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TUBA4A Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 64
GCID: GC02M220114

Tubulin, Alpha 4a

(Previous names: tubulin, alpha 1 (testis specific), tubulin, alpha 1)
(Previous symbol: TUBA1)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Tubulin, Alpha 4a1 2     Tubulin, Alpha 11
TUBA11 2 3 5     H2-ALPHA2
Tubulin, Alpha 1 (Testis Specific)1 2     Tubulin Alpha-4A Chain2
Tubulin Alpha-1 Chain2 3     Alpha-Tubulin 13
Tubulin H2-Alpha2 3     Testis-Specific Alpha-Tubulin3

External Ids:    HGNC: 124071   Entrez Gene: 72772   Ensembl: ENSG000001278247   OMIM: 1911105   UniProtKB: P683663   

Export aliases for TUBA4A gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC02M219823 GC02M211967


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TUBA4A Gene:
Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a
heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin
superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families
are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while
gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta
tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. This gene encodes an alpha tubulin that is
a highly conserved homolog of a rat testis-specific alpha tubulin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants
encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013)

GeneCards Summary for TUBA4A Gene:
TUBA4A (tubulin, alpha 4a) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and structural constituent of cytoskeleton. An important paralog of this gene is TUBA3C.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TBA4A_HUMAN, P68366
Function: Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site
on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

summary for TUBA4A Gene:
Microtubules are cylindrical tubes of 20-25 nm in diameter. They are composed of protofilaments which are in
turn composed of alpha- and beta-tubulin polymers. Each microtubule is polarized, at one end alpha-subunits
are exposed (-) and at the other beta-subunits are exposed (+). Microtubules act as a scaffold to determine
cell shape, and provide a backbone for cell organelles and vesicles to move on, a process that requires
motor proteins. The major microtubule motor proteins are kinesin, which generally moves towards the (+) end
of the microtubule, and dynein, which generally moves towards the (-) end. Microtubules also form the
spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis.

Gene Wiki entry for TUBA4A Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000002.11  NT_005403.18  NC_018913.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TUBA4A gene promoter:
         E2F-4   E2F-3a   E2F-5   E2F-1   Sp1   E2F   E2F-2   PPAR-gamma2   Evi-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTUBA4A promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TUBA4A

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TUBA4A


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2q35   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2q35   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2q36.1

TUBA4A Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TUBA4A gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02M220114:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
220,114,433 bp from pter      End:
220,142,892 bp from pter
Size:
28,460 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TBA4A_HUMAN, P68366 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Tubulin alpha-4A chain  
Size: 448 amino acids; 49924 Da
Subunit: Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer
diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form
protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule
plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different
protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells
Miscellaneous: This tubulin does not have a C-terminal tyrosine
Secondary accessions: B3KNQ6 P05215

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TUBA4A: NX_P68366

Explore proteomics data for TUBA4A at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate
    residues and results in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Also monoglycylated but not
    polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin
    incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles,
    axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and
    lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of such
    modifications is still unclear but they regulate the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules (Probable)1
  • Acetylation of alpha chains at Lys-40 stabilizes microtubules and affects affinity and processivity of microtubule
    motors. This modification has a role in multiple cellular functions, ranging from cell motility, cell cycle
    progression or cell differentiation to intracellular trafficking and signaling (By similarity)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys96, Lys163, Lys280, Lys304, Lys311, Lys326, Lys352, Lys370, Lys394, Lys401
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn380
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See TUBA4A Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001265481.1  NP_005991.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000248437   ENSP00000375938   ENSP00000396212   ENSP00000408194   ENSP00000416992  
     ENSP00000396061   ENSP00000404740  
    Reactome Protein details: P68366

    TUBA4A Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals TUBA4A Protein
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    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
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    antibodies-online proteins for TUBA4A (15 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for TUBA4A

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    TUB: Tubulins

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 7):
     IPR002452 Alpha_tubulin
     IPR000217 Tubulin
     IPR003008 Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase
     IPR023123 Tubulin_C
     IPR018316 Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P68366

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P68366

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TBA4A_HUMAN, P68366
    Similarity: Belongs to the tubulin family


    Find genes that share domains with TUBA4A           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TBA4A_HUMAN, P68366
    Function: Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site
    on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003924GTPase activity IEA--
    GO:0005200structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI16455083
    GO:0005525GTP binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with TUBA4A           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for TUBA4A:
     Decreased DCP1a protein expres  Decreased cell number, increas  Decreased viability of wild-ty 

    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for TUBA4A

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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: TUBA4A (NM_006000)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for TUBA4A
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TBA4A_HUMAN, P68366: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton5
    cytosol4
    extracellular4

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0005874microtubule IDA--
    GO:0005881cytoplasmic microtubule ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with TUBA4A           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for TUBA4A About   (see all 17)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Development Slit Robo signaling
    Development Slit Robo signaling0.92
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection0.41
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Slit Robo signaling0.92
    Neurophysiological process Receptor mediated axon growth repulsion0.41
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection0.43
    2Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway
    Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin Proteasomal Pathway0.89
    Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway0.89
    3Cytoplasmic microtubules
    Cytoplasmic microtubules0.32
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Neurofilaments0.32
    4Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition
    Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes0.86
    Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition0.77
    Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes0.86
    G2/M Transition0.70
    Centrosome maturation0.86
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases0.69
    Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organizationfrom the centrosome0.86
    5Protein folding
    Chaperonin-mediated protein folding0.91
    Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway0.00
    Protein folding0.91


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with TUBA4A           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for TUBA4A (see all 11)
        Sertoli-Sertoli Cell Junction Dynamics
    Remodeling of Adherens Junctions
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    Signaling in Gap Junctions
    Epithelial Adherens Junctions

    10 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for TUBA4A (see first 5)
        Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Pathway
    Cell cycle Spindle assembly and chromosome separation
    Regulation of CFTR activity (norm and CF)
    Neurophysiological process Receptor-mediated axon growth repulsion
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Keratin filaments
    Development Slit-Robo signaling
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Reverse signaling by ephrin B
    wtCFTR and deltaF508 traffic / Membrane expression (norm and CF)
    Cell adhesion Gap junctions
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Neurofilaments

    2 BioSystems Pathways for TUBA4A
        Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection


    Selected Reactome Pathways for TUBA4A (see all 18)
        Resolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion
    Prefoldin mediated transfer of substrate to CCT/TriC
    Mitotic Prometaphase
    Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes
    Recruitment of NuMA to mitotic centrosomes


    3 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for TUBA4A):
        Phagosome
    Gap junction
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including TUBA4A: 
              Gap Junctions in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TUBA4A

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for TUBA4A (P683661, 2, 3 ENSP000002484374) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 1112)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    UCHL5Q9Y5K52, 3, ENSP000003564254MINT-4050722 MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000356425
    PLK1P533502, 3, ENSP000003000934MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000300093
    TCP1P179872, 3, ENSP000003173344MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000317334
    ACTBP607092, 3, ENSP000003499604MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000349960
    BUB1O436832, 3, ENSP000003025304MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000302530
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000086G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0000226microtubule cytoskeleton organization ----
    GO:0000278mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0002576platelet degranulation TAS--
    GO:0006184GTP catabolic process ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with TUBA4A           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
    9 ApexBio Compounds for TUBA4A     About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    7-xylosyltaxoltaxol (Paclitaxel) derivative[90332-66-4]
    ColchicineColchicine, a tubulin Inhibitor[64-86-8]
    D-64131novel inhibitor of Tubulin polymerization[74588-78-6]
    Docetaxel Trihydrateinhibitor of depolymerisation of microtubules[148408-66-6]
    Mc-MMADPotent tubulin inhibitor[1401963-15-2]
    MMADPotent tubulin inhibitor[203849-91-6]
    Monomethyl auristatin EAntimitotic agent[474645-27-7]
    PodophyllotoxinActions Inhibits microtubule assembly[518-28-5]
    Vc-MMADantibody drug conjugate[1401963-17-4]

    Compounds for TUBA4A available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    Vinorelbine ditartrateSelective mitotic microtubule antagonist[125317-39-7]
    DocetaxelMicrotubule stabilizer[114977-28-5]
    Vinblastine sulfateDisrupts microtubules[143-67-9]
    ColchicineInhibitor of tubulin[64-86-8]
    Epothilone BMicrotubule stabilization agent; promotes tubulin polymerization[152044-54-7]

    1 HMDB Compound for TUBA4A    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Guanosine triphosphate5'-GTP (see all 10)86-01-1--

    5 DrugBank Compounds for TUBA4A    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Podofilox-- 477-47-4targetinhibitor1411635 20979080 20814887 20810285 19286405 20657644
    Vincristine22-Oxovincaleukoblastine (see all 12)57-22-7targetinhibitor11168494 20691709 20442307
    Epothilone BEPO 906 (see all 3)152044-54-7target--17139284 17016423
    Epothilone D-- 189453-10-9target--17139284 17016423
    CabazitaxelRPR-116258A (see all 5)183133-96-2targetbinder--



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TUBA4A gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001278552.1  NM_006000.2  

    Unigene Cluster for TUBA4A:

    Tubulin, alpha 4a
    Hs.75318  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK054731
    10 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000248437(uc002vkt.1) ENST00000392088(uc010zkz.1) ENST00000498660
    ENST00000398989 ENST00000427737 ENST00000456818 ENST00000447205 ENST00000462806
    ENST00000475683 ENST00000425551
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TUBA4A
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TUBA4A

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK054731.1 AK299958.1 BC009238.2 BC018854.2 BT006731.1 

    21 DOTS entries:

    DT.100810985  DT.95119848  DT.118885  DT.100810991  DT.121017611  DT.100810992  DT.95258481  DT.121017614 
    DT.100810987  DT.121017490  DT.121017682  DT.91768481  DT.100810984  DT.100810990  DT.121017583  DT.121017618 
    DT.86845545  DT.121017629  DT.91724808  DT.120658537  DT.120697624 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 486):

    H45088 BM561700 BQ688607 BG697371 BQ054375 BM543121 BI836113 F03923 
    F25814 BQ061051 F04584 CB106763 CR620681 BG677642 F08327 BP366721 
    BM724739 BC009238 BQ054189 BE018124 AA858420 BQ061291 AI811117 BE795269 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    3 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TUBA4A    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b
    SP1:        -                                       
    SP2:                                                
    SP3:                                                


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for TUBA4A

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    TUBA4A expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GAGGAGGGTG
    TUBA4A Expression
    About this image


    TUBA4A expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 16) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Mature Choroid Plexus Cells Choroid Plexus
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Primary Oocyte Primary Follicle
             Oviduct
     
     Inner Cell Mass (Early Embryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Human embryonic stem cells (family)
     
     Skeletal Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Mononuclear Myocytes Hyoid Arch Muscles
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Mature Choroid Plexus Cells Choroid Plexus
    TUBA4A Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TUBA4A Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.75318
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including TUBA4A: 
              Gap Junctions in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for TUBA4A gene from Selected species (see all 17)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tuba4a1 , 5 tubulin, alpha 4A1, 5 92.56(n)1
    100(a)1
      1 (38.63 cM)5
    221451  NM_009447.31  NP_033473.11 
     752149745 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves LOC1008572141 tubulin alpha-4A chain-like 86.53(n)
    96.43(a)
      100857214  XM_003641643.2  XP_003641691.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    Uncharacterized protein
    97(a)
    97(a)
    1 ↔ many
    1 ↔ many
    1(95682244-95703717)
    1(95691343-95730606)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia tuba4b1 tubulin, alpha 4b 84.9(n)
    98.21(a)
      549448  NM_001016694.2  NP_001016694.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii tuba8l31 tubulin, alpha 8 like 3 81.55(n)
    94.87(a)
      445164  NM_001003558.1  NP_001003558.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta alphaTub85E6
    alpha-Tubulin at 85E
    94(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    3R(5556943-5558987)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea mec-126
    Protein MEC-12 (mec-12) mRNA, complete cds
    91(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    III(3131574-3139221) WBGene00003175
    soybean
    (Glycine max)
    eudicotyledons Gma.166742 Transcribed sequence with strong similarity to protein more 78.6(n)  
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.217622 O.sativa mRNA for alpha-tubulin (clone OSTA-136) 79.58(n)    AK102560.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TUBA4A (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TUBA4A (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TUBA4A gene
    TUBA3C2  TUBA1B2  TUBA1A2  TUBA3E2  TUBA1C2  TUBA82  TUBA3D2  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for TUBA4A using alignment to 7 protein entries:     TBA4A_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    TUBA2    TUBA3C    TUBA3D    TUBA3E    TUBA1A    TUBA1
    TUBA1C    TUBA1B    TUBA4B    TUBA8    DKFZp686L04275    TUBAL3
    MGC16703    TUBB2A    TUBB2B    TUBB4A    TUBB6    TUBB3

    Find genes that share paralogs with TUBA4A           About GenesLikeMe


    Selected Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for TUBA4A (see all 9)
    PGOHUM00000242759 PGOHUM00000239767 PGOHUM00000239052 PGOHUM00000240390 PGOHUM00000250484


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TUBA4A (see all 110)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1900095031,2
    --219496141(+) TCAAAA/GCGCAG 2 R syn10--------
    rs1998811971,2
    C--219496143(+) AAAGCA/GCAGAG 2 R C mis10--------
    rs1928346601,2
    C--219496509(+) AAGAAC/G/TGAGAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1164863241,2
    C,F--219496510(+) AGAACG/AAGAAA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.02WA 118
    rs2006327861,2
    --219496539(+) AGGGGA/CCTGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1848375401,2
    --219496574(+) AGCGTA/GAGATA 1 -- int10--------
    rs2016492831,2
    --219496779(+) CCTTGC/TCAATG 2 D G mis10--------
    rs2011720871,2
    --219496782(+) TGCCAA/GTGGTA 2 T I mis10--------
    rs2006510961,2
    --219496783(+) GCCAAC/TGGTAT 2 I V mis10--------
    rs1995790961,2
    C--219496787(+) ATGGTA/GTAGTG 2 Y syn10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TUBA4A (220114433 - 220142892 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for TUBA4A:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv508885CNV Insertion20534489
    nsv834543CNV Loss17160897

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TUBA4A
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 191110    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with TUBA4A           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TUBA4A
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TUBA4A (1 document)

    Export disorders for TUBA4A gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TUBA4A gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 158):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TUBA4A)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The role of height-associated loci identified in genome wide association studies in the determination of pediatric stature. (PubMed id 20546612)1, 4 Zhao J....Grant S.F. (BMC Med. Genet. 2010)
    2. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    4. Alternative 5' exons either provide or deny an initiator methionine codon to the same alpha-tubulin coding region. (PubMed id 3029670)1, 2 Dobner P.R.... Villa-Komaroff L. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1987)
    5. Six mouse alpha-tubulin mRNAs encode five distinct isotypes: testis- specific expression of two sister genes. (PubMed id 3785200)1, 3 Villasante A.... Cowan N.J. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1986)
    6. Acetylated I+-tubulin is reduced in individuals with poor sperm motility. (PubMed id 24268707)1 Bhagwat S....Parte P. (Fertil. Steril. 2014)
    7. The intracellular interactome of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains reveals their function as sorting machineries toward exosomes. (PubMed id 23463506)1 Perez-Hernandez D....YA!A+ez-MA^ M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2013)
    8. Profiling of Parkin-binding partners using tandem affinity purification. (PubMed id 24244333)1 Zanon A....Pichler I. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    9. The SOX2-interactome in brain cancer cells identifies the requirement of MSI2 and USP9X for the growth of brain tumor cells. (PubMed id 23667531)1 Cox J.L....Rizzino A. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    10. Characterization of the EGFR interactome reveals associated protein complex networks and intracellular receptor dynamics. (PubMed id 23956138)1 Foerster S....Ritter C.A. (Proteomics 2013)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 7277 HGNC: 12407 AceView: TUBA1 Ensembl:ENSG00000127824 euGenes: HUgn7277
    ECgene: TUBA4A Kegg: 7277 H-InvDB: TUBA4A

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TUBA4A Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/tuba1/
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tubulin

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TUBA4A gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TUBA4A

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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