC402300    TUBA1    TUBA1A    TUBA1C    TUBA8    DKFZp686L04275

    Find genes that share paralogs with TUBB           About GenesLikeMe


    Selected Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for TUBB (see all 6)
    PGOHUM00000248382 PGOHUM00000247033 PGOHUM00000247034 PGOHUM00000245460 PGOHUM00000233240


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TUBB (see all 189)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 6 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1176703751,2
    C,F--30687472(+) AAAAGC/TCCTTG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.03EA 120
    rs1870403301,2
    --30687498(+) TCTTTC/TAAAAC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs31325851,2
    C,F--30687614(-) TGCCTC/GCCCTG 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- G:0.09MN NA WA 332
    rs92959101,2
    C,F,A--30687714(+) TGTCTT/ACCCCA 1 -- us2k15Minor allele frequency- A:0.16MN WA NA EA 452
    rs1443125081,2
    C--30687742(+) CCCCAG/TACTTC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs743723841,2
    C--30687776(+) TGCTCA/CCTTTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs786439641,2
    C--30687777(+) GCTCAC/TTTTTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs558464711,2
    C--30687882(+) CCCATC/TCGTCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs171893571,2
    C,F--30688067(+) CCAGCC/GCCGGC 1 -- us2k15Minor allele frequency- G:0.19MN WA CSA 215
    rs1114657071,2
    C--30688341(+) CCAAGC/G/TTAAGA 1 -- spd11CSA 1

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TUBB (30687978 - 30693203 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for TUBB:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2670269CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2731791CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv830626CNV Loss17160897
    dgv1917e1CNV Complex17122850

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): TUBB
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TUBB
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for TUBB

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 191130    OMIM disorders: --

    6 diseases for TUBB:    
    About MalaCards
    cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 6    distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type ii    giant axonal neuropathy    onchocerciasis
    pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma    polyneuropathy


    Find genes that share disorders with TUBB           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TUBB gene (see all 46)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cerebral amyloid angiopathy familial 63.9 2 9928828 (1), 8619814 (1)
    dementia, familial british 51.7 2 9928828 (1), 8619814 (1)
    ovarian carcinoma 49.1 12 17343904 (3), 16294009 (1), 10871860 (1), 11931848 (1) (see all 9)
    recurrent gastric cancer 33.8 1 12861402 (1)
    cancer 33.7 27 19339240 (2), 11555610 (2), 16230404 (1), 10901706 (1) (see all 18)
    nsclc 33.7 27 18613117 (4), 12826311 (2), 19218769 (2), 11605182 (1) (see all 9)
    ovarian cancer 32.9 9 15574781 (2), 18465846 (1), 16288028 (1), 16002208 (1) (see all 7)
    tumors 26.5 45 18781279 (2), 12927047 (2), 19218769 (2), 9276747 (1) (see all 34)
    lung carcinoma 26.1 1 16309172 (1)
    shock 21.8 17 15274120 (1), 16080680 (1), 17522440 (1), 8710793 (1) (see all 17)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TUBB
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TUBB (5 documents)

    Export disorders for TUBB gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TUBB gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 805):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TUBB)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Tubulins in the primate retina: evidence that xanthophylls may be endogenous ligands for the paclitaxel-binding site. (PubMed id 11504633)1, 2, 3, 9 Crabtree D.V.... Adler A.J. (Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2001)
    2. An approach based on a genome-wide association study reveals candidate loci for narcolepsy. (PubMed id 20677014)1, 4 Shimada M....Tokunaga K. (Hum. Genet. 2010)
    3. High-density SNP screening of the major histocompatibility complex in systemic lupus erythematosus demonstrates strong evidence for independent susceptibility regions. (PubMed id 19851445)1, 4 Barcellos L.F....Criswell L.A. (PLoS Genet. 2009)
    4. The association of the beta1-tubulin Q43P polymorphism with intracerebral hemorrhage in men. (PubMed id 17488662)1, 4 Navarro-NA_A+ez L....MartA-nez C. (Haematologica 2007)
    5. Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells. (PubMed id 15592455)1, 2 Rush J.... Comb M.J. (Nat. Biotechnol. 2005)
    6. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    7. Mutation of the class I beta-tubulin gene does not predict response to paclitaxel for breast cancer. (PubMed id 12893435)1, 4 Maeno K....Fujimori M. (Cancer Lett. 2003)
    8. Presence of an expressed beta-tubulin gene (TUBB) in the HLA class I region may provide the genetic basis for HLA-linked microtubule dysfunction. (PubMed id 8270253)1, 3 Volz A....Ziegler A. (Hum. Genet. 1994)
    9. Evolutionary history of a multigene family: an expressed human beta- tubulin gene and three processed pseudogenes. (PubMed id 6688039)1, 2 Lee M.G.-S.... Cowan N.J. (Cell 1983)
    10. Identification of two human beta-tubulin isotypes. (PubMed id 6865944)1, 2 Hall J.L.... Cowan N.J. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1983)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 203068 HGNC: 20778 AceView: OK\/SW-cl.56 Ensembl:ENSG00000196230 euGenes: HUgn203068
    ECgene: TUBB Kegg: 203068 H-InvDB: TUBB

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TUBB Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tubulin

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TUBB gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TUBB

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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