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TUBA4A Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 64
GCID: GC02M220114

Tubulin, Alpha 4a

(Previous names: tubulin, alpha 1 (testis specific), tubulin, alpha 1)
(Previous symbol: TUBA1)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Tubulin, Alpha 4a1 2     Tubulin, Alpha 11
TUBA11 2 3 5     H2-ALPHA2
Tubulin, Alpha 1 (Testis Specific)1 2     Tubulin Alpha-4A Chain2
Tubulin Alpha-1 Chain2 3     Alpha-Tubulin 13
Tubulin H2-Alpha2 3     Testis-Specific Alpha-Tubulin3

External Ids:    HGNC: 124071   Entrez Gene: 72772   Ensembl: ENSG000001278247   OMIM: 1911105   UniProtKB: P683663   

Export aliases for TUBA4A gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC02M219823 GC02M211967


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TUBA4A Gene:
Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a
heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin
superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families
are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while
gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta
tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. This gene encodes an alpha tubulin that is
a highly conserved homolog of a rat testis-specific alpha tubulin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants
encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013)

GeneCards Summary for TUBA4A Gene:
TUBA4A (tubulin, alpha 4a) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TUBA4A include drug addiction, and lissencephaly. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and structural constituent of cytoskeleton. An important paralog of this gene is TUBA3C.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TBA4A_HUMAN, P68366
Function: Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site
on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

summary for TUBA4A Gene:
Microtubules are cylindrical tubes of 20-25 nm in diameter. They are composed of protofilaments which are in
turn composed of alpha- and beta-tubulin polymers. Each microtubule is polarized, at one end alpha-subunits
are exposed (-) and at the other beta-subunits are exposed (+). Microtubules act as a scaffold to determine
cell shape, and provide a backbone for cell organelles and vesicles to move on, a process that requires
motor proteins. The major microtubule motor proteins are kinesin, which generally moves towards the (+) end
of the microtubule, and dynein, which generally moves towards the (-) end. Microtubules also form the
spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis.

Gene Wiki entry for TUBA4A Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000002.12  NT_005403.18  NC_018913.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TUBA4A gene promoter:
         E2F-4   E2F-3a   E2F-5   E2F-1   Sp1   E2F   E2F-2   PPAR-gamma2   Evi-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTUBA4A promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TUBA4A

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TUBA4A


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2q35   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2q35   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2q36.1

TUBA4A Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TUBA4A gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02M220114:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
220,114,433 bp from pter      End:
220,142,892 bp from pter
Size:
28,460 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TBA4A_HUMAN, P68366 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Tubulin alpha-4A chain  
Size: 448 amino acids; 49924 Da
Subunit: Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer
diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form
protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule
plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different
protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells
Miscellaneous: This tubulin does not have a C-terminal tyrosine
Secondary accessions: B3KNQ6 P05215

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TUBA4A: NX_P68366

Explore proteomics data for TUBA4A at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate
    residues and results in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Also monoglycylated but not
    polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin
    incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles,
    axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and
    lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of such
    modifications is still unclear but they regulate the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules (Probable)1
  • Acetylation of alpha chains at Lys-40 stabilizes microtubules and affects affinity and processivity of microtubule
    motors. This modification has a role in multiple cellular functions, ranging from cell motility, cell cycle
    progression or cell differentiation to intracellular trafficking and signaling (By similarity)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys96, Lys163, Lys280, Lys304, Lys311, Lys326, Lys352, Lys370, Lys394, Lys401
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn380
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See TUBA4A Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001265481.1  NP_005991.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000248437   ENSP00000375938   ENSP00000396212   ENSP00000408194   ENSP00000416992  
     ENSP00000396061   ENSP00000404740  
    Reactome Protein details: P68366

    TUBA4A Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for TUBA4A
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    Novus Biologicals TUBA4A Protein
    Novus Biologicals TUBA4A Lysate
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    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

    TUBA4A Antibody Products:

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    Abcam antibodies for TUBA4A (Q71U36, P68366, Q13748)
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    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for TUBA4A

    TUBA4A Assay Products:

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    TUB: Tubulins

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 7):
     IPR002452 Alpha_tubulin
     IPR000217 Tubulin
     IPR003008 Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase
     IPR023123 Tubulin_C
     IPR018316 Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P68366

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P68366

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TBA4A_HUMAN, P68366
    Similarity: Belongs to the tubulin family


    TUBA4A for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TBA4A_HUMAN, P68366
    Function: Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site
    on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003924GTPase activity IEA--
    GO:0005200structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI16455083
    GO:0005525GTP binding IEA--
         
    TUBA4A for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for TUBA4A:
     Decreased DCP1a protein expres  Decreased cell number, increas  Decreased viability of wild-ty 

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for TUBA4A
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for TUBA4A
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for TUBA4A

    miRNA
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    1 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNA that regulate TUBA4A:
    hsa-miR-450b-5p
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TUBA4A

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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: TUBA4A (NM_006000)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for TUBA4A
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TUBA4A
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TUBA4A

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TUBA4A


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TBA4A_HUMAN, P68366: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton5
    cytosol4
    extracellular4

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0005874microtubule IDA--
    GO:0005881cytoplasmic microtubule ----

    TUBA4A for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for TUBA4A About   (see all 17)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Development Slit Robo signaling
    Development Slit Robo signaling0.92
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection0.41
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Slit Robo signaling0.92
    Neurophysiological process Receptor mediated axon growth repulsion0.41
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection0.43
    2Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway
    Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin Proteasomal Pathway0.89
    Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway0.89
    3Cytoplasmic microtubules
    Cytoplasmic microtubules0.32
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Neurofilaments0.32
    4Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition
    Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes0.86
    Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition0.77
    Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes0.86
    G2/M Transition0.70
    Centrosome maturation0.86
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases0.69
    Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organizationfrom the centrosome0.86
    5Protein folding
    Chaperonin-mediated protein folding0.91
    Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway0.00
    Protein folding0.91

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for TUBA4A (see all 11)
        Sertoli-Sertoli Cell Junction Dynamics
    Remodeling of Adherens Junctions
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    Signaling in Gap Junctions
    Epithelial Adherens Junctions

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for TUBA4A (see all 10)
        Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Pathway
    Cell cycle Spindle assembly and chromosome separation
    Regulation of CFTR activity (norm and CF)
    Neurophysiological process Receptor-mediated axon growth repulsion
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Keratin filaments

    2 BioSystems Pathways for TUBA4A
        Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection


    Selected Reactome Pathways for TUBA4A (see all 18)
        Resolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion
    Prefoldin mediated transfer of substrate to CCT/TriC
    Mitotic Prometaphase
    Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes
    Recruitment of NuMA to mitotic centrosomes


    3 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for TUBA4A):
        Phagosome
    Gap junction
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection


    TUBA4A for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including TUBA4A: 
              Gap Junctions in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TUBA4A

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for TUBA4A (P683661, 2, 3 ENSP000002484374) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 1112)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    UCHL5Q9Y5K52, 3, ENSP000003564254MINT-4050722 MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000356425
    PLK1P533502, 3, ENSP000003000934MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000300093
    TCP1P179872, 3, ENSP000003173344MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000317334
    ACTBP607092, 3, ENSP000003499604MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000349960
    BUB1O436832, 3, ENSP000003025304MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000302530
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000086G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0000226microtubule cytoskeleton organization ----
    GO:0000278mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0002576platelet degranulation TAS--
    GO:0006184GTP catabolic process ----

    TUBA4A for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
    9 ApexBio Compounds for TUBA4A     About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    7-xylosyltaxoltaxol (Paclitaxel) derivative[90332-66-4]
    ColchicineColchicine, a tubulin Inhibitor[64-86-8]
    D-64131novel inhibitor of Tubulin polymerization[74588-78-6]
    Docetaxel Trihydrateinhibitor of depolymerisation of microtubules[148408-66-6]
    Mc-MMADPotent tubulin inhibitor[1401963-15-2]
    MMADPotent tubulin inhibitor[203849-91-6]
    Monomethyl auristatin EAntimitotic agent[474645-27-7]
    PodophyllotoxinActions Inhibits microtubule assembly[518-28-5]
    Vc-MMADantibody drug conjugate[1401963-17-4]

    Compounds for TUBA4A available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    Vinorelbine ditartrateSelective mitotic microtubule antagonist[125317-39-7]
    DocetaxelMicrotubule stabilizer[114977-28-5]
    Vinblastine sulfateDisrupts microtubules[143-67-9]
    ColchicineInhibitor of tubulin[64-86-8]
    Epothilone BMicrotubule stabilization agent; promotes tubulin polymerization[152044-54-7]

    1 HMDB Compound for TUBA4A    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Guanosine triphosphate5'-GTP (see all 10)86-01-1--

    5 DrugBank Compounds for TUBA4A    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Podofilox-- 477-47-4targetinhibitor1411635 20979080 20814887 20810285 19286405 20657644
    Vincristine22-Oxovincaleukoblastine (see all 12)57-22-7targetinhibitor11168494 20691709 20442307
    Epothilone BEPO 906 (see all 3)152044-54-7target--17139284 17016423
    Epothilone D-- 189453-10-9target--17139284 17016423
    CabazitaxelRPR-116258A (see all 5)183133-96-2targetbinder--



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TUBA4A gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001278552.1  NM_006000.2  

    Unigene Cluster for TUBA4A:

    Tubulin, alpha 4a
    Hs.75318  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK054731
    10 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000248437(uc002vkt.1) ENST00000392088(uc010zkz.1) ENST00000498660
    ENST00000398989 ENST00000427737 ENST00000456818 ENST00000447205 ENST00000462806
    ENST00000475683 ENST00000425551
    miRNA
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: TUBA4A (NM_006000)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TUBA4A
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TUBA4A
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for TUBA4A
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for TUBA4A
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat TUBA4A
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TUBA4A
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TUBA4A

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK054731.1 AK299958.1 BC009238.2 BC018854.2 BT006731.1 

    21 DOTS entries:

    DT.100810985  DT.95119848  DT.118885  DT.100810991  DT.121017611  DT.100810992  DT.95258481  DT.121017614 
    DT.100810987  DT.121017490  DT.121017682  DT.91768481  DT.100810984  DT.100810990  DT.121017583  DT.121017618 
    DT.86845545  DT.121017629  DT.91724808  DT.120658537  DT.120697624 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 486):

    H45088 BM561700 BQ688607 BG697371 BQ054375 BM543121 BI836113 F03923 
    F25814 BQ061051 F04584 CB106763 CR620681 BG677642 F08327 BP366721 
    BM724739 BC009238 BQ054189 BE018124 AA858420 BQ061291 AI811117 BE795269 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    3 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TUBA4A    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b
    SP1:        -                                       
    SP2:                                                
    SP3:                                                


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for TUBA4A

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    TUBA4A expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GAGGAGGGTG
    TUBA4A Expression
    About this image


    TUBA4A expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 16) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Mature Choroid Plexus Cells Choroid Plexus
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Primary Oocyte Primary Follicle
             Oviduct
     
     Inner Cell Mass (Early Embryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Human embryonic stem cells (family)
     
     Skeletal Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Mononuclear Myocytes Hyoid Arch Muscles
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Mature Choroid Plexus Cells Choroid Plexus
    TUBA4A Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TUBA4A Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.75318
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including TUBA4A: 
              Gap Junctions in human mouse rat

    Primer
    Products:
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for TUBA4A
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for TUBA4A
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat TUBA4A
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TUBA4A
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TUBA4A
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TUBA4A

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for TUBA4A gene from Selected species (see all 17)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tuba4a1 , 5 tubulin, alpha 4A1, 5 92.56(n)1
    100(a)1
      1 (38.63 cM)5
    221451  NM_009447.31  NP_033473.11 
     752149745 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves LOC1008572141 tubulin alpha-4A chain-like 86.53(n)
    96.43(a)
      100857214  XM_003641643.2  XP_003641691.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    Uncharacterized protein
    97(a)
    97(a)
    1 ↔ many
    1 ↔ many
    1(95682244-95703717)
    1(95691343-95730606)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia tuba4b1 tubulin, alpha 4b 84.9(n)
    98.21(a)
      549448  NM_001016694.2  NP_001016694.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii tuba8l31 tubulin, alpha 8 like 3 81.55(n)
    94.87(a)
      445164  NM_001003558.1  NP_001003558.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta alphaTub85E6
    alpha-Tubulin at 85E
    94(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    3R(5556943-5558987)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea mec-126
    Protein MEC-12 (mec-12) mRNA, complete cds
    91(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    III(3131574-3139221) WBGene00003175
    soybean
    (Glycine max)
    eudicotyledons Gma.166742 Transcribed sequence with strong similarity to protein more 78.6(n)  
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.217622 O.sativa mRNA for alpha-tubulin (clone OSTA-136) 79.58(n)    AK102560.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TUBA4A (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TUBA4A (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TUBA4A gene
    TUBA3C2  TUBA1B2  TUBA1A2  TUBA3E2  TUBA1C2  TUBA82  TUBA3D2  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for TUBA4A using alignment to 7 protein entries:     TBA4A_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    TUBA2    TUBA3C    TUBA3D    TUBA3E    TUBA1A    TUBA1
    TUBA1C    TUBA1B    TUBA4B    TUBA8    DKFZp686L04275    TUBAL3
    MGC16703    TUBB2A    TUBB2B    TUBB4A    TUBB6    TUBB3

    TUBA4A for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    Selected Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for TUBA4A (see all 9)
    PGOHUM00000242759 PGOHUM00000239767 PGOHUM00000239052 PGOHUM00000240390 PGOHUM00000250484


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TUBA4A (see all 110)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1900095031,2
    --219496141(+) TCAAAA/GCGCAG 2 R syn10--------
    rs1998811971,2
    C--219496143(+) AAAGCA/GCAGAG 2 R C mis10--------
    rs1928346601,2
    C--219496509(+) AAGAAC/G/TGAGAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1164863241,2
    C,F--219496510(+) AGAACG/AAGAAA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.02WA 118
    rs2006327861,2
    --219496539(+) AGGGGA/CCTGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1848375401,2
    --219496574(+) AGCGTA/GAGATA 1 -- int10--------
    rs2016492831,2
    --219496779(+) CCTTGC/TCAATG 2 D G mis10--------
    rs2011720871,2
    --219496782(+) TGCCAA/GTGGTA 2 T I mis10--------
    rs2006510961,2
    --219496783(+) GCCAAC/TGGTAT 2 I V mis10--------
    rs1995790961,2
    C--219496787(+) ATGGTA/GTAGTG 2 Y syn10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TUBA4A (220114433 - 220142892 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for TUBA4A:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv508885CNV Insertion20534489
    nsv834543CNV Loss17160897

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TUBA4A
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for TUBA4A

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 191110    OMIM disorders: --

    18 diseases for TUBA4A:    
    About MalaCards
    drug addiction    lissencephaly    tuberous sclerosis    brain cancer
    fanconi's anemia    colon adenocarcinoma    hiv-1    myocardial infarction
    choroiditis    esophageal squamous cell carcinoma    adenocarcinoma    hepatocellular carcinoma
    esophagitis    squamous cell carcinoma    lung cancer    neuronitis
    prostatitis    breast cancer


    TUBA4A for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TUBA4A
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TUBA4A (1 document)

    Export disorders for TUBA4A gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TUBA4A gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 158) (see top 10):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TUBA4A)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The role of height-associated loci identified in genome wide association studies in the determination of pediatric stature. (PubMed id 20546612)1, 4 Zhao J....Grant S.F. (BMC Med. Genet. 2010)
    2. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    4. Alternative 5' exons either provide or deny an initiator methionine codon to the same alpha-tubulin coding region. (PubMed id 3029670)1, 2 Dobner P.R.... Villa-Komaroff L. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1987)
    5. Six mouse alpha-tubulin mRNAs encode five distinct isotypes: testis- specific expression of two sister genes. (PubMed id 3785200)1, 3 Villasante A.... Cowan N.J. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1986)
    6. Acetylated I+-tubulin is reduced in individuals with poor sperm motility. (PubMed id 24268707)1 Bhagwat S....Parte P. (Fertil. Steril. 2014)
    7. The intracellular interactome of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains reveals their function as sorting machineries toward exosomes. (PubMed id 23463506)1 Perez-Hernandez D....YA!A+ez-MA^ M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2013)
    8. Profiling of Parkin-binding partners using tandem affinity purification. (PubMed id 24244333)1 Zanon A....Pichler I. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    9. The SOX2-interactome in brain cancer cells identifies the requirement of MSI2 and USP9X for the growth of brain tumor cells. (PubMed id 23667531)1 Cox J.L....Rizzino A. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    10. Characterization of the EGFR interactome reveals associated protein complex networks and intracellular receptor dynamics. (PubMed id 23956138)1 Foerster S....Ritter C.A. (Proteomics 2013)
    11. A high-throughput approach for measuring temporal changes in the interactome. (PubMed id 22863883)1 Kristensen A.R....Foster L.J. (Nat. Methods 2012)
    12. Proteome-wide identification of ubiquitylation sites by conjugation of engineered lysine-less ubiquitin. (PubMed id 22053931)1 Oshikawa K....Nakayama K.I. (J. Proteome Res. 2012)
    13. Host cell interactome of HIV-1 Rev includes RNA helicases involved in multiple facets of virus production. (PubMed id 22174317)1 Naji S....Gerace L. (amp 2012)
    14. Systems-wide analysis of ubiquitylation dynamics reveals a key role for PAF15 ubiquitylation in DNA-damage bypass. (PubMed id 23000965)1 Povlsen L.K....Choudhary C. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2012)
    15. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)
    16. The interaction between ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 37 and glucose-regulated protein 78 in hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed id 21800051)1 Fang Y....Shen X. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2012)
    17. Methods for quantification of in vivo changes in protein ubiquitination following proteasome and deubiquitinase inhibition. (PubMed id 22505724)1 Udeshi N.D....Carr S.A. (amp 2012)
    18. Proteomic analysis identifies dysfunction in cellular transport, energy, and protein metabolism in different brain regions of atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration. (PubMed id 22360420)1 Martins-de-Souza D....Bahn S. (J. Proteome Res. 2012)
    19. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (BMC Syst. Biol. 2011)
    20. Postmortem proteomic analysis in human amygdala of drug addicts: possible impact of tubulin on drug-abusing behavior. (PubMed id 20686780)1 Zill P....Bondy B. (Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2011)
    21. A data set of human endogenous protein ubiquitination sites. (PubMed id 20972266)1 Shi Y....Qin J. (amp 2011)
    22. PEX14 is required for microtubule-based peroxisome motility in human cells. (PubMed id 21525035)1 Bharti P....Erdmann R. (J. Cell. Sci. 2011)
    23. Ubiquitin ligase substrate identification through quantitative proteomics at both the protein and peptide levels. (PubMed id 21987572)1 Lee K.A....Doedens J.R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2011)
    24. A proteome-wide, quantitative survey of in vivo ubiquitylation sites reveals widespread regulatory roles. (PubMed id 21890473)1 Wagner S.A....Choudhary C. (amp 2011)
    25. Proteomic dissection of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) interactome. (PubMed id 21942715)1 Lai Y....Shiio Y. (J. Proteome Res. 2011)
    26. Mapping the NPHP-JBTS-MKS protein network reveals ciliopathy disease genes and pathways. (PubMed id 21565611)1 Sang L.... Jackson P.K. (Cell 2011)
    27. Systematic and quantitative assessment of the ubiquitin-modified proteome. (PubMed id 21906983)1 Kim W....Gygi S.P. (Mol. Cell 2011)
    28. Huwe1, a novel cellular interactor of Gag-Pol through integrase binding, negatively influences HIV-1 infectivity. (PubMed id 21167302)1 Yamamoto S.P....Suzuki Y. (Microbes Infect. 2011)
    29. Global identification of modular cullin-RING ligase substrates. (PubMed id 21963094)1 Emanuele M.J....Elledge S.J. (Cell 2011)
    30. Highly efficient purification of protein complexes from mammalian cells using a novel streptavidin-binding peptide and hexahistidine tandem tag system: application to Bruton's tyrosine kinase. (PubMed id 21080425)1 Li Y....Vondriska T.M. (Protein Sci. 2011)
    31. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysine ubiquitylation reveals promiscuity at site level. (PubMed id 21139048)1 Danielsen J.M....Nielsen M.L. (amp 2011)
    32. Proteomic profiling of Myc-associated proteins. (PubMed id 21150319)1 Agrawal P....Sedivy J.M. (Cell Cycle 2010)
    33. Identification of FBXO25-interacting proteins using an integrated proteomics approach. (PubMed id 20473970)1 Teixeira F.R.... Gomes M.D. (Proteomics 2010)
    34. Global analysis of lysine ubiquitination by ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity profiling. (PubMed id 20639865)1 Xu G....Jaffrey S.R. (Nat. Biotechnol. 2010)
    35. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of the first podophyllotoxin analogues as potential vascular-disrupting agents. (PubMed id 20979080)7 LabruA"re R....Giorgi-Renault S. (ChemMedChem 2010)
    36. Dynamics of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase network revealed by systematic quantitative proteomics. (PubMed id 21145461)1 Bennett E.J....Harper J.W. (Cell 2010)
    37. Dynamic subunit exchange and the regulation of microtubule assembly by the stress response protein human alphaB crystallin. (PubMed id 20668689)1 Houck S.A. and Clark J.I. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    38. Live cell imaging of micronucleus formation and development. (PubMed id 20691709)7 Yasui M....Honma M. (Mutat. Res. 2010)
    39. Competitive mass spectrometry binding assay for characterization of three binding sites of tubulin. (PubMed id 20814887)7 Li C.M....Dalton J.T. (J Mass Spectrom 2010)
    40. A screen for kinetochore-microtubule interaction inhibitors identifies novel antitubulin compounds. (PubMed id 20657644)7 Screpanti E....De Wulf P. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    41. Microtubule dynamics, mitotic arrest, and apoptosis: drug-induced differential effects of betaIII-tubulin. (PubMed id 20442307)7 Gan P.P....Kavallaris M. (Mol. Cancer Ther. 2010)
    42. Structure-based virtual screening of novel tubulin inhibitors and their characterization as anti-mitotic agents. (PubMed id 20810285)7 Kim N.D....Kim K.H. (amp 2010)
    43. An integrated workflow for charting the human interaction proteome: insights into the PP2A system. (PubMed id 19156129)1 Glatter T....Gstaiger M. (Mol. Syst. Biol. 2009)
    44. Proteomic analysis of human parotid gland exosomes by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). (PubMed id 19199708)1 Gonzalez-Begne M....Yates J.R. (J. Proteome Res. 2009)
    45. Evolutionary divergence of enzymatic mechanisms for posttranslational polyglycylation. (PubMed id 19524510)2 Rogowski K....Janke C. (Cell 2009)
    46. TLR8-dependent TNF-(alpha) overexpression in Fanconi anemia group C cells. (PubMed id 19850743)1 Vanderwerf S.M....Bagby G.C. (Blood 2009)
    47. Applying linear interaction energy method for binding affinity calculations of podophyllotoxin analogues with tubulin using continuum solvent model and prediction of cytotoxic activity. (PubMed id 19286405)7 Alam M.A. and Naik P.K. (amp 2009)
    48. Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome. (PubMed id 18029348)1 Barbe L....Andersson-Svahn H. (amp 2008)
    49. Susceptibility to virus-cell fusion at the plasma membrane is reduced through expression of HIV gp41 cytoplasmic domains. (PubMed id 18400243)1 Malinowsky K....Dittmar M.T. (Virology 2008)
    50. Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height. (PubMed id 18391951)1 Gudbjartsson D.F....Stefansson K. (Nat. Genet. 2008)
    51. Phosphoproteome of resting human platelets. (PubMed id 18088087)2 Zahedi R.P.... Sickmann A. (J. Proteome Res. 2008)
    52. Kinase-selective enrichment enables quantitative phosphoproteomics of the kinome across the cell cycle. (PubMed id 18691976)2 Daub H.... Mann M. (Mol. Cell 2008)
    53. A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation. (PubMed id 18669648)2 Dephoure N.... Gygi S.P. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008)
    54. Modulation of microtubule assembly by the HIV-1 Tat protein is strongly dependent on zinc binding to Tat. (PubMed id 18613978)1 EgelAc C....MAcly Y. (Retrovirology 2008)
    55. Large-scale identification of c-MYC-associated proteins using a combined TAP/MudPIT approach. (PubMed id 17314511)1 Koch H.B....Hermeking H. (Cell Cycle 2007)
    56. Functional specialization of beta-arrestin interactions revealed by proteomic analysis. (PubMed id 17620599)1 Xiao K....Lefkowitz R.J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2007)
    57. Requirement for an intact T-cell actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient assembly and spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (PubMed id 17360745)1 Jolly C....Sattentau Q.J. (J. Virol. 2007)
    58. Inhibitory effect of HIV-1 Tat protein on the sodium-D-glucose symporter of human intestinal epithelial cells. (PubMed id 16327313)1 Canani R.B....Guarino A. (AIDS 2006)
    59. The PITSLRE/CDK11p58 protein kinase promotes centrosome maturation and bipolar spindle formation. (PubMed id 16462731)1 Petretti C....Giet R. (EMBO Rep. 2006)
    60. Tubulin nitration in human gliomas. (PubMed id 16257120)1 Fiore G....d'Ischia M. (Neurosci. Lett. 2006)
    61. Microtubule binding proteins CLIP-170, EB1, and p150Glued form distinct plus-end complexes. (PubMed id 16455083)1 Ligon L.A....Holzbaur E.L. (FEBS Lett. 2006)
    62. How many drug targets are there? (PubMed id 17139284)7 Overington J.P....Hopkins A.L. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006)
    63. Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. (PubMed id 17016423)7 Imming P....Meyer A. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006)
    64. Dynamic profiling of the post-translational modifications and interaction partners of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling after stimulation by epidermal growth factor using Extended Range Proteomic Analysis (ERPA). (PubMed id 16799092)1 Wu S.L....Karger B.L. (amp 2006)
    65. HIV-1 Tat, apoptosis and the mitochondria: a tubulin link? (PubMed id 15698476)1 Giacca M. (Retrovirology 2005)
    66. MYND domain specific interaction of the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 interacting zinc-finger protein with alpha- and beta-tubulin. (PubMed id 16039987)1 Francke F....BAochner D. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005)
    67. Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells. (PubMed id 15592455)1 Rush J.... Comb M.J. (Nat. Biotechnol. 2005)
    68. HIV-1 Tat protein enhances microtubule polymerization. (PubMed id 15691386)1 de Mareuil J....Loret E.P. (Retrovirology 2005)
    69. A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome. (PubMed id 16169070)1 Stelzl U.... Wanker E.E. (Cell 2005)
    70. Phosphotyrosine proteomic study of interferon alpha signaling pathway using a combination of immunoprecipitation and immobilized metal affinity chromatography. (PubMed id 15659558)1 Zheng H....Wang Y.K. (amp 2005)
    71. Proteomic analysis of SRm160-containing complexes reveals a conserved association with cohesin. (PubMed id 16159877)1 McCracken S....Blencowe B.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005)
    72. Histone deacetylase 6 regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. (PubMed id 16148047)1 Valenzuela-FernA!ndez A....SA!nchez-Madrid F. (Mol. Biol. Cell 2005)
    73. Protein tyrosine nitration in rat brain is associated with raft proteins, flotillin-1 and alpha-tubulin: effect of biological aging. (PubMed id 15934946)1 Dremina E.S....SchAPneich C. (J. Neurochem. 2005)
    74. Protein 4.1R, a microtubule-associated protein involved in microtubule aster assembly in mammalian mitotic extract. (PubMed id 15184364)1 Huang S.C....Benz E.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    75. Characterization of the proteins released from activated platelets leads to localization of novel platelet proteins in human atherosclerotic lesions. (PubMed id 14630798)1 Coppinger J.A....Maguire P.B. (Blood 2004)
    76. Selective contribution of eukaryotic prefoldin subunits to actin and tubulin binding. (PubMed id 14634002)1 Simons C.T....Cowan N.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    77. Sequence comparison of human and mouse genes reveals a homologous block structure in the promoter regions. (PubMed id 15342556)1 Suzuki Y.... Sugano S. (Genome Res. 2004)
    78. MARK4 is a novel microtubule-associated proteins/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase that binds to the cellular microtubule network and to centrosomes. (PubMed id 14594945)1 Trinczek B....Drewes G. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    79. Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization. (PubMed id 15324660)1 Jin J.... Pawson T. (Curr. Biol. 2004)
    80. Co-purification and localization of Munc18-1 (p67) and Cdk5 with neuronal cytoskeletal proteins. (PubMed id 12963086)1 Bhaskar K....Shetty K.T. (Neurochem. Int. 2004)
    81. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain. (PubMed id 15345747)1 Ballif B.A....Gygi S.P. (amp 2004)
    82. The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis. (PubMed id 15331610)1 Campbell G.R....Loret E.P. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    83. HIV-1-mediated apoptosis of neuronal cells: Proximal molecular mechanisms of HIV-1-induced encephalopathy. (PubMed id 15103018)1 Xu Y....Pomerantz R.J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2004)
    84. Functional variation in LGALS2 confers risk of myocardial infarction and regulates lymphotoxin-alpha secretion in vitro. (PubMed id 15129282)1 Ozaki K....Tanaka T. (Nature 2004)
    85. Chromosome 13q12 encoded Rho GTPase activating protein suppresses growth of breast carcinoma cells, and yeast two-hybrid screen shows its interaction with several proteins. (PubMed id 14697242)1 Nagaraja G.M. and Kandpal R.P. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2004)
    86. Polo-like kinase 1 regulates Nlp, a centrosome protein involved in microtubule nucleation. (PubMed id 12852856)1 Casenghi M....Nigg E.A. (Dev. Cell 2003)
    87. The human Sir2 ortholog, SIRT2, is an NAD+-dependent tubulin deacetylase. (PubMed id 12620231)1 North B.J.... Verdin E. (Mol. Cell 2003)
    88. Parkin binds to alpha/beta tubulin and increases their ubiquitination and degradation. (PubMed id 12716939)1 Ren Y....Feng J. (J. Neurosci. 2003)
    89. The prostate-derived sterile 20-like kinase (PSK) regulates microtubule organization and stability. (PubMed id 12639963)1 Mitsopoulos C.... Morris J.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    90. Identification of alpha-tubulin as an hsp105alpha-binding protein by the yeast two-hybrid system. (PubMed id 12749852)1 Saito Y....Hatayama T. (Exp. Cell Res. 2003)
    91. Activating signal cointegrator 2 belongs to a novel steady-state complex that contains a subset of trithorax group proteins. (PubMed id 12482968)1 Goo Y.-H....Lee J.W. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2003)
    92. Rab8B GTPase and junction dynamics in the testis. (PubMed id 12639940)1 Lau A.S. and Mruk D.D. (Endocrinology 2003)
    93. Increased levels of tyrosinated alpha-, beta(III)-, and beta(IV)-tubulin isotypes in paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (PubMed id 12054644)1 Banerjee A. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002)
    94. CRMP-2 binds to tubulin heterodimers to promote microtubule assembly. (PubMed id 12134159)1 Fukata Y....Kaibuchi K. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2002)
    95. HDAC6 is a microtubule-associated deacetylase. (PubMed id 12024216)1 Hubbert C.... Yao T.-P. (Nature 2002)
    96. Structural requirements for the recruitment of Gaa1 into a functional glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase complex. (PubMed id 12052837)1 Vainauskas S....Menon A.K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    97. Interaction between metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 and alpha tubulin. (PubMed id 11953448)1 Saugstad J.A....Conn P.J. (J. Neurochem. 2002)
    98. Identification of Ca2+-dependent binding partners for the neuronal calcium sensor protein neurocalcin delta: interaction with actin, clathrin and tubulin. (PubMed id 11964161)1 Ivings L....Burgoyne R.D. (Biochem. J. 2002)
    99. Subcellular localization of the BRCA1 gene product in mitotic cells. (PubMed id 12353262)1 Lotti L.V....Mariani-Costantini R. (amp 2002)
    100. Centrosomal proteins CG-NAP and kendrin provide microtubule nucleation sites by anchoring gamma-tubulin ring complex. (PubMed id 12221128)1 Takahashi M....Ono Y. (Mol. Biol. Cell 2002)
    101. Tubulin is an inherent component of mitochondrial membranes that interacts with the voltage-dependent anion channel. (PubMed id 12087096)1 CarrAc M....Braguer D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    102. Nogo-A expression in mature oligodendrocytes of rat spinal cord in association with specific molecules. (PubMed id 12377379)1 Taketomi M....Ide C. (Neurosci. Lett. 2002)
    103. HIV-1 Tat targets microtubules to induce apoptosis, a process promoted by the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 relative Bim. (PubMed id 12486001)1 Chen D....Zhou Q. (EMBO J. 2002)
    104. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    105. The tubulin fraternity: alpha to eta. (PubMed id 11163133)1 Dutcher S.K. (Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 2001)
    106. Differential binding regulation of microtubule-associated proteins MAP1A, MAP1B, and MAP2 by tubulin polyglutamylation. (PubMed id 11278895)1 Bonnet C....Larcher J.C. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    107. Role of MgcRacGAP/Cyk4 as a regulator of the small GTPase Rho family in cytokinesis and cell differentiation. (PubMed id 11942621)1 Kitamura T....Nosaka T. (Cell Struct. Funct. 2001)
    108. Binding of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein to microtubules increases microtubule stability and is regulated by GSK3 beta phosphorylation. (PubMed id 11166179)1 Zumbrunn J....NAothke I.S. (Curr. Biol. 2001)
    109. Chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC4 (p64H1) binds directly to brain dynamin I in a complex containing actin, tubulin and 14-3-3 isoforms. (PubMed id 11563969)1 Suginta W....Ashley R.H. (Biochem. J. 2001)
    110. An abundance of tubulins. (PubMed id 11121746)1 Oakley B.R. (Trends Cell Biol. 2000)
    111. The centrosomal protein C-Nap1 is required for cell cycle-regulated centrosome cohesion. (PubMed id 11076968)1 Mayor T....Nigg E.A. (J. Cell Biol. 2000)
    112. HIV-1 rev depolymerizes microtubules to form stable bilayered rings. (PubMed id 10908577)1 Watts N.R....Steven A.C. (J. Cell Biol. 2000)
    113. SIAH-1 interacts with alpha-tubulin and degrades the kinesin Kid by the proteasome pathway during mitosis. (PubMed id 11146551)1 Germani A.... Calvo F. (Oncogene 2000)
    114. Association between the calcium-binding protein calretinin and cytoskeletal components in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line WiDr. (PubMed id 10942575)1 Marilley D. and Schwaller B. (Exp. Cell Res. 2000)
    115. Selective toxicity of vincristine against chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro. (PubMed id 11168494)7 Vilpo J.A....Vilpo L.M. (Eur. J. Haematol. 2000)
    116. Alf1p, a CLIP-170 domain-containing protein, is functionally and physically associated with alpha-tubulin. (PubMed id 9885248)1 Feierbach B....Stearns T. (J. Cell Biol. 1999)
    117. Identification of a domain in guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 that interacts with a complex of guanylyl cyclase and tubulin in photoreceptors. (PubMed id 10037711)1 Schrem A....Koch K.W. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999)
    118. Association of polo-like kinase with alpha-, beta- and gamma-tubulins in a stable complex. (PubMed id 10191277)1 Feng Y....Ferris D.K. (Biochem. J. 1999)
    119. Tubulin and FtsZ structures: functional and therapeutic implications. (PubMed id 9722999)1 Desai A. and Mitchison T.J. (Bioessays 1998)
    120. Characterization of the microtubule-binding domain of microtubule-associated protein 1A and its effects on microtubule dynamics. (PubMed id 9593747)1 Vaillant A.R....Brown D.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998)
    121. The microtubule-associated protein tau cross-links to two distinct sites on each alpha and beta tubulin monomer via separate domains. (PubMed id 9922135)1 Chau M.F....Feinstein S.C. (Biochemistry 1998)
    122. Tubulin subunits exist in an activated conformational state generated and maintained by protein cofactors. (PubMed id 9265649)1 Tian G....Cowan N.J. (J. Cell Biol. 1997)
    123. Functionally distinct isoforms of dynactin are expressed in human neurons. (PubMed id 8856662)1 Tokito M.K.... Holzbaur E.L.F. (Mol. Biol. Cell 1996)
    124. Syk, activated by cross-linking the B-cell antigen receptor, localizes to the cytosol where it interacts with and phosphorylates alpha-tubulin on tyrosine. (PubMed id 8617742)1 Peters J.D....Geahlen R.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 1996)
    125. The Ras-related GTPase Rac1 binds tubulin. (PubMed id 8631991)1 Best A....Lim L. (J. Biol. Chem. 1996)
    126. The N-terminal domain of c-Myc associates with alpha-tubulin and microtubules in vivo and in vitro. (PubMed id 7651436)1 Alexandrova N....Zajac-Kaye M. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1995)
    127. Cell cycle regulation of the activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a human protein kinase implicated in mitotic spindle function. (PubMed id 7790358)1 Golsteyn R.M....Nigg E.A. (J. Cell Biol. 1995)
    128. Golgi retention mechanism of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. Membrane-spanning domain-dependent homodimerization and association with alpha- and beta-tubulins. (PubMed id 7744867)1 Yamaguchi N. and Fukuda M.N. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995)
    129. The p150Glued component of the dynactin complex binds to both microtubules and the actin-related protein centractin (Arp-1). (PubMed id 7878030)1 Waterman-Storer C.M....Holzbaur E.L. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1995)
    130. Interactions between the protein-tyrosine kinase ZAP-70, the proto-oncoprotein Vav, and tubulin in Jurkat T cells. (PubMed id 8530437)1 Huby R.D....Ley S.C. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995)
    131. Human T lymphocyte activation induces tyrosine phosphorylation of alpha-tubulin and its association with the SH2 domain of the p59fyn protein tyrosine kinase. (PubMed id 8566014)1 Marie-Cardine A....Schraven B. (Eur. J. Immunol. 1995)
    132. In vitro analysis of microtubule assembly of isotypically pure tubulin dimers. Intrinsic differences in the assembly properties of alpha beta II, alpha beta III, and alpha beta IV tubulin dimers in the absence of microtubule-associated proteins. (PubMed id 8294455)1 Lu Q. and Luduena R.F. (J. Biol. Chem. 1994)
    133. Characterization of a 50-kDa polypeptide in cytoplasmic dynein preparations reveals a complex with p150GLUED and a novel actin. (PubMed id 8325901)1 Paschal B.M....Vallee R.B. (J. Biol. Chem. 1993)
    134. Clinical pharmacology and schedule dependency of the podophyllotoxin derivatives. (PubMed id 1411635)7 Clark P.I. (Semin. Oncol. 1992)
    135. The 93-kDa glycine receptor-associated protein binds to tubulin. (PubMed id 1657993)1 Kirsch J....Betz H. (J. Biol. Chem. 1991)
    136. Structural features and restricted expression of a human alpha- tubulin gene. (PubMed id 3839072)1 Hall J.L. and Cowan N.J. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1985)
    137. Characterization of the proteins of isolated human platelet alpha-granules. Evidence for a separate alpha-granule-pool of the glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. (PubMed id 6457647)1 Gogstad G.O....Solum N.O. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1981)
    138. Protein levels of alpha1-tubulin, protein disulfide isomerase, tropomyosins and vimentin are regulated by the tuberous sclerosis gene products. (PubMed id 15183538)9 HengstschlAoger M....Lubec G. (Cancer Lett. 2004)
    139. Mutations in alpha-tubulin cause abnormal neuronal migration in mice and lissencephaly in humans. (PubMed id 17218254)9 Keays D.A....Flint J. (Cell 2007)
    140. Immature corticospinal neurons respond to axotomy with changes in tubulin gene expression. (PubMed id 8457896)9 Kost S.A. and Oblinger M.M. (Brain Res. Bull. 1993)
    141. Molecular cloning of three rice alpha-tubulin isotypes: differential expression in tissues and during flower development. (PubMed id 9375785)9 Qin X....Breviario D. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1997)
    142. Decortication and striatal mRNA: increases of mRNA for fibronectin, but not of NCAM or alpha-1 tubulin. (PubMed id 1421087)9 Popa-Wagner A....Pasinetti G.M. (Neuroreport 1992)
    143. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in the human tubulin alpha 1 (testis specific) gene (TUBA1). (PubMed id 1852622)9 Todd S. and Naylor S.L. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1991)

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    Entrez Gene: 7277 HGNC: 12407 AceView: TUBA1 Ensembl:ENSG00000127824 euGenes: HUgn7277
    ECgene: TUBA4A Kegg: 7277 H-InvDB: TUBA4A

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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TUBA4A Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/tuba1/
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tubulin

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