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Aliases for TUBA4A Gene

Aliases for TUBA4A Gene

  • Tubulin, Alpha 4a 2 3
  • TUBA1 3 4 6
  • Tubulin, Alpha 1 (Testis Specific) 2 3
  • Tubulin Alpha-1 Chain 3 4
  • Tubulin H2-Alpha 3 4
  • Testis-Specific Alpha-Tubulin 4
  • Tubulin Alpha-4A Chain 3
  • Tubulin, Alpha 1 2
  • Alpha-Tubulin 1 4
  • H2-ALPHA 3
  • ALS22 3

External Ids for TUBA4A Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TUBA4A Gene

  • TUBA1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TUBA4A Gene

  • GC02M219823
  • GC02M220114
  • GC02M211967

Summaries for TUBA4A Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TUBA4A Gene

  • Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. This gene encodes an alpha tubulin that is a highly conserved homolog of a rat testis-specific alpha tubulin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

GeneCards Summary for TUBA4A Gene

TUBA4A (Tubulin, Alpha 4a) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TUBA4A include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 22 with or without frontotemoral dementia. Among its related pathways are ERK Signaling and GPCR Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and structural constituent of cytoskeleton. An important paralog of this gene is TUBA3C.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBA4A Gene

  • Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

Tocris Summary for TUBA4A Gene

  • Microtubules are cylindrical tubes of 20-25 nm in diameter. They are composed of protofilaments which are in turn composed of alpha- and beta-tubulin polymers. Each microtubule is polarized, at one end alpha-subunits are exposed (-) and at the other beta-subunits are exposed (+). Microtubules act as a scaffold to determine cell shape, and provide a backbone for cell organelles and vesicles to move on, a process that requires motor proteins. The major microtubule motor proteins are kinesin, which generally moves towards the (+) end of the microtubule, and dynein, which generally moves towards the (-) end. Microtubules also form the spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis.

Gene Wiki entry for TUBA4A Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TUBA4A Gene

Genomics for TUBA4A Gene

Regulatory Elements for TUBA4A Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for TUBA4A Gene

219,249,711 bp from pter
219,278,170 bp from pter
28,460 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TUBA4A Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TUBA4A Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TUBA4A Gene

Proteins for TUBA4A Gene

  • Protein details for TUBA4A Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tubulin alpha-4A chain
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8MUB1
    • B3KNQ6
    • P05215

    Protein attributes for TUBA4A Gene

    448 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    49924 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells
    • This tubulin does not have a C-terminal tyrosine

    Alternative splice isoforms for TUBA4A Gene


neXtProt entry for TUBA4A Gene

Proteomics data for TUBA4A Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TUBA4A Gene

  • Acetylation of alpha chains at Lys-40 stabilizes microtubules and affects affinity and processivity of microtubule motors. This modification has a role in multiple cellular functions, ranging from cell motility, cell cycle progression or cell differentiation to intracellular trafficking and signaling (By similarity).
  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate residues and results in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Also monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles, axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of such modifications is still unclear but they regulate the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules (Probable).
  • Ubiquitination at Lys96, Lys163, Lys280, Lys304, Lys311, Lys326, Lys352, Lys370, Lys394, and Lys401
  • Glycosylation at Asn380
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TUBA4A Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TUBA4A Gene

Domains for TUBA4A Gene

Gene Families for TUBA4A Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TUBA4A Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TUBA4A: view

Function for TUBA4A Gene

Molecular function for TUBA4A Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TUBA4A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA --
GO:0005200 structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16455083
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBA4A: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TUBA4A: view

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TUBA4A

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TUBA4A Gene

Localization for TUBA4A Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBA4A Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TUBA4A Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TUBA4A gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 4
extracellular 4

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TUBA4A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005874 microtubule IDA 21525035
GO:0043234 protein complex --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19199708
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBA4A: view

Pathways for TUBA4A Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TUBA4A: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TUBA4A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000086 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0006184 obsolete GTP catabolic process --
GO:0006457 protein folding TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBA4A: view

Drugs for TUBA4A Gene

(7) Drugbank Compounds for TUBA4A Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • 22-Oxovincaleukoblastin
57-22-7 5978 Target inhibitor approved, investigational
  • Cabazitaxelum
183133-96-2 9854073 Target binder approved
  • (-)-Podophyllotoxin
518-28-5 Target inhibitor approved
Epothilone B
  • EPO 906
152044-54-7 46936553 Target experimental, investigational
Epothilone D
  • KOS-862
189453-10-9 46936246 Target experimental, investigational

(5) Tocris Compounds for TUBA4A Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
ABT 751 Inhibitor of microtubule polymerization; antimitotic and antitumor [141430-65-1]
Colchicine Inhibitor of tubulin [64-86-8]
Docetaxel Microtubule stabilizer [114977-28-5]
Harmine Potent and selective Dyrk1A inhibitor [442-51-3]
Vinblastine sulfate Disrupts microtubules [143-67-9]

(11) ApexBio Compounds for TUBA4A Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Cabazitaxel [183133-96-2]
CK-636 Arp2/3 complex inhibitor [442632-72-6]
Colchicine Tubulin Inhibitor [64-86-8]
CYT997 (Lexibulin) [917111-44-5]
Epothilone A Microtubule stabilizing macrolide [152044-53-6]
Fosbretabulin (Combretastatin A4 Phosphate (CA4P)) Disodium [168555-66-6]
Griseofulvin [126-07-8]
INH6 [1001753-24-7]
MPC 6827 hydrochloride Potent microtubule inhibitor [917369-31-4]
Plinabulin (NPI-2358) Tumor cell lines inhibitor [714272-27-2]
Vinflunine Tartrate [1201898-17-0]

(4) HMDB Compounds for TUBA4A Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Taxoid XRP6258
Guanosine triphosphate
  • 5'-GTP
  • Podophyllinic acid lactone
  • 22-Oxovincaleukoblastine
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TUBA4A: view

Transcripts for TUBA4A Gene

Unigene Clusters for TUBA4A Gene

Tubulin, alpha 4a:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TUBA4A

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TUBA4A Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b
SP1: -

Relevant External Links for TUBA4A Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TUBA4A Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TUBA4A Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TUBA4A Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (9.1) and Muscle - Skeletal (6.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for TUBA4A Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Platelet (14.5), Brain (11.8), and Frontal cortex (6.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TUBA4A Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TUBA4A Gene Hs.75318

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with TUBA4A: view

Expression partners for TUBA4A Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TUBA4A Gene

Orthologs for TUBA4A Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TUBA4A Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TUBA4A 35
  • 94.35 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TUBA4A 35
  • 93.01 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tuba4a 35
  • 92.56 (n)
  • 100 (a)
Tuba4a 16
Tuba4a 36
  • 100 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TUBA4A 35
  • 99.85 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tuba4a 35
  • 92.19 (n)
  • 100 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TUBA4A 36
  • 100 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LOC100857214 35
  • 86.53 (n)
  • 96.43 (a)
-- 36
  • 92 (a)
-- 36
  • 95 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 97 (a)
-- 36
  • 97 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tuba4b 35
  • 84.9 (n)
  • 98.21 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tuba8l3 35
  • 81.55 (n)
  • 94.87 (a)
tuba8l2 36
  • 94 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta alphaTub85E 36
  • 94 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mec-12 36
  • 91 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TUB1 38
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.16674 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.21762 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU09132 35
  • 67.95 (n)
  • 71.43 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TUBA4A:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TUBA4A Gene

Gene Tree for TUBA4A (if available)
Gene Tree for TUBA4A (if available)

Paralogs for TUBA4A Gene

Paralogs for TUBA4A Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TUBA4A: view

Variants for TUBA4A Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TUBA4A Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs730880028 untested 219,251,056(-) GCCGC(C/T)GCAAC reference, missense
rs575169424 -- 219,251,153(+) GGCTC(A/G)ACCAC reference, synonymous-codon
rs567800140 -- 219,250,952(+) TCCAC(A/G)TTGAG synonymous-codon, reference
rs556632744 -- 219,251,081(+) GCTTC(A/G)TTGTC reference, synonymous-codon
rs377319362 -- 219,250,873(+) AGAGA(C/T)GACTG reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TUBA4A Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv834543 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv508885 CNV Insertion 20534489

Relevant External Links for TUBA4A Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBA4A Gene

Disorders for TUBA4A Gene


  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 22, with or without frontotemporal dementia (ALS22) [MIM:616208]: A neurodegenerative disorder affecting upper motor neurons in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord, resulting in fatal paralysis. Sensory abnormalities are absent. The pathologic hallmarks of the disease include pallor of the corticospinal tract due to loss of motor neurons, presence of ubiquitin-positive inclusions within surviving motor neurons, and deposition of pathologic aggregates. The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is likely to be multifactorial, involving both genetic and environmental factors. The disease is inherited in 5-10% of the cases. Patients with ALS22 may develop frontotemporal dementia. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:25374358}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for TUBA4A

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TUBA4A: view

No data available for OMIM , University of Copenhagen DISEASES , Novoseek inferred disease relationships and Genatlas for TUBA4A Gene

Publications for TUBA4A Gene

  1. Alternative 5' exons either provide or deny an initiator methionine codon to the same alpha-tubulin coding region. (PMID: 3029670) Dobner P.R. … Villa-Komaroff L. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1987) 3 4
  2. Six mouse alpha-tubulin mRNAs encode five distinct isotypes: testis- specific expression of two sister genes. (PMID: 3785200) Villasante A. … Cowan N.J. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1986) 2 3
  3. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4
  5. The role of height-associated loci identified in genome wide association studies in the determination of pediatric stature. (PMID: 20546612) Zhao J. … Grant S.F. (BMC Med. Genet. 2010) 3 48

Products for TUBA4A Gene

Sources for TUBA4A Gene

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