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Aliases for TUBB Gene

Aliases for TUBB Gene

  • Tubulin, Beta Class I 2 3
  • TUBB5 3 4 6
  • Tubulin, Beta Polypeptide 2 3
  • Tubulin Beta-5 Chain 3 4
  • M40 3 6
  • Class I Beta-Tubulin 2
  • Tubulin Beta-1 Chain 3
  • Tubulin Beta Chain 3
  • Beta Ib Tubulin 3
  • Beta1-Tubulin 2
  • Tubulin, Beta 2
  • OK/SW-Cl.56 3
  • CDCBM6 3
  • TUBB1 3

External Ids for TUBB Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TUBB Gene

  • GC06M003138
  • GC06M003098
  • GC06P030797
  • GC06Pc30826
  • GC06P030687
  • GC06P030489

Summaries for TUBB Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TUBB Gene

  • This gene encodes a beta tubulin protein. This protein forms a dimer with alpha tubulin and acts as a structural component of microtubules. Mutations in this gene cause cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 6. Alternative splicing results in multiple splice variants. There are multiple pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

GeneCards Summary for TUBB Gene

TUBB (Tubulin, Beta Class I) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TUBB include cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 6 and dementia, familial british. Among its related pathways are ERK Signaling and GPCR Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and structural molecule activity. An important paralog of this gene is TUBB3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB Gene

  • Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

Tocris Summary for TUBB Gene

  • Microtubules are cylindrical tubes of 20-25 nm in diameter. They are composed of protofilaments which are in turn composed of alpha- and beta-tubulin polymers. Each microtubule is polarized, at one end alpha-subunits are exposed (-) and at the other beta-subunits are exposed (+). Microtubules act as a scaffold to determine cell shape, and provide a backbone for cell organelles and vesicles to move on, a process that requires motor proteins. The major microtubule motor proteins are kinesin, which generally moves towards the (+) end of the microtubule, and dynein, which generally moves towards the (-) end. Microtubules also form the spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis.

Gene Wiki entry for TUBB Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TUBB Gene

Genomics for TUBB Gene

Regulatory Elements for TUBB Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for TUBB Gene

30,720,201 bp from pter
30,725,426 bp from pter
5,226 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TUBB Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TUBB Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

Proteins for TUBB Gene

  • Protein details for TUBB Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tubulin beta chain
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P05218
    • Q8WUC1
    • Q9CY33

    Protein attributes for TUBB Gene

    444 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    49671 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • May interact with RNABP10 (By similarity). Interacts with MX1 (By similarity). Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells. Interacts with PIFO.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TUBB Gene

neXtProt entry for TUBB Gene

Proteomics data for TUBB Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TUBB Gene

  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate residues and results in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Also monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles, axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of such modifications is still unclear but they regulate the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules (Probable).
  • Ubiquitination at Lys103, Lys216, Lys252, Lys297, Lys324, Lys336, Lys350, Lys362, and Lys379
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TUBB Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TUBB (TUBB)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TUBB Gene

Domains for TUBB Gene

Gene Families for TUBB Gene

  • TUB :Tubulins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P07437
  • The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TUBB: view

Function for TUBB Gene

Molecular function for TUBB Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: tubulin,beta polypeptide
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TUBB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA --
GO:0005198 structural molecule activity TAS 12090300
GO:0005200 structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 18457437
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TUBB: view

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TUBB

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for TUBB Gene

Localization for TUBB Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TUBB Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TUBB gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
extracellular 5
cytosol 4
nucleus 4
plasma membrane 4
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TUBB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005641 nuclear envelope lumen IDA 19567321
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton TAS 16130169
GO:0005874 microtubule TAS 12090300
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB: view

Pathways for TUBB Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TUBB: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TUBB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000086 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0006184 obsolete GTP catabolic process --
GO:0006928 movement of cell or subcellular component TAS 16130169
GO:0006996 organelle organization TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB: view

Compounds for TUBB Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for TUBB Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
ABT 751 Inhibitor of microtubule polymerization; antimitotic and antitumor [141430-65-1]
Colchicine Inhibitor of tubulin [64-86-8]
Docetaxel Microtubule stabilizer [114977-28-5]
Harmine Potent and selective Dyrk1A inhibitor [442-51-3]
Vinblastine sulfate Disrupts microtubules [143-67-9]

(2) HMDB Compounds for TUBB Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Ca
Guanosine triphosphate
  • 5'-GTP

(7) Drugbank Compounds for TUBB Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • Colchicin
64-86-8 target inhibitor
Epothilone B
  • EPO 906
152044-54-7 target
Epothilone D
189453-10-9 target
477-47-4 target inhibitor
865-21-4 target adduct

(106) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TUBB Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
paclitaxel 83.4 122
epothilones 82.4 6
epothilone b 80.8 3
taxane 76.9 17
phomopsin a 76.2 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TUBB: view

Transcripts for TUBB Gene

Unigene Clusters for TUBB Gene

Tubulin, beta class I:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TUBB

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TUBB Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TUBB Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TUBB Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TUBB Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TUBB Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TUBB Gene Hs.636480

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TUBB Gene

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed with highest levels in spleen, thymus and immature brain.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with TUBB: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for TUBB Gene

Orthologs for TUBB Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TUBB Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TUBB 35
  • 99.85 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TUBB 35
  • 92.27 (n)
  • 100 (a)
TUBB5 36
  • 100 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TUBB 35
  • 92.27 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tubb5 35
  • 91.44 (n)
  • 100 (a)
Tubb5 16
Tubb5 36
  • 100 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TUBB 36
  • 100 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TUBB 36
  • 92 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tubb5 35
  • 90.69 (n)
  • 100 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TUBB 35
  • 85.36 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TUBB 36
  • 97 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tubb 35
  • 83.33 (n)
  • 99.77 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tubb5 35
  • 83.26 (n)
  • 98.65 (a)
tubb5 36
  • 99 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta betaTub56D 36
  • 89 (a)
bgrTub85D 37
  • 96 (a)
CG4869 37
  • 86 (a)
bgrTub56D 37
  • 97 (a)
bgrTub60D 37
  • 88 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ben-1 35
  • 75.06 (n)
  • 92.54 (a)
tbb-2 37
  • 90 (a)
ben-1 37
  • 90 (a)
mec-7 37
  • 94 (a)
tbb-4 37
  • 93 (a)
tbb-1 37
  • 88 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TUB2 38
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.6402 35
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TUB6 35
  • 73.58 (n)
  • 86.48 (a)
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.735 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0805900 35
  • 76.85 (n)
  • 86.95 (a)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.1544 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.4227 36
  • 96 (a)
CSA.7878 36
  • 96 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TUBB:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for TUBB Gene

Gene Tree for TUBB (if available)
Gene Tree for TUBB (if available)

Paralogs for TUBB Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TUBB: view

Variants for TUBB Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TUBB Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs7781 -- 30,725,344(+) ATTTT(A/G)TGTTG utr-variant-3-prime, nc-transcript-variant
rs8233 -- 30,725,188(+) CTGGA(A/G)TGGTG utr-variant-3-prime, nc-transcript-variant
rs14020 -- 30,724,424(+) GGCTT(C/T)TCAGT utr-variant-3-prime, nc-transcript-variant
rs25497 -- 30,723,713(+) AAGCT(A/G)ACCAC synonymous-codon, reference, intron-variant
rs25525 -- 30,722,766(+) CTTTC(A/T)TGAAC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TUBB Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2731791 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2670269 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv830626 CNV Loss 17160897
dgv1917e1 CNV Complex 17122850

Relevant External Links for TUBB Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB Gene

Disorders for TUBB Gene


  • Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 6 (CDCBM6) [MIM:615771]: A disorder of aberrant neuronal migration and disturbed axonal guidance. Affected individuals have microcephaly, ataxia, and severe delayed psychomotor development. Brain imaging shows variable malformations of cortical development, including white matter streaks, dysmorphic basal ganglia, corpus callosum abnormalities, brainstem and cerebellar hypoplasia, cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:23246003}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(46) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TUBB Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
cerebral amyloid angiopathy familial 63.9 2
dementia, familial british 51.7 2
ovarian carcinoma 49.1 11
recurrent gastric cancer 33.8 1
cancer 33.7 20

Relevant External Links for TUBB

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TUBB: view

Publications for TUBB Gene

  1. Tubulins in the primate retina: evidence that xanthophylls may be endogenous ligands for the paclitaxel-binding site. (PMID: 11504633) Crabtree D.V. … Adler A.J. (Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2001) 2 3 4 23
  2. Tumoral and tissue-specific expression of the major human beta- tubulin isotypes. (PMID: 20191564) Leandro-Garcia L.J. … Rodriguez-Antona C. (Cytoskeleton 2010) 3 4 23
  3. Perinuclear localization of huntingtin as a consequence of its binding to microtubules through an interaction with beta-tubulin: relevance to Huntington's disease. (PMID: 11870213) Hoffner G. … Djian P. (J. Cell. Sci. 2002) 3 23
  4. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 phosphorylates brain tubulin-beta isoforms and modulates microtubule stability--a point of convergence in parkinsonian neurodegeneration? (PMID: 19545277) Gillardon F. (J. Neurochem. 2009) 3 23
  5. Presence of an expressed beta-tubulin gene (TUBB) in the HLA class I region may provide the genetic basis for HLA-linked microtubule dysfunction. (PMID: 8270253) Volz A. … Ziegler A. (Hum. Genet. 1994) 2 3

Products for TUBB Gene

Sources for TUBB Gene

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